Surveillance and Expropriation
• By Bethan Sanderson and Marie Yates
Surveillance in the
• The outline of the article
• What WIFI has enabled
• The Internet ‘cloud’ -Gmail and google documents
enabled with large amounts of storage space on google
servers for personal information.
• However this comes at a price, and this is that google
‘reserves the right to mine its rapidly expanding
databases for commercial purposes’
• Collection of information has economic value
• Andrejevic argues that the "digital enclosure" is a more
appropriate way to name the Internet cloud, as a way of
theorizing about the "forms of productivity and
monitoring facilitated by ubiquitous interactivity”.
• Example of digital enclosure – Google, and plan to equip
city of San Francisco with free wifi access at any time.
• Different types of digital enclosures operate with varying
levels of symmetry and transparency – e.g amazon
• The end of the article explains how this era of digital
enclosure isn’t based on a loss of privacy but on the
expansion in the form of private control – e.g telephony.
• Private control – Chinese Blogger Zhao Jing – Blog was
taken offline by government.
• Internet – free expression? Or expression reliant on
• Castells (2009): Web 2.0 is mass communication
and also self-communication.
• How do web 2.0 corporations make a profit?
• Users upload and share personal information
(Fernback and Papacharissi 2007)
• Google Buzz
• Google’s empire of economic surveillance.
• “if you have something that you do not want anyone to
know then maybe you should not be doing it in the first
place” Eric Schmidt – Google CEO.
• Most online time is advertising time.
• Can Google be considered as a friend to all humans
Google’s empire of economic surveillance
• Goggles – Google’s face recognition tool
• Humans can invade the privacy of others
• 2.5 billion photos uploaded onto Facebook on 2010 –
most of them recognised.
• Google provide a free service so in return, why can’t it
store and sell information?
• In 2008, Google owned 57% of the online advertising
market. (Attributor 2008)
• Google bought YouTube for $1.54 billion, strengthening
Google even more (Siapera 2012).
• Control of Prices
• Surveillance threat
• Users have no choice but to agree to selling their
• We can easily be manipulated (Acquisti 2013)
• Online, humans are paradoxical…’ (Acquisti 2013)
• Legal safeguards
• The many do not have the power to supervise the few
but the few have the power to supervise the many.
• Acquisti, A. (2013) Why privacy matters. Available from:
vacy_matters.html. [Accessed 28th October 2013].
• Andrejevic, M. (2007). Surveillance in the digital
enclosure. The Communication Review, 10(4), 295317.
• Fuchs, C. (2010). Web 2.0, Prosumption, and
Surveillance. Surveillance & Society, 8 (3), 288-309.
• Siapera, E., (2012). Understanding New Media,