is a qualitative research design in which
the inquirer generates a general explanation
of a process, action or interaction shaped by
the viewsby a largenumberofparticipants.
Characteristics of a Grounded Theory
FIT(Does the theory corresponds to real-worlddata?)
UNDERSTANDING(Is the theory clearand
GENERALITY(Is the theory abstract enough to move
beyondthespecificsin the originalresearch study?)
CONTROL(Canthe theory beappliedto produce real-world
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH, seeks to systematically
develop a theory that explain process, action or interaction on a
CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH, advocates for a social
constructivist perspective that includes emphasizing diverse local
worlds, multiple realities, and the complexities of particular
Nature of Data
1. Data should be best suited to formulate new theory when a
theory is notavailable to explain a process.
2. Detailed questionsthatmayhelpto describe the dataneeded:
a. Whatwas central to theprocess?
b. Whatinfluenced or causedthisphenomenon tooccur?
c. Whatstrategies were employed duringthe process?
d. Whateffect occurred?
Data Collection Procedures
Data may be collected by interview, observation,
records, ora combinationof this.
Data collection usually results in large amounts of hand-
written notes, typed interview transcripts, or video/audio taped
conversations that contain multiple pieces of data to be sorted
and analyzed. This process is initiated by coding and categorizing
Method of Analysis
1. Open Coding: data are deconstructed into the simplest form
2. Axial Coding: data are reassembled based on logical connections
3. Selective Coding: the “core” category is determined and the
relationships between it and secondary categories are posited.
Core andsecondary category relationshipare later validated.
CodingParadigm or LogicDiagram