Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

MedicalResearch.com: Medical Research Exclusive Interviews May 18 2015

457 views

Published on

MedicalResearch.com publishes exclusive interviews with medical researchers from major and specialty medical journals and health care meetings.

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

MedicalResearch.com: Medical Research Exclusive Interviews May 18 2015

  1. 1. MedicalResearch.com Exclusive Interviews with Medical Research and Health Care Researchers from Major and Specialty Medical Research Journals and Meetings Editor: Marie Benz, MD info@medicalresearch.com May 18 2015 For Informational Purposes Only: Not for Specific Medical Advice.
  2. 2. Medical Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions • The contents of the MedicalResearch.com Site, such as text, graphics, images, and other material contained on the MedicalResearch.com Site ("Content") are for informational purposes only. The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on the Hemodialysis.com Site! • If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 911 immediately. MedicalResearch.com does not recommend or endorse any specific tests, physicians, products, procedures, opinions, or other information that may be mentioned on the Site. Reliance on any information provided by MedicalResearch.com or other Eminent Domains Inc (EDI) websites, EDI employees, others appearing on the Site at the invitation of MedicalResearch.com or EDI, or other visitors to the Site is solely at your own risk. • The Site may contain health- or medical-related materials that are sexually explicit. If you find these materials offensive, you may not want to use our Site. The Site and the Content are provided on an "as is" basis. Read more interviews on MedicalResearch.com
  3. 3. Dietary Restriction Provides Benefits Beyond Weight Loss MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward “Ted” Weiss, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Saint Louis University Saint Louis MO Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Weiss: Results from one of our previous study yielded a surprising result that diet-induced weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (major diabetes risk factor) by the same amount as exercise induced weight loss. We thought that the exercise-induced weight loss would have yielded benefits from the weight loss itself but also from a weight loss-independent benefit that has been reported in other studies. One explanation for dietary restriction providing the same benefit of exercise was that it also provides benefits besides those that are attributable to weight loss. Our recently completed/published study was designed to evaluate this possibility and the finding do suggest what we hypothesized… i.e. that dietary restriction provides benefits above and beyond that which are attributable to weight loss. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  4. 4. Dietary Restriction Provides Benefits Beyond Weight Loss MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward “Ted” Weiss, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Saint Louis University Saint Louis MO • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Weiss: For individuals with excess body weight/fat, weight loss provides clear health benefits; therefore, weight loss strategies should be discussed with and encouraged in these patients (surprisingly, studies show that many physicians do not address this with patients). The findings from our study add to what was already known by showing that both diet and exercise provide benefits that don’t appear to be directly attributable to weight loss. Thus, healthy diet and exercise behaviors should always be encouraged and pursued regardless of whether it results in weight loss and regardless of whether weight loss is needed (for example then people can benefit from a healthy diet and exercise). Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  5. 5. Dietary Restriction Provides Benefits Beyond Weight Loss MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward “Ted” Weiss, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Saint Louis University Saint Louis MO • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Weiss: We are currently developing a study to identify the weight loss-independent mechanisms by which dietary restriction and exercise improve insulin sensitivity. Preliminary data from our recently published study suggest that some of the adaptations may involve hormones that are secreted from the intestines after a meal (i.e. incretin hormones, especially GLP-1). • Citation: • Diabetes Care. 2015 Apr 15. pii: dc142913. [Epub ahead of print] • Calorie Restriction and Matched Weight Loss From Exercise: Independent and Additive Effects on Glucoregulation and the Incretin System in Overweight Women and Men. • Weiss EP, Albert SG, Reeds DN, Kress KS, Ezekiel UR, McDaniel JL, Patterson BW, Klein S, Villareal DT Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  6. 6. HPV Vaccination of Boys Can Yield Substantial Health Benefits MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Johannes Berkhof Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,Bilthoven, Netherlands • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Response: Vaccination against the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered free-of-charge to 12-year-old girls in the Netherlands. There is strong evidence that HPV also causes cancer in men: the virus is associated with cancers of the penis, anus, and oropharynx, and possibly with a small proportion of oral cancers. A number of these cancers will be prevented because vaccination of girls leads to a decrease of HPV in the general population and thus provides indirect protection to heterosexual men. • However, vaccine uptake among girls is only about 60 percent in the Netherlands. Moreover, men who have sex with men are at increased risk of HPV-related cancer and will not be protected by vaccination of girls. • On the basis of data from several epidemiological studies and a dynamic model for virus transmission, we calculated that, if the vaccine uptake is low, about 200 girls need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of cervical cancer and 470 boys need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of cancer in men. • An increase in vaccine uptake in girls will decrease the HPV infection risk in heterosexual men and if the uptake in girls is 60 percent, around 800 boys need to be vaccinated to prevent one additional case of cancer in men. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  7. 7. HPV Vaccination of Boys Can Yield Substantial Health Benefits MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Johannes Berkhof Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,Bilthoven, Netherlands • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: Indirect protection of men through vaccination of girls is important to take into account, but vaccination of boys can still yield substantial health benefits. Therefore, we suggest policy makers to evaluate future HPV vaccination strategies not only with a single focus on the protection of women. HPV-associated burden in men is lower than in women, but vaccine prices have declined since market introduction that may change the perspective. • As a general take-home message, I’d like to state that protection of men against HPV-related cancer should be an integral part of the objective of an HPV vaccination program. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  8. 8. HPV Vaccination of Boys Can Yield Substantial Health Benefits MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Johannes Berkhof Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment,Bilthoven, Netherlands • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Future research should include an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of gender- neutral vaccination as a function of vaccine uptake among girls and vaccine price. For countries with organized HPV immunization programs in place, a comparative analysis contrasting gender-neutral vaccination to stimulated vaccine uptake in girls can be very valuable to guide policy makers. Another recommendation is to delineate the prospects of targeted HPV vaccination of men who have sex with men, as these will likely remain at increased risk of HPV-related cancers, even if boys aged 12 will be offered free vaccination. • Citation: • Direct benefit of vaccinating boys along with girls against oncogenic human papillomavirus: bayesian evidence synthesis • BMJ 2015; 350 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h2016 (Published 12 May 2015) Cite this as: BMJ 2015;350:h2016 • Johannes A Bogaards, senior researcher, Jacco Wallinga, senior researcher, Ruud H Brakenhoff, professor, Chris J L M Meijer, professor Johannes Berkhof, associate professor Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  9. 9. It Really Is Harder For Some People to Lose Weight MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Reinhardt, MD Postdoctoral Fellow PECRB, NIDDK, NIH Phoenix, AZ 85016 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Reinhardt: It can be very difficult for some people with obesity to lose weight despite great efforts. There is an immense deal of individual variability in weight loss success. Beyond differences in diet adherence, it is not clear what causes this variability in weight loss. • Through a study conducted at our facilities at the National Institutes of Health in Phoenix, Arizona, we have now shown that individual differences in biology – more precisely, differences in the amount of energy bodies use during fasting – make it difficult for certain obese people to lose weight. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  10. 10. It Really Is Harder For Some People to Lose Weight MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Reinhardt, MD Postdoctoral Fellow PECRB, NIDDK, NIH Phoenix, AZ 85016 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Reinhardt: It is important to know that all volunteers, regardless of metabolism, lost a significant amount of weight during the six-week calorie restriction period. Our study shows that weight loss is possible despite inherent biological differences. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  11. 11. It Really Is Harder For Some People to Lose Weight MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Reinhardt, MD Postdoctoral Fellow PECRB, NIDDK, NIH Phoenix, AZ 85016 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Reinhardt: To define the metabolic characteristics of the study participants, we measured energy expenditure using a whole-room calorimeter. Only a handful of those calorimeters exist in research centers around the world. We are currently looking for other markers that may be more easily measured to identify people with varying metabolisms. Whether identification of these biological traits could be harnessed to prevent weight gain remains to be established. • Citation: • A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction • Martin Reinhardt, Marie S. Thearle, Mostafa Ibrahim, Maximilian G. Hohenadel, Clifton Bogardus, Jonathan Krakoff, and Susanne B. Votruba • Diabetes published ahead of print May 11, 2015, doi:10.2337/db14-1881 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  12. 