4 th Trath C urs o Nuc a Tehno g 4 ining o e n le r c lo y 35 Seminar on Nuclear Science fo U rs forgHigh School Science r nive ity/C lle eF c o a ulty Teachers PhilippineN uc arR e e hI ns le s arc titute Philippinef ScienceandTechnoloResearch Institute De partmnt o Nuclear g e y Co mnw althA ve , D ilim Q ue nCity mo e nue an, zo Department of Science and Technology Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City Module onQUARKS – The Elementary Particle s Presented to Ms. Soledad S. Castañeda Dr. Evangeline K. Parami Mr. Leonardo S. Leopando Presented to Presented by Sarah C. Johnson Ms. Soledad S. Castaneda – Chair Norberto T. Alcantara Gabriel C. Barretto Dr. Evangeline K. Parami Christopher O. Mendoza Mr. Leonardo s. Leopando Presented by Maribel Romero – Beroin Ma. Lenalyn Q. Manzano George G. Tagura Editha F. Pilon Cecilia A. Domingo
TO THE STUDENT Mabuhay! Welcome to this module! You must be very excited to read and explore this module. Theactivities in here have been designed to provide you with rich and stimulating learning experiences that will help you understand better the Elementary Particles : The Quarks. So sit back and familiarize yourself as you go along with the different parts of this module.
INTRODUCTION One of the primary goals in modern physics is to answerthe question "What is the Universe made of?" Often that questionreduces to "What is matter and what holds it together?" Thiscontinues the line of investigation started by Democritus, Dalton andRutherford. In the past, people thought that atoms wereunbreakable, so the hydrogen atom was considered the smallestparticle. At the start of the 20th century, however, it was discoveredthat atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Today weknow that the electron is really indivisible andso fundamental, however protons and neutrons appear to be built outof much smaller particles: quark.This module aim to discuss the following lessons:1. The Quark: An Elementary Particle2. Quarks Flavor3. Quarks Charges4. Naming of Quarks5. A little about Hadrons
What are the parts of this module? MODULE TITLE and INTRODUCTION appears on the first page of the module. The title are followed by a picture and a brief introduction which tells you what the module covers. You should read carefully the title and the introduction to give you an idea of the exciting things in store for you. WHAT THIS MODULE IS ABOUT provides you insights on what you are going to learn. This section encourages you to read carefully the activities you need to work on. TARGET This section lists what you should learn after going through the activities in the module. You can use this list to check your own learning.HOW TO WORK FROM THIS MODULE. This sectionprovides the steps that you need to do inaccomplishing the activities..
PRE - TEST Assesses what you already knowabout the skills you will learn in the module. Do notworry if you fail to answer all the question. Afterworking on the various module activities, you will takesimilar test.DISCUSSION consist of a variety of learningexperiences and exercises designed to help you developthe skills and competencies covered in this module. Youshould not skip any of the activities. They have beensequenced to help you achieve what you are expectedto learn from this module. After each exercise, you areinvited to check your answer under the Check Yourselfsection.POST TEST. After you have work on all theactivities in the module, check on how much you haveachievedCHECK YOURSELF provides the answers to theexercises as well as the answers to the HOWMUCH DO YOU KNOW and HOW MUCH DIDYOU LEARN. After checking your answer, go overthe topics or items you missed.•Bibliography•Glossary
WHAT THIS MODULE ISABOUT?Long time ago people believethat atom was the smallestparticle of matter. Thenthey discover the threeparticles, electron protonand neutron. Today, the most accepted current idea is thatthe nucleus is madeof protons and neutrons, butthese protons and neutronsare themselves made of stillsmaller, simpler particlescalled quarks. But what isa quark? How do we know they exist? This module would bring to the forefront of our minds the importance of studying quarks to better understand the behavior of matter.
TARGETS At the end of the lesson, learner should be able to:1) Define quark,2) Identify the six (6) flavors of quark,3) Give the characteristics of each flavors,4) Be familiarize with other subatomic particles, and5) Practice patience and honesty
TARGET POPULATION These module is designed for 4thyear high school students of privateand public institution, and for allthose who are interested andconcerned with the lesson.
