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Employee and
Labor Relations
PHR 20% - SPHR 14%
www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Employee Relations

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Early Labor Movement

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Anti-union Weapons



Court Injunctions



Yellow-Dog Contracts



www.hrcp.com

Conspiracy Doctrine

Antitrust Statut...
Federal Anti-Injunction Act
(Norris-LaGuardia)




Neutralized power between employee & employers



www.hrcp.com

Enco...
Threats to Collective Bargaining
 Industrial
 Attacks

Espionage

on Union Leaders

 Stikebreaking
 Company

www.hrcp....
National Labor Relations Act
(Wagner Act)
 Employee rights
 Unfair labor practices
 NLRB

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 201...
Labor Management Relations Act
(Taft-Hartley)
 Unfair

labor practices by unions

 Rights

of employees as individuals

...
Labor Management Reporting & Disclosure Act
(Landrum-Griffin)
 A bill of rights for union members
 Reports to the Secret...
Union
Representation
of Employees
www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Union Organizations
1.
2.

national or international union

3.

www.hrcp.com

local union

federation of unions

Copyright...
AFL-CIO
Represents
approximately 12.2
million workers

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Change to Win
Left AFL-CIO because of dissatisfaction with the union.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
National Labor Relations Board
To protect the rights of employees,
employers, unions, and the general public.

www.hrcp.co...
Organizing a Union
 What
 What

www.hrcp.com

is the procedure for organizing a union?
is the procedure for decertificat...
Union Security



Union shop



Agency shop



Maintenance of membership



www.hrcp.com

Closed shop

Dues check-off...
Discussion Question:
The "right-to-work" issue resulting from section 14(b)
of the Taft-Hartley Act has created an ongoing...
Employer Unfair
Labor Practices

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Processing Unfair Labor Practices

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Unfair Labor Practices
Many of the unfair labor practice charges
submitted to the NLRB arise from improper
campaign activi...
Unlawful Support of Labor Unions
What would be considered comprise unlawful
support of a labor organization?

www.hrcp.com...
Union Unfair Labor
Practices, Strikes,
and Boycotts
www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Discussion Question:
What restrictions are placed on unions and why is
there a need to restrict the activities of labor un...
Good-faith Bargaining
Both parties required to engage in good-faith
bargaining, or they will be guilty of an unfair
labor ...
Strike
When a group of employees
refuse to work, exerting
strong economic pressure
against the company.

www.hrcp.com

Cop...
Discussion Question:
What are the issues that ought to be considered by
each side before a strike or lockout is declared?
...
Strike Preparation
What should an employer do
to prepare for a strike?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Collective
Bargaining

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining consists of management and
union representatives coming together to reach an
a...
Bargaining Issues & Concepts
Taft-Hartley Act requires that union and
management negotiate on “wages, hours and
other term...
The Labor
Agreement
Includes major
bargaining issues.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Bargaining Structures
Most labor agreements have been negotiated
between a single union and a single employer.
What are th...
Bargaining Process
1.
2.

Analyzing the demands

3.

Compromise

4.

www.hrcp.com

Opening presentation of demands

Inform...
Discussion Question:
Collective bargaining is almost always a
distributive bargaining strategy. Is it possible for
an inte...
Bargaining Zone
Employer

Pay Increase

Union

22
20
ER tolerance limit
Acceptable to ER

18
16
14
12
10

Preferred by ER
...
Negotiation Skills

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Concession Bargaining
Example:
Chrysler Corporation
in 1980

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Good Faith Requirements
Both parties are required to have open minds
and a sincere desire to reach an agreement.

www.hrcp...
www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
National Emergency Strikes
The president of the US can apply for an injunction to restrain
a strike when the strike imperi...
Maintaining
Nonunion Status

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Why People Join Unions
For most workers, the decision to join a union
rests on two primary issues:
1.

2.

www.hrcp.com

E...
Why People Don’t Join Unions




Disagree with goals and activities unions



www.hrcp.com

Professionals join a profes...
Maintaining Nonunion Status
The two most effective strategies for
maintaining nonunion status:
1.