12. Frequent ER Visits Linked To Prescription Drug Overdose MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanne Brady, PhD candidate Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University, New York, NY; Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Prescription drug overdose is a major public health problem in the United States. Prescription drug overdose mortality has increased dramatically over the past twenty five years. Frequent emergency department utilization may be a marker for risk of prescription drug overdose death. The current study assessed how frequency of emergency department visits in the past year related to risk of subsequent prescription drug overdose death. In a cohort of patients visiting the emergency department, patients with four or more visits to the emergency department in the past year were at substantially higher risk for prescription drug overdose death than patients who visited the emergency department one or fewer times. As the number of visits to the emergency department increased from 0 – 1 to 4 or more for any reason the risk of dying from prescription drug overdose also increased. Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Response: Frequency of emergency department visits may be a means for identifying patients at heightened risk of prescription drug overdose. These visits are a clinical point of contact for providing preventative interventions, such as providing patients and their families with take- home naloxone, referral to drug treatment or other supportive services. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  13. 13. Frequent ER Visits Linked To Prescription Drug Overdose MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanne Brady, PhD candidate Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University, New York, NY; • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Future studies should focus on identifying other health encounter patterns and alternative approaches to aid vulnerable individuals who do not utilize emergency services. • Citation: • Emergency department utilization and subsequent prescription drug overdose death • Brady JE1, DiMaggio CJ2, Keyes KM3, Doyle JJ4, Richardson LD5, Li G6. • Ann Epidemiol. 2015 Apr 2. pii: S1047-2797(15)00128-3. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.03.018. [Epub ahead of print] Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  14. 14. Study Tests Two Dose Schedule of HPV Vaccination Against Genital Warts In Girls MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Blomberg Virus, Lifestyle & Genes Danish Cancer Society Research Centre Copenhagen, Denmark Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Two vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) were licensed almost one decade ago. Since then multiple countries have implemented HPV vaccination programs, but many struggle with low coverage rates. An important barrier to vaccination is the cost of the vaccines and less developed countries also face considerable logistical challenges. Both vaccines were administered as three dose schedules, but in early 2014 the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts and the European Medicines Agency reviewed the evidence of reduced dose schedules of HPV vaccination, and subsequently recommended a two dose schedule for young girls. A reduction of the number of doses has obvious advantages; it would lower the costs, ease implementation of vaccination schedules and potentially increase coverage rates. Based on these recommendations, countries around the world have reduced the dosing schedule in their HPV vaccination programs for young girls to two doses. However, the current evidence is based primarily on immunological studies, and because the immune correlate of protection is not known, studies with disease endpoints are very important. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  15. 15. Study Tests Two Dose Schedule of HPV Vaccination Against Genital Warts In Girls MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Blomberg Virus, Lifestyle & Genes Danish Cancer Society Research Centre Copenhagen, Denmark Using the biologically relevant endpoint of genital warts, this study aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of a two dose schedule of quadrivalent HPV vaccine compared with the standard three-dose regimen administered at month 0, 2 and 6. We found that with the standard vaccination schedule, completion of the three dose regimen is important to gain maximal protection. However, the effectiveness of two doses increased significantly with increasing time between the doses, and with an interval of approximately 6 months between dose one and two, no differences could be found between two and three doses. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  16. 16. Study Tests Two Dose Schedule of HPV Vaccination Against Genital Warts In Girls MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Blomberg Virus, Lifestyle & Genes Danish Cancer Society Research Centre Copenhagen, Denmark • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: The results of this study strengthen the evidence supporting a two dose regimen administered at month 0 and 6 for young girls. Young women, who have received the first two doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine at month 0 and 2, will require a third dose to maximize protection, whereas a 6 months interval between dose one and two seems to provide equal effectiveness of two and three doses. The duration of the effectiveness of two doses is, however, unknown. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  17. 17. Study Tests Two Dose Schedule of HPV Vaccination Against Genital Warts In Girls MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Blomberg Virus, Lifestyle & Genes Danish Cancer Society Research Centre Copenhagen, Denmark • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Randomized, clinical dose-related studies are currently ongoing. If these studies support a two dose schedule, it will be important to follow the long-term effectiveness, because it is not yet known whether the duration of two and three doses differs. Long-term protection is essential as exposure to HPV continues for several decades after vaccination. In addition, some subgroups e.g. immunocompromised individuals or individuals with co- morbidities may react differently to a reduced number of doses, and they should therefore be followed up separately. These unsolved issues should also be considered for the recently licensed ninevalent HPV vaccine. • Citation: • Dose-related differences in effectiveness of HPV vaccination against genital warts: a nationwide study of 550,000 young girls Maria Blomberg, Christian Dehlendorff, Carsten Sand, and Susanne K. Kjaer • Clin Infect Dis. first published online May 5, 2015 doi:10.1093/cid/civ364 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  18. 18. Extracerebral Biomarkers May Not Be Optimal For Monitoring Sports-Related Concussions MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Departement of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Sahlgrenska University Hospital • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Visinin-like protein-1 (VLP-1 or VILIP-1) is a neuronal calcium-sensor protein, originally studied as a stroke marker and identified as a marker of neuronal injury in brain injury models. Increased plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VILIP-1 hase been reported in Alzheimer’s disease, where CSF VILIP-1 correlates with CSF total tau (T-tau) and with brain volume. Recently, using a novel ultrasensitive method to measure tau in plasma, increased levels of plasma T-tau were found in concussed professional ice hockey players, where the levels correlated with the resolution of post-concussive symptoms and the players returning to play. • The main findings of this study were that VILIP-1 did not increase significantly in serum after sports-related concussion. However, the serum levels of VILIP-1 increased after a friendly game without concussion, signaling extracerebral expression. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  19. 19. Extracerebral Biomarkers May Not Be Optimal For Monitoring Sports-Related Concussions MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Departement of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Sahlgrenska University Hospital • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: The results of this current study provide evidence that serum VILIP-1 may not be a useful biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussion at least over the first week. • Moreover, the findings of this study further strengthen the notion that biomarkers that are expressed extracerebrally may not be optimal for monitoring sports-related concussion. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  20. 20. Extracerebral Biomarkers May Not Be Optimal For Monitoring Sports-Related Concussions MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Departement of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Sahlgrenska University Hospital • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Additional studies of VILIP-1 and as yet undiscovered biomarkers will be needed to determine their use to prospectively identify concussion and their ability to predict prognosis. • Citation: • Serum visinin-like protein-1 in concussed professional ice hockey players • Pashtun Shahim, Niklas Mattsson, Elizabeth M. Macy, Dan L. Crimmins, Jack H. Ladenson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Yelverton Tegner • Brain Injury : 1–5. • Posted online on 8 May 2015. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  21. 21. Combining Acceleration and Skin Temperature Can Improve Accuracy of Physical Activity Monitors MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Response: In medical and sport science research, body-worn accelerometers are widely used to provide objective measurements of physical activity. However, accelerometers collect data continuously even during periods of nonwear (i.e. periods when participants may not be wearing their monitor, such as during sleeping). It is important to distinguish time of sedentary behaviours (eg. watching television) from time of nonwear. The clinical consequence of misclassification of accelerometer wear and nonwear would overestimate or underestimate physical activity level, and mislead the interpretation of the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes. Automated estimation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time events is particularly desired by large cohort studies, but algorithms for this purpose are not yet standardized and their accuracy needs to be established. This study presents a robust method of classifying wear and nonwear time events under free living conditions for triaxial accelerometers which combines acceleration and surface skin temperature data. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  22. 22. Combining Acceleration and Skin Temperature Can Improve Accuracy of Physical Activity Monitors MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), The new findings are: Either acceleration data or skin temperature data alone is inadequate to accurately predict wear and nonwear events in some scenarios under a free living condition; This study provides a simple and efficient algorithm on use of short time periods of consecutive data blocks for accurately predicting triaxial accelerometer wear and nonwear events; Combining both types of acceleration and skin temperature data can significantly improve the accuracy of accelerometer wear and nonwear events classification in monitoring physical activity. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  23. 23. Combining Acceleration and Skin Temperature Can Improve Accuracy of Physical Activity Monitors MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: Clinicians and researchers would benefit from using the reported method to generate more accurate estimations of time spent in sedentary and active behaviours in free living conditions, and gain correct interpretation of relationships between physical activity, energy expenditure and health outcomes. • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Clinicians and researchers would benefit from using the reported method to generate more accurate estimations of time spent in sedentary and active behaviours in free living conditions, and gain correct interpretation of relationships between physical activity, energy expenditure and health outcomes. • Citation: • BMJ Open 2015;5:e007447 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007447 • Sports and exercise medicine • Classification of accelerometer wear and non-wear events in seconds for monitoring free- living physical activity • Shang-Ming Zhou, Rebecca A Hill, Kelly Morgan, Gareth Stratton, Mike B Gravenor, Gunnar Bijlsma,Sinead Brophy Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  24. 24. Basic Research Of Ovarian Development May Lead To Understanding Of Ovarian Disorders MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Humphrey Yao, Ph.D. Lead Researcher Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Triangle Park, North Carolina • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Yao: We wanted to understand how an organ forms, and what basic cell types were needed to form an organ. So, we used a mouse ovary model system to understand the process. The functional unit of the ovary is called the follicle, and it is made up of three types of cells — the maturing egg, granulosa cells, and theca cells. Scientists knew where the egg and the granulosa cells came from, but no one knew where theca cells came from. Theca cells are important, because they allow females to produce the hormones that sustain follicle growth. Researchers also lacked information about how the egg, granulosa cells, and theca cells talked to each other to promote growth and maintain a healthy ovary. • We made two discoveries. First, we answered the long-standing question of theca cell origin by determining that they have two sources, both inside and outside of the ovary. We don’t yet know why theca cells have two sources. • Second, we uncovered the molecular signaling system that the egg, granulosa cells, and theca cells use to communicate. We didn’t expect to find this three-way cellular crosstalk, but now that we know how they signal each other, I believe we are closer to understanding how an ovary develops and what happens when something goes wrong. Ovarian disorders, such as premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovarian syndrome, may start when cellular communication is altered or if the various cells fail to develop properly. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  25. 25. Basic Research Of Ovarian Development May Lead To Understanding Of Ovarian Disorders MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Humphrey Yao, Ph.D. Lead Researcher Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Triangle Park, North Carolina • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Yao: They should know that basic research using animal models provides invaluable information that could be used to understand human biology and diseases. • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Yao: Future research should examine the two cell types that make up theca cells more closely, and it should determine if the same holds true for humans. I • In addition, researchers could investigate whether miscommunication or defects in the crosstalk among the three ovarian cell types could contribute to ovarian disorders in humans. Doing so may uncover additional roles that theca cells play in female fertility • Citation: • Lineage specification of ovarian theca cells requires multicellular interactions via oocyte and granulosa cells • Chang Liu, Jia Peng, Martin M. Matzuk & Humphrey H.-C. Yao • Nature Communications 6, Article number: 6934 doi:10.1038/ncomms7934 • Received 29 September 2014 Accepted16 March 2015 Published 28 April 2015 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  26. 26. Genomic Instability Biomarker May Help Predict Treatment Response In Triple Negative Breast Cancer MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melinda L. Telli, M.D. Assistant Professor of Medicine Stanford University Division of Medical Oncology Stanford, CA 94305-5826 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: A major goal of this study was to explore a DNA damaging chemotherapy regimen in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage triple-negative or BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer. This was based on the hypothesis that these types of tumors are more responsive to DNA damaging therapeutics. A second major goal was to identify predictors of response to this platinum-based therapy among patients with sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). • Overall, this study demonstrated that the non-anthracycline and non-taxane neoadjuvant regimen of gemcitabine, carboplatin and iniparib resulted in a 36% pathologic complete response rate (pCR). This compares favorably to pCR rates commonly observed with anthracycline and taxane-based regimens in this group of patients. The response rate was higher among triple-negative breast cancer patients with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (56%). • Given the hypothesis of underlying DNA repair defects in sporadic triple-negative breast cancer, we also evaluated a novel measure of genomic instability to detect the accumulation of changes in the genomic landscape of a tumor attributable to defective homologous recombination DNA repair. Homologous recombination deficiency was assessed by loss of heterozygosity (HRD-LOH) in pretreatment core breast biopsies. Very importantly, we found that the HRD-LOH assay was able to identify patients with sporadic TNBC lacking a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, but with an elevated HRD-LOH score, who achieved a favorable pathologic response. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  27. 27. Genomic Instability Biomarker May Help Predict Treatment Response In Triple Negative Breast Cancer MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melinda L. Telli, M.D. Assistant Professor of Medicine Stanford University Division of Medical Oncology Stanford, CA 94305-5826 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: Our data do not have a direct impact for clinical practice today, but they strongly suggest that patient selection based on underlying DNA repair deficiency in future randomized trials of standard versus DNA repair defect–targeted therapy in triple-negative breast cancer hold great promise. In particular, germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status, as well as the HRD-LOH assay emerged as important biomarkers associated with improved neoadjuvant response to this platinum-based regimen. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  28. 28. Genomic Instability Biomarker May Help Predict Treatment Response In Triple Negative Breast Cancer MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melinda L. Telli, M.D. Assistant Professor of Medicine Stanford University Division of Medical Oncology Stanford, CA 94305-5826 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: At present, three phase II randomized trials have been reported, two of which showed an improvement in pCR rate when carboplatin is added to anthracycline and taxane- based neoadjuvant therapy. Whether this will result in improved long-term outcomes remains unknown. Our data support that future investigation with treatment selection based on tumor DNA repair capacity in triple-negative breast cancer holds tremendous promise and may be able to identify those patients who stand to gain most from a platinum-based approach. • Citation: • Phase II Study of Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, and Iniparib As Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple- Negative and BRCA1/2 Mutation–Associated Breast Cancer With Assessment of a Tumor- Based Measure of Genomic Instability: PrECOG 0105 • Melinda L. Telli, Kristin C. Jensen, Shaveta Vinayak, Allison W. Kurian, Jafi A. Lipson, Patrick J. Flaherty, Kirsten Timms, Victor Abkevich, Elizabeth A. Schackmann, Irene L. Wapnir, Robert W. Carlson, Pei-Jen Chang, Joseph A. Sparano, Bobbie Head, Lori J. Goldstein, Barbara Haley, Shaker R. Dakhil, Julia E. Reid, Anne-Renee Hartman, Judith Manola, and James M. Ford • JCO JCO.2014.57.0085; published online on April 6, 2015; Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  29. 29. Study Identifies One Pathway Cancer Cells Use To Evade Death MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Aird, Ph.D. Gene Expression and Regulation Program The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA • MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Aird: Senescence is considered an important tumor suppressor mechanism. In normal cells, activation of certain oncogenes decreases the levels of dNTPs (the building blocks of DNA), leading to replication stress. We previously found that loss of the rate-limiting enzyme in dNTP synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2), is the cause of this replication stress. Restoration of RRM2 expression could rescue the loss of dNTPs and replication stress, which overcame the senescence-associated growth arrest. Indeed, RRM2 is highly expressed in many cancer types, including melanoma and ovarian cancer. Therefore, we found that increased dNTP levels can overcome senescence and potentially lead to transformation of cells and cancer. • We next wanted to further our understanding of replication stress in the context of senescence. In the current study, we suppressed nucleotide metabolism by decreasing RRM2 expression as a model for replication stress and then determined what proteins are necessary for the induction of senescence. We found that loss of ATM could overcome replication stress-induced senescence. This was due to increased dNTP levels. dNTPs were increased due to a coordinated inactivation of p53 and activation of c-MYC by loss of ATM. These changes at the molecular level correlate with reprogramming of cellular metabolism by generating dNTPs. Thus, loss of ATM in the context of replication stress can change cellular metabolism to a more cancer-like phenotype. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  30. 30. Study Identifies One Pathway Cancer Cells Use To Evade Death MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Aird, Ph.D. Gene Expression and Regulation Program The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA • MedicalResearch: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Aird: Understanding how cells overcome senescence may allow for new therapeutic strategies to target these cells. Knowledge of these pathways may even allow for us to prevent these cells from becoming cancer. However, it is important to stress that our observation is just one of many potential ways cells could overcome senescence. A comprehensive study is needed to explore ways of targeting the common threads to benefit a larger subset of patients. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  31. 31. Study Identifies One Pathway Cancer Cells Use To Evade Death MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Aird, Ph.D. Gene Expression and Regulation Program The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA • MedicalResearch: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Aird: Here, we identified a novel pathway whereby loss of ATM, which occurs in a number of human cancers, can overcome senescence by reprogramming cellular metabolism. It is therefore possible that patients with loss or mutations in ATM may benefit from metabolism- targeting therapeutics. This is the next step we will need to take to ultimately determine whether any metabolism-targeting cancer therapeutics can be derived from our current study. • Citation: • Cell Rep. 2015 May 12;11(6):893-901. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.014. Epub 2015 Apr 30. • ATM Couples Replication Stress and Metabolic Reprogramming during Cellular Senescence. • Aird KM1, Worth AJ2, Snyder NW2, Lee JV3, Sivanand S3, Liu Q4, Blair IA2, Wellen KE3, Zhang R5. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  32. 32. Pregnant Women Have Same Low Rate Of Adverse Surgical Outcomes As Non-Pregnant Patients MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Meguid, MD MPH FACS Assistant Professor Section of General Thoracic Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Surgery University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  33. 33. Pregnant Women Have Same Low Rate Of Adverse Surgical Outcomes As Non-Pregnant Patients MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Meguid, MD MPH FACS Assistant Professor Section of General Thoracic Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Surgery University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  34. 34. Pregnant Women Have Same Low Rate Of Adverse Surgical Outcomes As Non-Pregnant Patients MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Meguid, MD MPH FACS Assistant Professor Section of General Thoracic Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Surgery University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Meguid: The surgical literature on adverse outcomes after surgery on pregnant patients is conflicting. We know that the majority of surgery performed on pregnant patients is not elective (and just over 50% of it in the database studied was emergency surgery). We expected to find an increased rate of adverse outcomes in those pregnant patients. However, when we matched the pregnant and non-pregnant women who underwent surgery in the database, with excellent matching on all available preoperative characteristics and on the actual operation performed, we found similar, low rates of 30-day postoperative death and complication. In this study, pregnant patients had undergone a broad spectrum of different types of operations, including general, vascular, thoracic, head and neck, non-obstetric gynecologic and urologic, orthopedic, reconstructive, and neuro-surgery. Given the concern that we as surgeons have over operating on pregnant patients, both for the well-being of the patient and her child, our findings are reassuring. This suggests that we as a medical profession are diligent in minimizing risk to pregnant women who need surgery that cannot be delayed until after the child’s birth. Again, this study faces the limitations of being unable to assess any short term harm done to the fetus and the subsequent long term outcome of the child. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  35. 35. Pregnant Women Have Same Low Rate Of Adverse Surgical Outcomes As Non-Pregnant Patients MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Meguid, MD MPH FACS Assistant Professor Section of General Thoracic Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Surgery University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Meguid: The message of the findings of this study to clinicians and patients is that pregnant women who must undergo surgery have a similarly low risk of adverse outcomes (death and other complications) as comparable non-pregnant women. As we are not able to assess the impact on the fetus using the database studied, we still advocate that elective surgery which can safely be postponed until after pregnancy be done so Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  36. 36. Pregnant Women Have Same Low Rate Of Adverse Surgical Outcomes As Non-Pregnant Patients MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Meguid, MD MPH FACS Assistant Professor Section of General Thoracic Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Surgery University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Meguid: The inclusion of specific outcomes for populations of interest (in this case, fetal outcomes in observational databases including pregnant women) is valuable for further refinement of questions such as the one we asked. In this era of the electronic health record, we still record data and report outcomes by hand. We hope that in the near future, the electronic health record can become a reliable source of clinical data for comparable studies, opening up the door to engage in near-real time, high volume data analysis to further shape our clinical decisions. • Citation: • Moore HB, Juarez-Colunga E, Bronsert M, et al. Effect of Pregnancy on Adverse Outcomes After General Surgery. JAMA Surg. Published online May 13, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.91. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  37. 37. Scientists Get Closer To A Vaccine Against Allergies MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Christine McCusker MD Associate Professor, Department Pediatrics Meakins-Christie Laboratories McGill University and the MUHCRI, Montreal Quebec, Canada • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. McCusker: When the body is exposed to new substances, the immune system must evaluate the “threat” and choose the type of response that will best protect the host. Allergies and allergic asthma develop after the response to “allergens” follows the TH2-type inflammatory pathway instead of the non-inflammatory tolerant pathway. Evidence suggests that there is some plasticity in this “choice” and thus it may be possible to influence the immune response to preferentially choose the tolerant pathway when exposed to allergens. We therefore treated very young mice to a molecule designed to inhibit activation of the TH2 pathway. • We showed that this early treatment resulted in long-lasting protection from the development of allergies. Instead of allergic responses, vaccinated animals developed tolerant responses to allergens and did not show any signs of allergies or asthma. Importantly, while the influence of the treatment was long-lasting, the molecule itself is rapidly removed from the system. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  38. 38. Scientists Get Closer To A Vaccine Against Allergies MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Christine McCusker MD Associate Professor, Department Pediatrics Meakins-Christie Laboratories McGill University and the MUHCRI, Montreal Quebec, Canada • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. McCusker: Allergy development results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Manipulation of the immune system to promote tolerance early in life may result in lifelong protection from allergies as the immune system “ can learn” to be tolerant of allergens. This study we showed that early inhibition of the TH2-type pathway resulted in immune-education towards tolerance that persisted through adulthood. Thus a vaccine that prevents development of allergies is a very real possibility. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  39. 39. Scientists Get Closer To A Vaccine Against Allergies MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Christine McCusker MD Associate Professor, Department Pediatrics Meakins-Christie Laboratories McGill University and the MUHCRI, Montreal Quebec, Canada • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. McCusker: This research in animals, coupled with a recent clinical trial in infants shows that infant immune responses can be influenced to develop in the best possible adaptive manner to provide balance between protection from infection and tolerance. The timing of introduction of oral and inhaled allergens is critical for promoting tolerance. Studies are needed to further evaluate the elements essential for promoting this homeostasis to develop strategies aimed at reducing the frequency of allergies and asthma in children. • Citation: • TGF-β-mediated airway tolerance to allergens induced by peptide-based immunomodulatory mucosal vaccination • Michael H1, Li Y1, Wang Y1, Xue D1, Shan J1, Mazer BD1, McCusker CT1. • Mucosal Immunol. 2015 Mar 18. doi: 10.1038/mi.2015.15. [Epub ahead of print] Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  40. 40. Hospital System Efficiently Uses MRI To Screen For Stroke and Shorten Treatment Window MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amie W. Hsia, MD Medical Director, Comprehensive Stroke Center MedStar Washington Hospital Center NIH Stroke Program at MWHC Associate Professor, Neurology Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Hsia: Acute stroke is a common presenting problem in the emergency department. We know that “time is brain” and that for patients experiencing an ischemic or “blockage” type of stroke, the most common type, the sooner we can administer tPA, a clot-busting medication and the only FDA-approved medication to treat acute stroke, the better chance for a good outcome. Therefore, there is a goal national benchmark time of administering the drug to appropriate acute stroke patients within 60 minutes of their arrival to the emergency department. There are many steps that are necessary in the evaluation of an acute stroke patient in the emergency department before tPA can be given. This includes a brain scan to make sure a patient is not having the less common bleeding type of stroke. A CT or “CAT” scan is the typical type of brain scan that is performed in emergency departments across the country and the world to screen a patient before giving tPA. The primary purpose of the CT scan is to exclude bleeding; it is difficult to visualize an early stroke on CT. Though an MRI can give more complete information including showing the stroke as it is happening in these first few hours and though most hospitals have an MRI scanner, an MRI takes longer to perform and has not traditionally been used in an emergency setting. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  41. 41. Hospital System Efficiently Uses MRI To Screen For Stroke and Shorten Treatment Window MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amie W. Hsia, MD Medical Director, Comprehensive Stroke Center MedStar Washington Hospital Center NIH Stroke Program at MWHC Associate Professor, Neurology At the two hospitals included in this study, MedStar Washington Hospital Center in D.C. and Suburban Hospital in Maryland, we are fortunate to serve as the sites for the NINDS intramural stroke clinical research program and use MRI routinely to screen acute stroke patients to learn more about stroke and develop new treatments for stroke. It is upon this foundation that we performed independent hospital-wide quality improvement initiatives engaging multidisciplinary committees with leadership from all the departments involved in the care of the acute stroke patient in that critical first 60 minutes. Inspired by our colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis led by Dr. Andria Ford who used similar methods in reducing treatment times with CT screening, we used lean manufacturing principles to streamline our processes that include MRI screening and dramatically reduced our treatment times from a baseline of 93 minutes down to 55 minutes while still maintaining safety. Through these efficiency improvements, we were able to achieve a 4-fold increase in the percentage of stroke patients treated with tPA within 60 minutes. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  42. 42. Hospital System Efficiently Uses MRI To Screen For Stroke and Shorten Treatment Window MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amie W. Hsia, MD Medical Director, Comprehensive Stroke Center MedStar Washington Hospital Center NIH Stroke Program at MWHC Associate Professor, Neurology • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Hsia: Our report can serve to dispel the myth or misconception that routinely screening with MRI and treating acute stroke patients in under 60 minutes cannot be done. We have clearly demonstrated that this can be done consistently and safely. Through our publication, we aim to share with the medical community very practical details including flowchart diagrams and a copy of the simplified MRI screening form that we now use in practice to serve as a reference for other hospital providers interested in applying similar changes. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  43. 43. Hospital System Efficiently Uses MRI To Screen For Stroke and Shorten Treatment Window MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amie W. Hsia, MD Medical Director, Comprehensive Stroke Center MedStar Washington Hospital Center NIH Stroke Program at MWHC Associate Professor, Neurology • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Hsia: Our study can really open the doors to more widespread use of this available MRI technology, not only to screen acute stroke patients prior to standard tPA treatment, but also to continue to leverage this technology as we look to identify other new treatments for stroke. Having the more comprehensive information provided by an MRI compared to a CT can serve as a critical tool to guide treatments that can be delivered both quickly and safely • Citation: • Screening with MRI for Accurate and Rapid Stroke Treatment • Shreyansh Shah, MD,Marie Luby, PhD,Karen Poole, RN, MSN,Teresa Morella, RN,Elizabeth Keller, BSIE, MBA,Richard T. Benson, MD, PhD,John K. Lynch, DO,Zurab Nadareishvili, MD andAmie W. Hsia, MD • Published online before print May 13, 2015, doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001678 Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001678 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  44. 44. Gene Expression Signatures May Help Differentiate Sepsis From Non-Infectious Inflammation MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Timothy E Sweeney, MD PhD Resident, General Surgery Postdoc, Khatri Lab, Bioinformatics Stanford University • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Sweeney: Sepsis is defined as the presence of systemic inflammation due to infection. Systemic inflammation can be caused from many things, such as trauma, surgery, thrombosis, autoimmunity, etc. It can also be caused by infection. On the other hand, infection does not necessarily cause systemic inflammation, either: a person can get a minor infection, like strep throat, and not have a systemic response. It’s the intersection of severe inflammation (a syndrome called SIRS) with infection that defines sepsis. • In general surgery, we frequently see patients after traumatic injury or surgery who are having an inflammatory response (ie, fevers, fast heart rate, high white blood cell count, etc). But it’s not clear whether this inflammatory response is a reaction to the trauma or surgery, or whether there might be an infection brewing that is causing the reaction. Identifying the inflammatory response doesn’t require many special tests– it’s easy to spot. So we know which patients have inflammation and which do not. What is difficult is determining the root cause of the inflammation, and, in particular, whether there is an infection present that needs treatment with antibiotics. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  45. 45. Gene Expression Signatures May Help Differentiate Sepsis From Non-Infectious Inflammation MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Timothy E Sweeney, MD PhD Resident, General Surgery Postdoc, Khatri Lab, Bioinformatics Stanford University Current diagnostics for infection (not sepsis) are either slow (like blood cultures, which can take 24-72 hours to return) or not highly accurate (like procalcitonin). We sought to define a better test that could specifically differentiate between people with sterile inflammation, and people with inflammation due to infection (sepsis). By integrating gene expression data from multiple publicly available cohorts, we were able to find a set of 82 genes that are significantly differently expressed between these two groups. We then used an algorithm called a greedy forward search to find a subset of 11 genes that were most diagnostic for sepsis. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  46. 46. Gene Expression Signatures May Help Differentiate Sepsis From Non-Infectious Inflammation MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Timothy E Sweeney, MD PhD Resident, General Surgery Postdoc, Khatri Lab, Bioinformatics Stanford University • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Sweeney: These findings aren’t yet available in a clinical form. We are currently in the process of prospectively testing the diagnostic power of the 11 genes, and of their protein products. Eventually we hope to make a test that a doctor could use to help determine whether a patient has sepsis. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  47. 47. Gene Expression Signatures May Help Differentiate Sepsis From Non-Infectious Inflammation MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Timothy E Sweeney, MD PhD Resident, General Surgery Postdoc, Khatri Lab, Bioinformatics Stanford University • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Sweeney: One of our key findings is that gene expression is heavily influenced by the recovery process. Thus, future trials should be designed to compare people with and without infections who are at the same point in their hospital course (in other words, compare patients with and without infection at admission, or patients who acquire an infection at hospital day 3 to patients without infection at hospital day 3, etc). In addition, we’ve shown that gene expression signatures in the blood do carry useful diagnostic information even for acute illness. Further work will be necessary to develop robust point-of-care tests that can utilize this information. • Citation • A comprehensive time-course–based multicohort analysis of sepsis and sterile inflammation reveals a robust diagnostic gene set • Timothy E. Sweeney1,2,*Aaditya Shidham2 Hector R. Wong34and Purvesh Khatri • Sci Transl Med 13 May 2015: Vol. 7, Issue 287, p. 287ra71 Sci. Transl. Med. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa5993 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  48. 48. Texting or Talking While On Treadmill Reduces Exercise Intensity MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Rebold, PhD, CSCS Assistant Professor Department of Exercise ScienceBloomsburg University Bloomsburg, PA 17815 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rebold: We assessed how common smartphone uses (texting and talking) interfere with treadmill exercise. • We found that when individuals use their smartphones during exercise for texting or talking, it causes a reduction in exercise intensity. Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Rebold: Exercising at a lower intensity has been found to reduce the health benefits of exercise and fitness improvements over time. • These findings are important because poor cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as higher cholesterol and blood pressure levels, which could potentially lead to premature mortality. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  49. 49. Texting or Talking While On Treadmill Reduces Exercise Intensity MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Rebold, PhD, CSCS Assistant Professor Department of Exercise ScienceBloomsburg University Bloomsburg, PA 17815 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Rebold: Assess other modes of exercise (bike, elliptical) since treadmill exercise is not the preferred mode of exercise for all individuals. • Examine different age groups. • Currently conducting similar studies at Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania examining specifically how much time is spent at different exercise intensities (light, moderate, vigorous) during a bout of exercise while having a smartphone present / and also examining how different smartphone functions (texting, talking, music) affect balance. • Citation: • Michael J. Rebold, Andrew Lepp, Gabriel J. Sanders, Jacob E. Barkley. The Impact of Cell Phone Use on the Intensity and Liking of a Bout of Treadmill Exercise. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (5): e0125029 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125029 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  50. 