Ballast Water Thesis Experiment


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My senior thesis project comparing bromine and chlorine as a method to treat ballast water.

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Ballast Water Thesis Experiment

  1. 1. The Effectiveness of Bromine as a Method to Stop Microbial Invasions via Ballast Water By: Sarah Chmielewski Mentor: Dr. Nolan
  2. 2. Reasons Why This Study is Important <ul><ul><li>Invasive species can cause billions of dollars in economical, and ecological burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the invasive species have no natural enemies where they are introduced they can easily take over an area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Snakehead fish in the Potomac River in Maryland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zebra Mussel of the Great Lakes (Krebs 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Current Ballast Control Methods, and Their Downsides <ul><ul><li>Chlorination (Azanza 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Releases toxins into the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic at very low levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV treatment (Azanza 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not effective unless solids are removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxygenation (Tamburri 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a minimum of 96 hours of being held </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration (Waite 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very slow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Bromine? <ul><ul><li>Chlorine is already a widely used method and is very effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine and bromine are very similar chemically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the ballast’s water proximity to the engines the water heats up to around 37 C (Rogby 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine as well can be detoxified upon adding sodium thiosulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ), which allows the ballast water to not be detrimental to the environment its discharged in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In my experience with pools and hot tubs bromine is the more commonly used chemical because it is more stable at higher temperatures then chlorine </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. My Hypotheses are… H 1 Bromine will have a higher efficiency than chlorine at removing microbes in ballast water. H 2 In the samples treated with both chemicals, the sodium thiosulfate will detoxify the bromine, and the treatments will show no differences from the control. Question Q 1 What was the lowest concentration of bromine that would remove microbes from ballast water?
  6. 6. Experimental Treatments 10 ppm bromine 10 ppm bromine with Na 2 S 2 O 3 30 ppm bromine 30 ppm bromine with Na 2 S 2 O 3 10 ppm chlorine Time 0 Control Control with Na 2 S 2 O 3 1 ppm bromine 1ppm bromine with Na 2 S 2 O 3
  7. 7. Why one week? <ul><ul><li>According to the literature ships large ships that require ballast water take at least a week to travel transatlantic distances (Drake 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species from other sides of the oceans were generally the cause for more problems because their natural predators are not in our country </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Tests performed <ul><ul><li>Pilot test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To check if bromine would adequately dissolve to reach the correct concentration using my calculated amounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To quantify amount of bacteria grown in each sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DCMU test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To show the health of the phytoplankton in each sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flourometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To show the amount of living phytoplankton in each sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissecting scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To see if there are any living zooplankton in the samples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To test possible environmental effects caused by the chemical effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Bromine/Chlorine level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To see is there is any natural chemical in the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Bromine/Chlorine levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To check if the bromine/chlorine successfully dissolved to bring it up to the correct starting concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual Bromine/Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To test the amount of chemical residual being put into the environment upon dumping the ballast water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of samples treated with sodium thiosulfate to check that the bromine was chemically gotten rid of </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Time Line Early 2005- Started discussions with Dr. Nolan Jan 2007- Ran pilot test on Bromine and Chlorine May 2007- Ran experiment Summer 2007- Ran statistics 2005-2006- Completed article search
  10. 13. Summary <ul><ul><li>Bromine as 10 ppm is as effective as chlorine at preventing bacterial growth and phytoplankton’s ability to photosynthesize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the sodium thiosulfate seemed to neutralize the bromine for bacterial growth it did not neutralize it in the instance of phytoplankton's ability to photosynthesize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bromine at 10 ppm doesn’t lower the pH as much as the higher concentrations or the chlorine, so it is not as detrimental to the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine seems to be a promising method for treating ballast water but more research is needed on the matter before anything definite can be said. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. References <ul><ul><li>Azanza, M.P.V., R.V. Azanza, A.I. Gedaria, H.G. Sententa, and M.V. Idjao. &quot;Decimal Reduction Times of Pyrodium bahamense Var. compressum and Escherichia coli in Chlorine and Ultraviolet-Treated Seawater.&quot; The Society for Applied Microbiology 33 (2001): 371-376. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carlton, James T., and Jonathan B. Geller. &quot;Ecological Roulette: the Global Transport of Nonindigenous Marine Organisms.&quot; Science 261 (1993): 78-82. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drake, Lisa A., Gregory M. Ruiz, Bella S. Galil, Timothy L. Mullady, Daniela O. Friedmann, and Fred C. Dobbs. &quot;Microbial Ecology of Ballast Water During a Transoceanic Voyage and the Effects of Open-Ocean Exchange.&quot; Marine Ecology Progress Series 233 (2002): 13-20. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M., Joseph P. Valentine, Judith-Anne Marshall, and Christopher J. Bolch. &quot;Temperature Tolerance of Toxic Dinoflagellate Cysts: Application to the Treatment of Ship's Ballast Water.&quot; Aquatic Ecology 31 (1997): 47-52. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krebs, Charles J. Ecology: the Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance . 5th ed. Benjamin-Cummings Pub Co, 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuzirian, Alan M., Eleanor C. Terry, Deanna L. Bechtel, and Patrick L. James. &quot;Hydrogen Peroxide: an Effective Treatment for Ballast Water.&quot; Ecology and Population Biology 201 (2001): 297-299. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nimi, Arthur J. &quot;Environmental and Economic Factors Can Increase the Risk of Exotic Species Introduction to the Artic Region Through Increased Ballast Water Discharge.&quot; Environmental Management 33 (2004): 712-718. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rogby, Geoff. &quot;From Ballast to Bouillabaisse.&quot; Science 289 (2000): 241. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamburri, Mario N., Kerstin Wasson, and Masayasu Matsuda. &quot;Ballast Water Deoxygenation Can Prevent Aquatic Introductions While Reducing Ship Corrosion.&quot; Biological Conservation 103 (2002): 331-341. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waite, T D., J Kazumi, P.v.z. Lane, L.l. Farmer, S.g. Smith, S.l. Smith, G. Hitchcock, and T.r. Capo. &quot;Removal of Natural Populations of Marine Plankton by a Large-Scale Ballast Water Treatment System.&quot; Marine Ecology Progress Series 258 (2003): 51-63. </li></ul></ul>