2.

www.hrcp.com

To im...
Grievance Systems

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Grievance Systems
Grievance procedures are needed to protect
employees from inconsistent and unfair treatment.

www.hrcp.c...
Discussion Question:
Why do organizations need both grievance
and discipline procedures?
What is the purpose of each?

www...
Discussion Question:
What are the typical grievance procedures
found in union and nonunion companies?

www.hrcp.com

Copyr...
Grievance Process for Small Company
Union Representatives

Company Representatives

Step 3

Arbitration

Chief plant stewa...
Grievance Process for Large Company
Union Representatives

Company Representatives
Step 5

Arbitration

International unio...
Discussion Question:
Why do nonunion grievance procedures tend to
be inferior to union grievance procedures?

www.hrcp.com...
Effective Grievance Procedures
 Protection
 Provide
 Give

www.hrcp.com

against retaliation

timely responses

fair co...
Arbitration
Having a labor dispute
resolved by an
impartial third party.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Discussion Question:
What can be done to make arbitration less costly
and time consuming?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 ...
Alternative Dispute Resolution



mediation



binding arbitration



www.hrcp.com

negotiation

rent-a-judge services...
Items for Arbitration
What issues are most frequently referred to arbitration?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L....
Employee Discipline
Systems

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Employee Discipline Systems
The overall objective of disciplinary action is to remedy a
problem and to help employees achi...
Discussion Question:
What are the differences between the positive
and negative approaches to discipline?

www.hrcp.com

C...
Positive & Negative Approaches to Discipline
Negative Approach

Positive Approach

Motive for
discipline:

Retribution—pun...
Discussion Question:
What is a progressive discipline procedure?
Why is such a procedure called progressive?

www.hrcp.com...
Administrative Justice



www.hrcp.com

Due Process
Just Cause

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Effective Discipline Systems

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Weingarten Rights
The right of employees to have union
representation at investigatory interviews.

www.hrcp.com

Copyrigh...
Individual
Employment Rights

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Employee Handbooks
Describes important aspects of the employment relationship.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L....
Employment-At-Will Doctrine
Employer and the employee have
mutual right to terminate the
employment relationship.

www.hrc...
Implied Contract
Employers are prevented from firing employees
if they have an implied contract for
employment.
What is an...
Retaliatory Discharge
When employers terminate employee
in retaliation for actions that were
legal, but contrary to the in...
Constructive Discharge
Employer creates unpleasant
working conditions so
employee will quit.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 20...
Common Law Tort Theories
What injurious actions does common law
protect against?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, ...
Defamation
Slanderous or libelous statements.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Noncompete
Agreements
A restrictive covenant
designed to protect a
business’ interests.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by...
Workforce Behavior
Problems

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Workforce Behavior
Problems
The nature and cause of each
wrongdoing should precede
any disciplinary action.

www.hrcp.com
...
Discussion Question:
What are the advantages and disadvantages of
developing a detailed list of rules regarding
employee m...
Absenteeism & Turnover
How is absenteeism measured?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Discussion Question:
When measuring absenteeism and turnover,
why is it useful to distinguish between voluntary
and involu...
Drug & Alcohol Use
Some of the most serious personal problems for
employees involve alcoholism and drug abuse.
How should ...
Sexual Harassment
What factors should be included
in an employer’s sexual
harassment policy?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 20...
Organizational Exit

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Terminations
 Involuntary

terminations typically occur as a
result of employment problems.

 Employers

must ensure tha...
Termination Interviews




www.hrcp.com

Employers should reduce the trauma of
terminations.
Being fired is one of the m...
Layoffs
 Layoffs

occur when employers need to eliminate
positions in order to maintain profitability

 Layoffs

decisio...
Downsizing
What is HR’s responsibilities
during layoffs?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Workers Adjustment & Retraining Notification Act
What are the provisions of the Workers Adjustment and
Retraining Notifica...
Public Sector
Labor Relations

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Civil Service Reform Act
Provide federal employees with many of
the same collective bargaining protections

www.hrcp.com

...
Federal Labor Relations Council
What is the role of the Federal Labor Relations Council?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 b...
Discussion Question:
Should public employees be allowed to strike?
How should labor disputes in the public sector be
resol...
Employee Involvement
Strategies

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Employee Involvement Strategies
Provides opportunities for employees to participate
in the organization as managers or own...
Self-directed Work Teams

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Quality Circles
What are quality circles and what are the
three major benefits of using them?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2...
Job Characteristics Model
Job enrichment consists of modifying the job
to increase what variables?

www.hrcp.com

Copyrigh...
Employee Ownership
Employee ownership today takes two major forms.
1.

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

2.

