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Surveillance and Expropriation of Information


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Surveillance and Expropriation of Information

  1. 1. Surveillance and Expropriation of information • By Bethan Sanderson and Marie Yates
  2. 2. Surveillance in the digital enclosure Mark Andrejevic
  3. 3. • The outline of the article • What WIFI has enabled • The Internet ‘cloud’ -Gmail and google documents enabled with large amounts of storage space on google servers for personal information. • However this comes at a price, and this is that google ‘reserves the right to mine its rapidly expanding databases for commercial purposes’ • Collection of information has economic value
  4. 4. • Andrejevic argues that the "digital enclosure" is a more appropriate way to name the Internet cloud, as a way of theorizing about the "forms of productivity and monitoring facilitated by ubiquitous interactivity”. • Example of digital enclosure – Google, and plan to equip city of San Francisco with free wifi access at any time. • Different types of digital enclosures operate with varying levels of symmetry and transparency – e.g amazon
  5. 5. • The end of the article explains how this era of digital enclosure isn’t based on a loss of privacy but on the expansion in the form of private control – e.g telephony. • Private control – Chinese Blogger Zhao Jing – Blog was taken offline by government. • Internet – free expression? Or expression reliant on private cooperations?
  6. 6. • Castells (2009): Web 2.0 is mass communication and also self-communication. • How do web 2.0 corporations make a profit? • Users upload and share personal information (Fernback and Papacharissi 2007)
  7. 7. • Google Buzz • Google’s empire of economic surveillance. • “if you have something that you do not want anyone to know then maybe you should not be doing it in the first place” Eric Schmidt – Google CEO. • Most online time is advertising time.
  8. 8. • Can Google be considered as a friend to all humans Google’s empire of economic surveillance • Goggles – Google’s face recognition tool • Humans can invade the privacy of others • 2.5 billion photos uploaded onto Facebook on 2010 – most of them recognised.
  9. 9. • Google provide a free service so in return, why can’t it store and sell information? • In 2008, Google owned 57% of the online advertising market. (Attributor 2008) • Google bought YouTube for $1.54 billion, strengthening Google even more (Siapera 2012). • Control of Prices • Surveillance threat
  10. 10. • Users have no choice but to agree to selling their personal information. • We can easily be manipulated (Acquisti 2013) • Online, humans are paradoxical…’ (Acquisti 2013) • Legal safeguards • The many do not have the power to supervise the few but the few have the power to supervise the many. Mathiesen (2004)
  11. 11. References • Acquisti, A. (2013) Why privacy matters. Available from: vacy_matters.html. [Accessed 28th October 2013]. • Andrejevic, M. (2007). Surveillance in the digital enclosure. The Communication Review, 10(4), 295317. • Fuchs, C. (2010). Web 2.0, Prosumption, and Surveillance. Surveillance & Society, 8 (3), 288-309. • Siapera, E., (2012). Understanding New Media, London: Sage.