HOW TO WORK FROM THISMODULE 1. Study the cover. Read the title. What does it mean to you? Look at the picture. What do you see? From the title and the pictures what do you think is the module about? 2. Go over the pages of the module. What are the different parts? What do you think you will learn? What do you think you will be doing? 3. Read the sections, What This Module Is About and What You Are Expected To Learn. Were your guesses right? Are you clear now on what you will learn and do? 4. You will find exercises to work on. Write you answers on these exercises on a separate sheet or in your Science notebook. 5. Check your answers to each exercise against The Key to Correction. Read carefully the sentences that explain the answer. Good Luck!
Before you go on, find outhow much is your knowledgeabout the topic. Try toanswer first the Pre-test.Well, Good luck…
PRE - TESTDirection: Write the letter of the best answer that correctly identifies the parts of atom. (Write your answer on a separate sheet). For number 1-4. Use the Choices below. 1. 2. 4 3 a. Atom b. Proton c. Neutron d. Electron d. Nucleus For numbers 5-10 Complete the Table particle charge quarks proton neutron electron
KEY TO CORRECTION 1. D 2. B 3. C 7 - 10 4. E 5.+1 6.0 4-6 7.-1 8. up, up, down 3 - below 9. up, down, do wn 10. none
Now, I guess you’re ready to know more about the elementary particle called quark.Just sit tight and have fun reading… Let us now proceed to the lesson proper
But first, let us have a little word hunt. Find the hidden words inside the puzzle. N F L A V O R B T T Atom Bottom C U E L E C T R O N Charm H Y U K N L B A P S Color A P P B E A T O M C Electron Flavor R R I Q U A R K S O Hadron MO M A T T E R E L Matter Neutron D T S T R A N G E O Nucleus B O T T O M N M S R Quarks J N G Q N O R D A H Proton Strange F Q N U C L E U S O
DEFINE QUARKQuark(/ˈ kwɔrk/ or /ˈkwɑrk) isan elementary particle andare fundamental matter particlesthat are constituents of neutronsand protons and other hadrons.
FLAVORS OF QUARK There are six different Types of quarks. Each quark type is called a flavor. They are known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. Quarksmake up the three quark baryons, the two-quark mesons, and the recently discovered five – quark pentaquarks.
Down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe. Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. Whereas charm, strange, top, and bottom quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (e.g. involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators)
The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay. So that ishow quarks decay ! While here, let us compare the quarks .…Oops please don’t get me wrong but this is not how quarks really look like.
CHARGE OF QUARKS The sum of the quark charges, determine the charge of the nuclear particle.Sounds difficult,, see the next page…
Do you know why protons have an electrical charge of +1? And why neutrons have no charge? Observe…. Protons have two up quarks and one down quark (+2/3 ) + (+2/3 ) + (-1/3) = +1Neutrons have one up quark and two down quarks. (+2/3) + (-1/3) + (-1/3) = 0Why don’t we have a littlemental gymnastic..
Q&A Q: WHAT ELECTRONS ARE MADE OF? A: NOTHING, ELECTRONS ARE FUNDAMENTAL… AS FAR AS WE KNOW. ENRICHMENT: 1. What would be the charge of a particle composed of three up quark? 2. What is the electric charge of the particle with the following quark composition? A. udd B. uud b. positive 2. a. no charge or uncharge 1. +2 ANSWERS:
ETYMOLOGY Gell-Mann originally named the quark after the sound made by ducks. For some time, he was undecided on an actual spelling for the term he intended to coin, until he found the word quark in James Joyces book Finnegan’s Wake: Three quarks for Muster Mark! Sure he has not got much of a bark And sure any he has its all beside the mark. —James Joyce, Finnegan’s Wake.
HOW DID QUARKS GET THEIR NAMES? There are six flavors of quarks. “Flavors” just means different kinds. The two lightest are called up and down. The 3rd quark is called strange. It was named after the “strangely” long lifetime of the K particle, the first composite particle found to contain this quark Look at the given figure below… Trace the year where the quarks were discovered.