Employee ...
Participative Management
Allows employees to be more involved.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Alternative Work Schedule
 Flextime
 Compressed

work weeks
 Regular part-time
 Job sharing
 Phased retirement
 Home...
Discussion Question:
Which jobs are particularly well suited for flex-time,
permanent part-time, job sharing, compressed
w...
Employee Attitudes
and Satisfaction

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Job Satisfaction Theory
What four theories have been used to explain
whether individuals will feel satisfied or
dissatisfi...
Discussion Question:
Where would you expect to find a positive
relationship between satisfaction and productivity?
Where w...
Measuring Job Satisfaction
The best ways to measure satisfaction are
either to interview employees or ask them to
complete...
Semantic Differential Scales
Extremely

Quite

Slightly

Neutral

Slightly

Quite

Extremely

Me at Work—How I Feel Most o...
Likert Scales
Likert Scales

Strongly
Disagree

Strongly
Agree

1. Considering everything about the company, I
am very wel...
Feedback
Most effective way to use job-attitude information is
to provide a summary report back to members of
the organiza...
Intervention
What determines the success of a
survey feedback intervention?

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Employee Engagement
Employees’ commitment
to their job.

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
International Labor
Relations

www.hrcp.com

Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
Discussion Question:
What is the significance of the North American Free
Trade Agreement’s side agreement regarding labor?...
European Union
 The

charter of the European Union guarantees
many of the same rights to workers as NAFTA,
but with sever...
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2012 unit 5_power_point_2