50. Low Testosterone May Affect More Than 25% of US Males MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Dupree, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Urology, Division of Andrology University of Michigan Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dupree: There are increasing discussions in the United States about testosterone therapy and men with clinical hypogonadism (or low testosterone). Yet, to date, there have not been any nationally-representative studies of the prevalence of low testosterone in the United States. Using a validated national health examination program from the CDC, we found that the national prevalence of low testosterone (serum testosterone ≤ 300 ng/dL) in adult males in the US was 28.9%. Among other factors, men who were older, had a higher body mass index (BMI), or had a larger waist circumference were at risk for having lower testosterone levels. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  51. 51. Low Testosterone May Affect More Than 25% of US Males MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Dupree, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Urology, Division of Andrology University of Michigan • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Dupree: For the first time, we now have nationally-representative data on the prevalence of low testosterone in United States. It’s important that low testosterone alone is not used as the sole reason for a man to seek treatment. In order for a man to start medications for low testosterone, he should also have symptoms of low testosterone. If a man is concerned that he has low testosterone levels (also known as clinical hypogonadism), he should speak with his doctor about his symptoms. Patients and clinicians can also use this data to recognizable that modifiable factors like BMI and waist circumference are likely related to testosterone levels. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  52. 52. Low Testosterone May Affect More Than 25% of US Males MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Dupree, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Urology, Division of Andrology University of Michigan • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Dupree: It has been well established that low testosterone levels are a necessary but not sufficient reason for a man to start taking medications for clinical hypogonadism. In order to begin treatment, a man should also have symptoms consistent with hypogonadism. We were not able to evaluate hypogonadal symptoms in our study, so future studies should work to establish national prevalence numbers for symptoms of hypogonadism and testosterone levels, both of which are needed to guide treatment decisions. • Citation: • PREVALENCE OF LOW TESTOSTERONE IN A POPULATION BASED, NATIONALLY REPRESENTATIVE SURVEY James Dupree*, Chang He, Dana Ohl, Ann Arbor, MI, Larry Lipshultz, Houston, TX, Aruna Sarma, Ann Arbor, MI American Urological AssociationSunday, May 17, 2015 1:00 PM-3:00 PM NOMCC: 208-210 Sexual Function/Dysfunction/Andrology: Evaluation II Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  53. 53. Should Digital Rectal Exam Still Be Used For Prostate Cancer Screening? MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ryan P. Terlecki, MD, FACS Director, Men’s Health Clinic Director, Fellowship in Urologic Reconstruction, Prosthetic Urology, and Infertility Director, Medical Student Education Associate Professor of Urology Wake Forest Baptist Health Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In recent years, the value of generalized screening for prostate cancer (PCa) in adult men has been questioned, with several national associations recommending against the practice in men without recognized risk factors. Screening, when performed, often consists of a blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and a digital rectal exam (DRE). Once PSA was developed as a screening tool, we witnessed a stage migration such that observing a locally advanced cancer that would be initially found via DRE became a rarer event. In practice, we have noticed that some men will actually avoid a clinic visit because of the DRE. Additionally, the digital rectal exam has limitations and is often poorly reproducible among providers. We chose to review a large body of data to shed some light on the utility of the digital rectal exam exam. We analyzed data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening trial, to determine the ability of the digital rectal exam to result in a diagnosis of clinically significant PCa in the setting of a normal PSA. We found that if PSA is normal and digital rectal exam is considered abnormal, the chance of detecting a clinically significant cancer is similar to a situation of normal DRE and normal PSA. Also, 1,372 men would need to undergo a digital rectal exam to identify a single case of clinically significant prostate cancer not detected by PSA. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  54. 54. Should Digital Rectal Exam Still Be Used For Prostate Cancer Screening? MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ryan P. Terlecki, MD, FACS Director, Men’s Health Clinic Director, Fellowship in Urologic Reconstruction, Prosthetic Urology, and Infertility Director, Medical Student Education Associate Professor of Urology Wake Forest Baptist Health • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: We did find that if both PSA and DRE was abnormal, there was a higher chance of clinically significant PCa. Thus, if a patient has abnormal PSA and is ‘on the fence’ about having a biopsy, also having an abnormal DRE may lend more support to proceeding with the procedure. • The guideline from the American Urological Association (AUA) states that the literature supporting the efficacy of DRE as a screening test to reduce deaths from prostate cancer is too limited to draw conclusions. The panel responsible for creating the guideline stated that they could find no evidence to support the continued use of DRE as a first line screening test. This element of the guideline seems to be further supported by the findings of our analysis. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  55. 55. Should Digital Rectal Exam Still Be Used For Prostate Cancer Screening? MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ryan P. Terlecki, MD, FACS Director, Men’s Health Clinic Director, Fellowship in Urologic Reconstruction, Prosthetic Urology, and Infertility Director, Medical Student Education Associate Professor of Urology Wake Forest Baptist Health • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: It should be determined if the digital rectal exam should disappear from routine urologic management in patients without a prior history of prostate cancer. If the AUA has already asserted that using the DRE as a first line screening tool is not supported by evidence, research should be directed at the use of DRE in the setting of benign disease. In regard to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), decision-making is guided by patient symptoms (reflected in the AUA symptom score) and not by the DRE, which often poorly estimates the nature of the prostate and does not provide reliable information regarding the inner portion of the prostate, which is most relevant to urination. • Citation: • American Urological Society abstract May 2015: • Does digital rectal examination provide additional value in the era of PSA screening?: Lessons from the PLCO study • Cui, Tao (Winston Salem, NC); Cui, Tao; Kovell, Robert C; Kovell, Robert C; Brooks, David C; Brooks, David C; Terlecki, Ryan P; Terlecki, Ryan P Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  56. 56. Frequent Ejaculation Linked To Lower Prostate Cancer Risk MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer R. Rider, ScD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rider: Numerous studies have investigated the potential role of sexual activity on the development of prostate cancer. However, most of these studies have been small and retrospective, making them more prone to bias. In addition, previous studies often relied on proxies of exposure for sexual activity (number of sexual partners, age at first marriage, etc.), which may not adequately measure the aspects of sexual activity that are most important for prostate health. The current study is the largest prospective study to date on ejaculation frequency and prostate cancer. It includes 18 years of follow up of almost 32,000 healthy men, 3839 of whom later were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We asked men about their average monthly frequency of ejaculation between the ages of 20-29, 40-49, and in the year prior to the questionnaire (1991). We find that frequency of ejaculation throughout life course is inversely associated with risk of prostate cancer at all three of these time points. For instance, men who have an average monthly ejaculation frequency of 21 or more times/moth at ages 40-49 have a statistically significant 22% reduction in risk of developing prostate cancer compared to men with a frequency of 4-7 times/month, adjusting for multiple dietary and lifestyle factors, and prostate cancer screening history. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  57. 57. Frequent Ejaculation Linked To Lower Prostate Cancer Risk MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer R. Rider, ScD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Rider: While these data are the most compelling to date on the potential benefit of ejaculation on prostate cancer development, they are observational data and should be interpreted somewhat cautiously. At the same time, given the lack of modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer, the results of this study are particularly encouraging. • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Rider: The next step will be relate ejaculation to specific changes in the prostate that could impact prostate cancer development to clarify the underlying mechanism. • Citation: • Presented at the American Urological Society May 2015 • Ejaculation frequency and risk of prostate cancer: updated results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study • Jennifer Rider*, Kathryn Wilson, Rachel Kelly, Erika Ebot, Edward Giovannucci, Lorelei Mucci, Boston, MA • Funding: Prostate Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  58. 