Mariela Chaves Fernández<br />Clever Hans<br />English III<br />ULACIT<br />
WasanOrlovTrotterhorsethatwasclaimedtohavebeenabletoperformarithmetic and otherintellectualtasks.<br />
After a formal investigation in 1907, psychologistOskarPfungstdemonstratedthatthehorsewasnotactuallyperformingthese mental...
In honour of Pfungst'sstudy, theanomalousartifact has sincebeenreferredto as theClever Hans effect and has continuedtobeim...
Thepublicwasespeciallyinterested in animal intelligencedue in a largepartto Charles Darwin’sthenrecentpublications.<br />S...
Hans was a horseownedbyWilhelm von Osten, whowas a gymnasiummathematicsteacher, an amateur horsetrainer, phrenologist, and...
Ostenwouldask Hans, "Iftheeighthday of themonth comes on a Tuesday, whatisthe date of thefollowing Friday?”.<br />And Hans...
Questionscouldbeaskedbothorally, and in writtenform.  <br />Hans'sabilitiesappearedon page six of The New York Times.<br />
Aftervon Ostendied in 1909, Hans wasacquiredbyseveralowners. Itisbelievedthatthehorsewasputto use in somecapacity in World...
Hans
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Hans

  1. 1. Mariela Chaves Fernández<br />Clever Hans<br />English III<br />ULACIT<br />
  2. 2. WasanOrlovTrotterhorsethatwasclaimedtohavebeenabletoperformarithmetic and otherintellectualtasks.<br />
  3. 3. After a formal investigation in 1907, psychologistOskarPfungstdemonstratedthatthehorsewasnotactuallyperformingthese mental tasks, butwaswatchingthereaction of hishumanobservers. <br />Oskardiscoveredthisartifact in theresearchmethodology, whereinthehorsewasrespondingdirectlytoinvoluntarycues in thebodylanguage of thehumantrainer, whohadthefacultiestosolveeachproblem. <br />Thetrainerwasentirelyunawarethat he wasprovidingsuchcues<br />
  4. 4. In honour of Pfungst'sstudy, theanomalousartifact has sincebeenreferredto as theClever Hans effect and has continuedtobeimportantknowledge in theobserver-expectancyeffect and laterstudies in animal cognition.<br />
  5. 5. Thepublicwasespeciallyinterested in animal intelligencedue in a largepartto Charles Darwin’sthenrecentpublications.<br />Spectacle<br />XX CENTURY<br />
  6. 6. Hans was a horseownedbyWilhelm von Osten, whowas a gymnasiummathematicsteacher, an amateur horsetrainer, phrenologist, and something of a mystic. Hans wassaidtohavebeentaughttoadd, subtract, multiply, divide, workwithfractions, tell time, keeptrack of the calendar, differentiate musical tones, and read, spell, and understandGerman<br />
  7. 7. Ostenwouldask Hans, "Iftheeighthday of themonth comes on a Tuesday, whatisthe date of thefollowing Friday?”.<br />And Hans wouldanswerbytappinghishoof.<br />
  8. 8. Questionscouldbeaskedbothorally, and in writtenform. <br />Hans'sabilitiesappearedon page six of The New York Times.<br />
  9. 9. Aftervon Ostendied in 1909, Hans wasacquiredbyseveralowners. Itisbelievedthatthehorsewasputto use in somecapacity in WorldWar I. After 1916, thereis no record of him and hisfateremainsunknown<br />

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