  1. 1. Employee and Labor Relations PHR 20% - SPHR 14% www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  2. 2. Employee Relations www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  3. 3. Early Labor Movement www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  4. 4. Anti-union Weapons   Court Injunctions  Yellow-Dog Contracts  www.hrcp.com Conspiracy Doctrine Antitrust Statutes Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  5. 5. Federal Anti-Injunction Act (Norris-LaGuardia)   Neutralized power between employee & employers  www.hrcp.com Encouraged formation of labor unions Limited courts power to intervene Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  6. 6. Threats to Collective Bargaining  Industrial  Attacks Espionage on Union Leaders  Stikebreaking  Company www.hrcp.com Unions Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  7. 7. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)  Employee rights  Unfair labor practices  NLRB www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  8. 8. Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley)  Unfair labor practices by unions  Rights of employees as individuals  Rights of employers  National www.hrcp.com emergency strikes Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  9. 9. Labor Management Reporting & Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin)  A bill of rights for union members  Reports to the Secretary of Labor  Union trusteeships  Conduct of union elections  Financial safeguards www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  10. 10. Union Representation of Employees www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  11. 11. Union Organizations 1. 2. national or international union 3. www.hrcp.com local union federation of unions Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  12. 12. AFL-CIO Represents approximately 12.2 million workers www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  13. 13. Change to Win Left AFL-CIO because of dissatisfaction with the union. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  14. 14. National Labor Relations Board To protect the rights of employees, employers, unions, and the general public. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  15. 15. Organizing a Union  What  What www.hrcp.com is the procedure for organizing a union? is the procedure for decertification? Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  16. 16. Union Security   Union shop  Agency shop  Maintenance of membership  www.hrcp.com Closed shop Dues check-off Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  17. 17. Discussion Question: The "right-to-work" issue resulting from section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act has created an ongoing debate. What are the arguments for and against the "right-towork" clause? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  18. 18. Employer Unfair Labor Practices www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  19. 19. Processing Unfair Labor Practices www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  20. 20. Unfair Labor Practices Many of the unfair labor practice charges submitted to the NLRB arise from improper campaign activities. What are some examples of unfair labor practices? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  21. 21. Unlawful Support of Labor Unions What would be considered comprise unlawful support of a labor organization? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  22. 22. Union Unfair Labor Practices, Strikes, and Boycotts www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  23. 23. Discussion Question: What restrictions are placed on unions and why is there a need to restrict the activities of labor unions? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  24. 24. Good-faith Bargaining Both parties required to engage in good-faith bargaining, or they will be guilty of an unfair labor practice. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  25. 25. Strike When a group of employees refuse to work, exerting strong economic pressure against the company. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  26. 26. Discussion Question: What are the issues that ought to be considered by each side before a strike or lockout is declared? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  27. 27. Strike Preparation What should an employer do to prepare for a strike? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  28. 28. Collective Bargaining www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  29. 29. Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining consists of management and union representatives coming together to reach an agreement that will be acceptable to their constituents. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  30. 30. Bargaining Issues & Concepts Taft-Hartley Act requires that union and management negotiate on “wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.” www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  31. 31. The Labor Agreement Includes major bargaining issues. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  32. 32. Bargaining Structures Most labor agreements have been negotiated between a single union and a single employer. What are the four kinds of bargaining structures? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  33. 33. Bargaining Process 1. 2. Analyzing the demands 3. Compromise 4. www.hrcp.com Opening presentation of demands Informal settlement and ratification Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  34. 34. Discussion Question: Collective bargaining is almost always a distributive bargaining strategy. Is it possible for an integrative bargaining strategy to be used? What conditions would have to exist, and what would be the probable long-term effect? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  35. 35. Bargaining Zone Employer Pay Increase Union 22 20 ER tolerance limit Acceptable to ER 18 16 14 12 10 Preferred by ER www.hrcp.com Preferred by union Bargaining Zone Acceptable to union Union tolerance limit 8 6 Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  36. 36. Negotiation Skills www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  37. 37. Concession Bargaining Example: Chrysler Corporation in 1980 www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  38. 38. Good Faith Requirements Both parties are required to have open minds and a sincere desire to reach an agreement. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  39. 39. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  40. 40. National Emergency Strikes The president of the US can apply for an injunction to restrain a strike when the strike imperils national health & safety www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  41. 41. Maintaining Nonunion Status www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  42. 42. Why People Join Unions For most workers, the decision to join a union rests on two primary issues: 1. 2. www.hrcp.com Economic advantages The elimination of unfair conditions Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  43. 43. Why People Don’t Join Unions   Disagree with goals and activities unions  www.hrcp.com Professionals join a professional association rather than a trade union. Some identify with management Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  44. 44. Maintaining Nonunion Status The two most effective strategies for maintaining nonunion status: 1. 2. www.hrcp.com To improve workers’ attitudes toward employer. Decrease their interest in the union. Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  45. 45. Grievance Systems www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  46. 46. Grievance Systems Grievance procedures are needed to protect employees from inconsistent and unfair treatment. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  47. 47. Discussion Question: Why do organizations need both grievance and discipline procedures? What is the purpose of each? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  48. 48. Discussion Question: What are the typical grievance procedures found in union and nonunion companies? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  49. 49. Grievance Process for Small Company Union Representatives Company Representatives Step 3 Arbitration Chief plant steward Step 2 Plant mgr & industrial relations mgr Union steward & employee Step 1 Supervisor www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  50. 50. Grievance Process for Large Company Union Representatives Company Representatives Step 5 Arbitration International union rep Step 4 Corporate officers Plant grievance committee Step 3 Industrial relations mgr Business agent Step 2 Superintendent Union steward & EE Step 1 Supervisor www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  51. 51. Discussion Question: Why do nonunion grievance procedures tend to be inferior to union grievance procedures? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  52. 52. Effective Grievance Procedures  Protection  Provide  Give www.hrcp.com against retaliation timely responses fair consideration Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  53. 53. Arbitration Having a labor dispute resolved by an impartial third party. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  54. 54. Discussion Question: What can be done to make arbitration less costly and time consuming? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  55. 55. Alternative Dispute Resolution   mediation  binding arbitration  www.hrcp.com negotiation rent-a-judge services Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  56. 56. Items for Arbitration What issues are most frequently referred to arbitration? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  57. 57. Employee Discipline Systems www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  58. 58. Employee Discipline Systems The overall objective of disciplinary action is to remedy a problem and to help employees achieve success in their work. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  59. 59. Discussion Question: What are the differences between the positive and negative approaches to discipline? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  60. 