58. Understanding PSA Controversy Does Not Deter Men From Getting Tested MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Fenstermaker MD NYU School of Medicine | MD, MS | Class of 2015 Northwestern University | BA | Biochemistry, Psychology • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Fenstermaker: The benefits of using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing to screen for prostate cancer are uncertain. In response to this, many medical societies have recently scaled back their recommendations for PSA screening. One common thread among these groups is that shared decision-making should guide whether or not men get tested. Shared decision-making is a process by which physicians and patients work together to make a medical decision that aligns with the patient’s values and follows the best available medical evidence. • Several studies have shown a decline in PSA testing since new guidelines have been published. While a decrease in screening is not necessarily problematic itself, it could be an issue if this is the result of fewer physicians discussing screening with their patients. Some experts worry that disparities in screening could develop, such that only informed patients go on to speak with their physicians and receive PSA testing. By analyzing data from a national survey, we had the chance to investigate just how much men know about the controversies leading to these guidelines changes and whether this knowledge influences PSA usage. • Our findings show that the majority of U.S. males of screening age report that they were not informed of many key facts important to understanding the risks and controversies surrounding PSA testing. Of particular concern, certain vulnerable populations, such as those without regular healthcare providers were less likely to be informed of these facts. Surprisingly, those men who had more awareness of the controversies about PSA testing were more likely to undergo testing. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  59. 59. Understanding PSA Controversy Does Not Deter Men From Getting Tested MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Fenstermaker MD NYU School of Medicine | MD, MS | Class of 2015 Northwestern University | BA | Biochemistry, Psychology • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Fenstermaker: We hope the extent to which most screening-age males are under informed about the risks, benefits, and controversies of prostate cancer screening is eye- opening to many physicians. Without definitive evidence that PSA screening is helpful or not, we owe it to our patients to discuss the current controversies surrounding PSA. The observation that PSA usage was associated with awareness is potentially concerning as well. With shared decision-making, it is important to ensure that variations in PSA usage are the result of patient preferences. • Some patients may also feel shy about participating in shared decision-making. Patients should realize that they have a say in the decision to be screened for prostate cancer. By starting a dialog, encouraging their physician to discuss the evidence behind PSA openly, they can reach a choice that better fits their own values. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  60. 60. Understanding PSA Controversy Does Not Deter Men From Getting Tested MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Fenstermaker MD NYU School of Medicine | MD, MS | Class of 2015 Northwestern University | BA | Biochemistry, Psychology • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Fenstermaker: Strategies for better implementing shared decision-making into clinic practice need to be developed. There is the impression that providing a comprehensive overview of prostate cancer screening in a short clinic visit is too difficult. However, this is where tools to assist physicians and patients, such as decision aids, may become valuable in helping with the shared decision-making process. • Citation: • Presented at the 2015 American Urological Association • Friday, May 15, 2015 1:00 PM-3:00 PM NOMCC: 217-219 General & Epidemiological Trends & Socioeconomics: Evidence-based Medicine & Outcomes I Funding: None MP5-12: Understanding the Limitations of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing Does not Deter Men from Undergoing Prostate Cancer Screening Michael Fenstermaker*, Stacy Loeb, Heather T. Gold, Joseph Ravenell, Danil Makarov, New York, NY Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  61. 61. Neuron-Specific Biomarker May Help Predict Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Pascal Stammet Dépt. Anesthésie-Réanimation Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg Luxembourg • MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr Stammet: Patients hospitalized after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survive in about fifty percent and nine out of ten survivors have a good functional level six months after the arrest. However, in the early days after the cardiac arrest it is difficult to distinguish those who will survive from those who have very severe brain damage, not compatible with life. Biomarkers, like neuron specific enolase (NSE) have shown a prognostic value for outcome prediction. As a consequence of the widespread use of induced hypothermia, to improve survival and neurological function, for patients resuscitated form cardiac arrest, concerns have arisen about the impact of body temperature on previously published cut-off values for poor outcome. NSE has thus been questioned as a useful clinical tool. Recently, the Target Temperature Management trial (TTM-trial) published in November 2013 in the NEJM has shown no benefit of a target body temperature of 33°C over 36°C in patients with out-of- hospital cardiac arrest admitted to the ICU. In the present sub-study, we have analyzed the value of NSE to predict outcome in a cohort of 686 patients of the TTM-trial. Importantly, serial measurements of NSE at 24, 48 and 72 hours allowed accurate outcome prediction, with better performance than clinical and peri-arrest data alone. NSE did not significantly differ between temperature groups meaning that clinicians can use NSE as an adjunct prognostic tool regardless of the chosen temperature management strategy. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  62. 62. Neuron-Specific Biomarker May Help Predict Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Pascal Stammet Dépt. Anesthésie-Réanimation Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg Luxembourg • MedicalResearch: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr Stammet: High, serial and increasing NSE values over time are strongly predictive of poor outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The degree of targeted temperature management does not affect significantly the levels of NSE; identical NSE cut-offs are applicable for both temperature levels. Furthermore, biomarkers, like NSE are independent of sedation, unlike EEG or clinical examination, which can be strongly influenced by the level of sedative medications. One word of caution though: NSE values determined in haemolyzed blood samples must be discarded as haemolysis interferes with NSE measurement. Finally, no single outcome predictor should be used alone to decide on withdrawal of life supporting therapies for an individual patient; there must always be a bundle of parameters taken into consideration. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  63. 63. Neuron-Specific Biomarker May Help Predict Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Pascal Stammet Dépt. Anesthésie-Réanimation Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg Luxembourg • MedicalResearch: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr Stammet: As brain-derived biomarkers are generally not influenced by sedation, their potential as outcome predictor after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is appealing. Novel families of biomarkers like micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are under investigation. Brain-enriched miRNAs are released in the bloodstream after OHCA and thus may accurately reflect brain damage. Since miRNAs are able to regulate gene expression, they could even host potential therapeutic opportunities in the future. Therefore, this study motivates further research on the use of brain-derived biomarkers to tailor healthcare to each individual with cardiac arrest. • Citation: • Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Predictor of Death or Poor Neurological Outcome After Out-of- Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C • Irina Dragancea, Janneke Horn, Michael Kuiper, Hans Friberg, Susann Ullén. Jørn Wetterslev, Jules Cranshaw, Christian Hassager, Niklas Nielsen, Tobias Cronberg, the TTM trial investigators • Resuscitation • Available online 25 April 2015 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  64. 64. Rosacea: Metronidazole Plus Modified Release 40 Mg Doxycycline Improved Moderate To Severe Disease MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Warren J. Winkelman, MD, MBA, PhD, FRCPC, FAAD Director, Medical Affairs Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Fort Worth TX 76177 • MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Winkelman: Rosacea is a common dermatologic facial disorder estimated to affect 16 million Americans. Rosacea is a chronic condition of the central face, including the nose, chin, cheeks and forehead, and is often characterized by flare-ups and remissions. While the cause of rosacea is unknown and there is no cure, its signs and symptoms can become markedly worse in the absence of treatment. Rosacea can be managed with topical and oral medications, and physicians often resort to using these medications in combination for more severe or resistant cases. Doxycycline 40 mg modified release (MR) and metronidazole 1% gel are FDA-approved oral and topical therapies, respectively, indicated to treat the papules and pustules of rosacea. We conducted a phase 2 study to assess the relapse rate, efficacy, and safety of doxycycline 40 mg MR compared to placebo after an initial 12-week once-daily combination regimen of doxycycline 40 mg MR and metronidazole 1% gel in subjects with moderate to severe disease. Of the 235 subjects enrolled in the study, 71% were women, 94% were white, and 75% had Fitzpatrick skin type I, II or III. The mean age was 47.4 years. The percentage of subjects who achieved a success score of 0 (clear) or 1 (near clear) improved from 0% at baseline to 51% at week 12. Clinician’s erythema assessment scores, inflammatory lesion counts, and quality of life scores also improved. Most subjects reported no or mild scaling, stinging/burning, and dryness. Five adverse events were reported that were considered probably or definitely related to treatment: fungal infection, vulvovaginal mycotic infection, pain in extremity, erythema, and skin exfoliation. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  65. 65. Rosacea: Metronidazole Plus Modified Release 40 Mg Doxycycline Improved Moderate To Severe Disease MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Warren J. Winkelman, MD, MBA, PhD, FRCPC, FAAD Director, Medical Affairs Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Fort Worth TX 76177 • MedicalResearch: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Winkelman: A once-daily combination regimen of doxycycline 40 mg MR and metronidazole 1% gel was observed to be efficacious, safe, and tolerable, and had a positive effect on quality of life in subjects with moderate to severe rosacea. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  66. 