MORE OF QUARKS HERE… The 4th quark type, the charm quark, was named on a whim. It was discovered in 1974 almost simultaneously at both the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The 5th and 6th quarks were sometimes called truth and beauty in the past, but even physicist thought that was too cute. The bottom quark was first discovered at Fermi National Lab (Fermiland) in 1977, in a composite particle called Upsilon. The top quark was discovered last, also at Fermilab, in 1995.
Before we end our lesson would you like to know hadronHADRON first? Anyway, a Hadron (/hædrɒn/; Greek: hadrós, "s tout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons (made of three quarks) and mesons (made of one quark and one antiquark). The best-known hadrons are protons and neutrons, which are components of atomic nuclei. All hadrons except protons are unstable and undergo particle decay–however neutrons are stable inside atomic nuclei.
POST - TEST Direction: Write the letter of the best answer that correctly identifies the parts of atom. (Write your answer on a separate sheet). For number 1-4. Use the Choices below. 1. 2. 4 3 a. Atom b. Proton c. Neutron d. Electron d. Nucleus For numbers 5-10 Complete the Table particle charge quarks proton neutron electron
Let us then find out howmuch have you learned?Answer the Post – test and see if you can answer it perfectly…..
KEY TO CORRECTION 1. D 2. B 3. C 7 - 10 4. E 5.+1 6.0 4-6 7.-1 8. up, up, down 3 - below 9. up, down, do wn 10. none
BIBLIOGRAPHYA. Books Faughn, Jerry S. and Seeway, Raymond A. Physics, Teacher Edition. Pp 814 – 825. Holt Rinechart & Winston: A harcourt Education Company, 2006. Zitsewitz, Eliot, Haase, Harper, Herzog, Nelson, Nelson , Schuler, and Zorn. Physics, Principles and Problems, Wrap Around Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2005.B. Other Sourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadronhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quarkhttp://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/quarks.htmlhttp://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/public/phil/glossary.htmlhttp://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Quark+theory
GLOSSARY Quark A fundamental particle. Six types (or flavours) of quarks are known. Up and down flavours are constituents ofprotons and neutrons.The other, heavier, quarks are called strange, charm,bottom, and top. Electron A negatively charged particle (lepton) making up the outer shell ofthe atom. Positron An Anti-electon.The positively- charged antiparticle of anelectron. Muon A heavier flavour of leptonthan the electron. Tau The heaviest known lepton.
Neutrino An uncharged, massless (or at leastextremely light), lepton.Like the charged leptons, theycan come in three types(or flavours):electron neutrinos, muonneutrinos,or tauneutrinos.Anti-neutrino The antiparticle of aneutrinoBaryons Particles consisting ofthree quarks.Neutrons,protons, and the lambdas areallbaryons.Mesons A family of particles consisting ofa quark and an anti-quark.pions, kaons,and B-mesons are all mesons.Hadrons Particles made up of quarks. Thereare two types of hadrons:baryons and mesons.
Leptons A family of particles consisting ofthe electron,the muon and the tau, along with theirneutrinos.Proton A positively-charged particle (baryon)consisting of two up and onedownquarks which is foundin and makes up the atomicnucleus.Neutron A neutral particle (baryon) consistingof two down and oneup quarks which is found in andmakesup the atomic nucleus.Lambda The lighteststrange baryon, consisting of one up, one down,andone strange quark.Pion Pions are the lightest mesons. Theyconsist of up and down quarks (eg. the pi+ consists ofan up quark and a down anti-quark).kaon The lighteststrange meson, consisting of an up or down quark, witha strange anti-quark.
B-mesonOne of the heaviest mesons, containing abottom quark.Strong Force A force whichbinds quarks together.Its range is limited to thedistances between quarks in hadrons, but an indirecteffect of the strong force is to bind protonsand neutronstogether to form nuclei.The strong force iscarried by gluons.Electromagnetic force A force with infinite range which actsbetween objectsaccording to their charge. Specificcases are the electric and magnetic forces.Theelectromagnetic force is carried by photons.Weak Force Interactions that changethe flavour of particles; for example thedecay ofa neutron into a proton,electron, and anti-neutrino; aregoverned bythe weak force. The weak force is the onlyone that affects neutrinos.Electroweak Force A force resulting from thecombination of theelectromagnetic force and theweakforce