60. Positive & Negative Approaches to Discipline Negative Approach Positive Approach Motive for discipline: Retribution—punishment for errors To correct behavior and eliminate further errors Emotional tone of meeting: Anger, loss of temper, irrational punishment or threats Calm explanation of the error and why it is unacceptable Desired result of discipline: Severely punish or terminate offender, serve as example & create fear in others, serve as a deterrent to others Rehabilitate problem employees & turn them into productive employees Probable consequences: Employee will achieve only minimum acceptable performance Those who respond will become good employees; those who do not respond will be terminated www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  61. 61. Discussion Question: What is a progressive discipline procedure? Why is such a procedure called progressive? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  62. 62. Administrative Justice   www.hrcp.com Due Process Just Cause Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  63. 63. Effective Discipline Systems www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  64. 64. Weingarten Rights The right of employees to have union representation at investigatory interviews. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  65. 65. Individual Employment Rights www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  66. 66. Employee Handbooks Describes important aspects of the employment relationship. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  67. 67. Employment-At-Will Doctrine Employer and the employee have mutual right to terminate the employment relationship. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  68. 68. Implied Contract Employers are prevented from firing employees if they have an implied contract for employment. What is an implied contract? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  69. 69. Retaliatory Discharge When employers terminate employee in retaliation for actions that were legal, but contrary to the interests of the employer, such as filing a workers’ compensation claim. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  70. 70. Constructive Discharge Employer creates unpleasant working conditions so employee will quit. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  71. 71. Common Law Tort Theories What injurious actions does common law protect against? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  72. 72. Defamation Slanderous or libelous statements. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  73. 73. Noncompete Agreements A restrictive covenant designed to protect a business’ interests. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  74. 74. Workforce Behavior Problems www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  75. 75. Workforce Behavior Problems The nature and cause of each wrongdoing should precede any disciplinary action. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  76. 76. Discussion Question: What are the advantages and disadvantages of developing a detailed list of rules regarding employee misconduct? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  77. 77. Absenteeism & Turnover How is absenteeism measured? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  78. 78. Discussion Question: When measuring absenteeism and turnover, why is it useful to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary causes? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  79. 79. Drug & Alcohol Use Some of the most serious personal problems for employees involve alcoholism and drug abuse. How should employers deal with these problems? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  80. 80. Sexual Harassment What factors should be included in an employer’s sexual harassment policy? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  81. 81. Organizational Exit www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  82. 82. Terminations  Involuntary terminations typically occur as a result of employment problems.  Employers must ensure that all involuntary terminations occur for job-related reasons. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  83. 83. Termination Interviews   www.hrcp.com Employers should reduce the trauma of terminations. Being fired is one of the most traumatic and stressful experiences of life. Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  84. 84. Layoffs  Layoffs occur when employers need to eliminate positions in order to maintain profitability  Layoffs decisions typically based on seniority, performance, or skill needs. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  85. 85. Downsizing What is HR’s responsibilities during layoffs? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  86. 86. Workers Adjustment & Retraining Notification Act What are the provisions of the Workers Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) 1988? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  87. 87. Public Sector Labor Relations www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  88. 88. Civil Service Reform Act Provide federal employees with many of the same collective bargaining protections www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  89. 89. Federal Labor Relations Council What is the role of the Federal Labor Relations Council? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  90. 90. Discussion Question: Should public employees be allowed to strike? How should labor disputes in the public sector be resolved? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  91. 91. Employee Involvement Strategies www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  92. 92. Employee Involvement Strategies Provides opportunities for employees to participate in the organization as managers or owners. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  93. 93. Self-directed Work Teams www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  94. 94. Quality Circles What are quality circles and what are the three major benefits of using them? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  95. 95. Job Characteristics Model Job enrichment consists of modifying the job to increase what variables? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  96. 96. Employee Ownership Employee ownership today takes two major forms. 1. Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) 2. Employee Stock Ownership Trust (ESOT) How do ESOPs and ESOTs function? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  97. 97. Participative Management Allows employees to be more involved. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  98. 98. Alternative Work Schedule  Flextime  Compressed work weeks  Regular part-time  Job sharing  Phased retirement  Home-based work or telecommuting What are the pros and cons of each alternative work schedule? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  99. 99. Discussion Question: Which jobs are particularly well suited for flex-time, permanent part-time, job sharing, compressed workweek, and telecommuting? What are some jobs that are poorly suited to each of these alternative patterns of work? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  100. 100. Employee Attitudes and Satisfaction www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  101. 101. Job Satisfaction Theory What four theories have been used to explain whether individuals will feel satisfied or dissatisfied in a particular situation? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  102. 102. Discussion Question: Where would you expect to find a positive relationship between satisfaction and productivity? Where would you expect to find a negative relationship? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  103. 103. Measuring Job Satisfaction The best ways to measure satisfaction are either to interview employees or ask them to complete a questionnaire. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  104. 104. Semantic Differential Scales Extremely Quite Slightly Neutral Slightly Quite Extremely Me at Work—How I Feel Most of the Time Appreciated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unappreciated Efficient 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Inefficient Penalized 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rewarded Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dissatisfied Unproductive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Productive Encouraged 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Discouraged Ineffective 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Effective Valuable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Worthless www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  105. 105. Likert Scales Likert Scales Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1. Considering everything about the company, I am very well satisfied with it. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Top management is not very interested in the feelings of employees. 1 2 3 4 5 3. This company is a better place to work than most other companies 1 2 3 4 5 4. My job is a real drag; I hate coming to work. 1 2 3 4 5 www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  106. 106. Feedback Most effective way to use job-attitude information is to provide a summary report back to members of the organization so they may analyze, interpret, and use it for designing corrective actions. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  107. 107. Intervention What determines the success of a survey feedback intervention? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  108. 108. Employee Engagement Employees’ commitment to their job. www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  109. 109. International Labor Relations www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  110. 110. Discussion Question: What is the significance of the North American Free Trade Agreement’s side agreement regarding labor? How much clout does this side agreement really hold relative to U.S. labor laws? www.hrcp.com Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.
  111. 111. European Union  The charter of the European Union guarantees many of the same rights to workers as NAFTA, but with several additions.  What www.hrcp.com are these additions? Copyright © 2012 by HRCP, L.C.

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