66. Rosacea: Metronidazole Plus Modified Release 40 Mg Doxycycline Improved Moderate To Severe Disease MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Warren J. Winkelman, MD, MBA, PhD, FRCPC, FAAD Director, Medical Affairs Galderma Laboratories, L.P. Fort Worth TX 76177 • MedicalResearch: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Winkelman: Future research should include long-term approaches to managing signs and symptoms of rosacea. In addition, further examination of the pathophysiology of rosacea and the mechanism of action of factors that trigger the onset of signs and symptoms and exacerbate the condition will be vital in treating this chronic skin condition. • Citation: • Berlin J and Winkelman W. Efficacy and tolerability of oral doxycycline 40 mg modified released with topical metronidazole 1% gel in moderate to severe rosacea. Poster presented at 73rd Annual Meeting American Academy of Dermatology; March 20-24, 2015; San Francisco, CA. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  67. 67. Poor Sleep May Contribute To Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander W. Pastuszak, MD, PhD Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery Scott Department of Urology Jason Malcolm Scovell Medical Student, Ofc SA-BCM Students Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Sleep quality is an important component of overall health, and can both exacerbate health issues and be impaired by health problems. Shift workers, primarily those who do not work standard daylight shifts, are prone to sleep problems, a significant concern in light of the fact that up to 25% of the U.S. workforce is comprised of shift workers. As men age, the prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS), which include urgency, frequency, waking up at night to urinate, and difficulties with urination, increases. Unsurprisingly, men with LUTS report poor sleep in part due to awakening repeatedly during the night. We studied a group of male shift workers, who we believe to be an ‘at-risk’ population, and found that not only do the men who report worse sleep quality have worse Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, but also men who report difficulty falling asleep have more severe LUTS than those who do not. This latter point is significant, given that most men with LUTS can fall asleep without difficulty, but then awaken repeatedly throughout the night, and suggests that sleep difficulties in this population may be resulting in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms rather than LUTS exclusively resulting in sleep difficulties. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  68. 68. Poor Sleep May Contribute To Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander W. Pastuszak, MD, PhD Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery Scott Department of Urology Jason Malcolm Scovell Medical Student, Ofc SA-BCM Students Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Response: Worse sleep quality in patients with regards to falling asleep, staying asleep, and getting back to sleep once awakened is associated with more severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in our study. We cannot conclude whether poor sleep quality is exacerbating LUTS with, although the relationship between difficulty falling asleep and more severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms suggests that poor sleep may indeed be a contributing factor. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  69. 69. Poor Sleep May Contribute To Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander W. Pastuszak, MD, PhD Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery Scott Department of Urology Jason Malcolm Scovell Medical Student, Ofc SA-BCM Students Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Given that sleep is important to mitigating the effects of numerous bodily dysfunctions, and sleep optimization can be achieved through simple lifestyle interventions, future studies investigating the causes of why patients who have more difficulty falling asleep report more severe LUTS will be important. If poor sleep is, in fact, exacerbating LUTS, simple changes to sleep habits may be an effective intervention to reduce LUTS. Similarly, if LUTS are resulting in difficulty with falling asleep, aggressive treatment of these symptoms may be important in improving sleep quality, which has such an important effect on overall health. • Citation: Abstract Presented at the 2015 American Urological Society • PD39-06 IMPAIRED SLEEP QUALITY PREDICTS MORE SIGNIFICANT LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS IN MALE SHIFT WORKERS • Pastuszak, Alexander W. et al. The Journal of Urology , Volume 193 , Issue 4 , e832 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  70. 70. Testosterone Therapy Lowered Mortality In Hypogonadal Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ranjith Ramasamy MD Assistant Professor of Urology University of Miami Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Ramasamy: The association between testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) and thrombotic risk in elderly men remains controversial. We evaluated the prevalence of thrombotic events and all-cause mortality in men older than 65 years with hypogonadism treated with testosterone therapy. We compared men treated with testosterone to an age and comorbidity matched cohort of hypogonadal men not treated with testosterone supplementation therapy. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  71. 71. Testosterone Therapy Lowered Mortality In Hypogonadal Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ranjith Ramasamy MD Assistant Professor of Urology University of Miami Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Ramasamy: No man who received testosterone supplementation therapy died, whereas 6 hypogonadal men who did not receive TST died (p=0.007). There were 4 thrombotic events (1 MI – myocardial infarction, 2 CVA/TIA – stroke, 1 PE – pulmonary embolism) in men who received testosterone supplementation therapy compared to 1 event (CVA/TIA) among men who did not receive TST (p = 0.8). All the events (except one death which took place at 6 months of follow–up) occurred 2 years or more after follow–up. Strengths of the study include long follow–up (>3 years), availability of serum testosterone levels before and after therapy and of a control group (hypogonadal men not treated with TST) for comparison. Limitations included retrospective study design, and a small sample size. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  72. 72. Testosterone Therapy Lowered Mortality In Hypogonadal Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ranjith Ramasamy MD Assistant Professor of Urology University of Miami Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Ramasamy: No man who received testosterone supplementation therapy died, whereas 6 hypogonadal men who did not receive TST died (p=0.007). There were 4 thrombotic events (1 MI – myocardial infarction, 2 CVA/TIA – stroke, 1 PE – pulmonary embolism) in men who received testosterone supplementation therapy compared to 1 event (CVA/TIA) among men who did not receive TST (p = 0.8). All the events (except one death which took place at 6 months of follow–up) occurred 2 years or more after follow–up. Strengths of the study include long follow–up (>3 years), availability of serum testosterone levels before and after therapy and of a control group (hypogonadal men not treated with TST) for comparison. Limitations included retrospective study design, and a small sample size. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  73. 73. Testosterone Therapy Lowered Mortality In Hypogonadal Men MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ranjith Ramasamy MD Assistant Professor of Urology University of Miami • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Ramasamy: Consistent with the majority of the studies in the literature, there was increased all- cause mortality in hypogonadal men (men with total testosterone < 300 ng/dL) not treated with testosterone compared to men who received testosterone therapy. There was no difference in prevalence of MI, TIA/CVA, or PE between patients who were treated with testosterone and hypogonadal men not treated with testosterone. • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Ramasamy: Long term randomized trials evaluating the benefits and risks of testosterone therapy in elderly men is necessary. • Citation: • Abstract Present at the 2015 American Urology Association • Sunday, May 17, 2015 1:00 PM-3:00 PM NOMCC: 208-210 Sexual Function/Dysfunction/Andrology: Evaluation II Funding: none MP51-01: LH Suppression and Serum Testosterone is Positively Associated with Fewer Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men on Testosterone Supplementation Jason Scovell*, Christina Mai, Michael Mederos, Ranjith Ramasamy, Dolores Lamb, Larry Lipshultz, Houston, TX Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.
  74. 74. Iron Deficiency Anemia May Complicate Diagnosis of Diabetes MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emma English PhD Lecturer in Healthcare Science and Academic Lead for Clinical Biochemistry University of Nottingham, School of Medicine Royal Derby Hospital, UK • MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. English: HbA1c is widely used for monitoring glycaemic control in people with diabetes as there is clear evidence that lowering HbA1c values leads to reductions in the rates of diabetes complications. Recently the World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association have both advocated the use of HbA1c for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes at a value of ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%). Whilst there are many advantages to the use of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool there are equally some significant limitations to its use. A widely cited confounder is anaemia, however to what extent and which types of anaemia affect HbA1c results was not clearly understood. When HbA1c was introduced as a diagnostic test in England we received many queries from healthcare professionals asking questions such as ‘at what level of anaemia should I not use HbA1c?’ and ‘should I routinely screen patients for anaemia when using HbA1c? And if so, what test should I use?’. In order to answer these questions we conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine what was known on this subject. • Our findings, presented in Diabetologia, suggest that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia may lead to a spuriously elevated HbA1c level, thus may lead a false positive diagnosis of diabetes. However, non-iron deficiency anaemias can lead to an artificially lower HbA1c and may lead to a false negative result where a diagnosis of diabetes would be missed. There is no clear evidence to suggest at what levels anaemia can give rise to these effects on HbA1c value and also there does not appear to be a single ideal test for identifying patients where this could be an issue. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com Content NOT an endorsement of efficacy and NOT intended as specific medical advice.

×