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Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists

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Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists

  1. 1. BioHEL System Our approach Results Summary Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists María A. Franco Supervisor: Jaume Bacardit University of Nottingham, UK, ICOS Research Group, School of Computer Science mxf@cs.nott.ac.uk June 12, 2012María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 1 / 29
  2. 2. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of my PhD project To enhance evolutionary learning systems based on IRL (BioHEL) to work better with large scale datasets. How have we been doing this? Analysing the weaknesses of the system in different domains [Franco et al., 2012a] Improving the execution time by means of GPGPUs [Franco et al., 2010] Developing theoretical models that allow us to adapt parameters within the system [Franco et al., 2011] Improving the quality of the final solutions by means of local search (memetic operators) [Franco et al., 2012b] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 2 / 29
  3. 3. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of my PhD project To enhance evolutionary learning systems based on IRL (BioHEL) to work better with large scale datasets. How have we been doing this? Analysing the weaknesses of the system in different domains [Franco et al., 2012a] Improving the execution time by means of GPGPUs [Franco et al., 2010] Developing theoretical models that allow us to adapt parameters within the system [Franco et al., 2011] Improving the quality of the final solutions by means of local search (memetic operators) [Franco et al., 2012b] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 2 / 29
  4. 4. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of my PhD project To enhance evolutionary learning systems based on IRL (BioHEL) to work better with large scale datasets. How have we been doing this? Analysing the weaknesses of the system in different domains [Franco et al., 2012a] Improving the execution time by means of GPGPUs [Franco et al., 2010] Developing theoretical models that allow us to adapt parameters within the system [Franco et al., 2011] Improving the quality of the final solutions by means of local search (memetic operators) [Franco et al., 2012b] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 2 / 29
  5. 5. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of my PhD project To enhance evolutionary learning systems based on IRL (BioHEL) to work better with large scale datasets. How have we been doing this? Analysing the weaknesses of the system in different domains [Franco et al., 2012a] Improving the execution time by means of GPGPUs [Franco et al., 2010] Developing theoretical models that allow us to adapt parameters within the system [Franco et al., 2011] Improving the quality of the final solutions by means of local search (memetic operators) [Franco et al., 2012b] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 2 / 29
  6. 6. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of my PhD project To enhance evolutionary learning systems based on IRL (BioHEL) to work better with large scale datasets. How have we been doing this? Analysing the weaknesses of the system in different domains [Franco et al., 2012a] Improving the execution time by means of GPGPUs [Franco et al., 2010] Developing theoretical models that allow us to adapt parameters within the system [Franco et al., 2011] Improving the quality of the final solutions by means of local search (memetic operators) [Franco et al., 2012b] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 2 / 29
  7. 7. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of this work To improve the quality of the decision lists by means of local search (memetic operators) Decision lists are a widespread paradigm in rule learning, guided local search and supervised learning. Example Pittsburgh Learning Classifier Systems Rule induction systems in mainstream machine learning (PART, CN2, JRip) María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 3 / 29
  8. 8. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryMotivation Goal of this work To improve the quality of the decision lists by means of local search (memetic operators) Decision lists are a widespread paradigm in rule learning, guided local search and supervised learning. Example Pittsburgh Learning Classifier Systems Rule induction systems in mainstream machine learning (PART, CN2, JRip) María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 3 / 29
  9. 9. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryOutline 1 BioHEL Attribute List Knowledge Representation Structure of the solutions What is the problem? 2 Our approach: Post-processing the rules Swapping Pruning Cleaning 3 Results 4 Summary Where to go from here? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 4 / 29
  10. 10. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Introduction to the BioHEL System BIOinformatics-oriented Hierarchical Evolutionary Learning - BioHEL [Bacardit et al., 2009] BioHEL is an evolutionary learning system that employs the Iterative Rule Learning (IRL) paradigm BioHEL was especially designed to cope with large scale datasets María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 5 / 29
  11. 11. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Attribute List Knowledge Representation Meta-representation to handle large amount of discrete and continuous attributes fast [Bacardit and Krasnogor, 2009]. ALKR Classifier Example numAtt 3 whichAtt 0 predicates 0.5 0.7 0.3 offsetPred 0 class 1 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 6 / 29
  12. 12. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Attribute List Knowledge Representation Discrete attributes GABIL representation F1 F2 F3 100 01 1101 ABC DE FGHI F 1 = A ∧ F 2 = E ∧ F 3 = (F ∨ G ∨ I) Continuous attributes Hyper-rectangle representation C1 = [0.1, 0.3] ∧ C2 = [0.7, 0.9] María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 7 / 29
  13. 13. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  14. 14. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  15. 15. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  16. 16. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  17. 17. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  18. 18. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  19. 19. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  20. 20. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  21. 21. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  22. 22. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  23. 23. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?Solutions generated by the BioHEL system Since BioHEL uses IRL [Venturini, 1993] the solutions are hierarchical sets of rules ⇒ decision lists María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 8 / 29
  24. 24. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?How can the rules be improved further? We encountered the following problems: The rules were learned in the wrong order Larger rulesets! Example María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 9 / 29
  25. 25. BioHEL System BioHEL System Our approach Attribute List Knowledge Representation Results Structure of the solutions Summary What is the problem?How can the rules be improved further? We encountered the following problems: The rules did not have the correct specificity The number of attributes expressed was rather high! Example Problem: x1 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 Good x1 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 000 = 0 100 = 1 Over-specific 001 = 0 101 = 0 x1 = 1 ∧ x2 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 010 = 0 110 = 1 x1 = 1 ∧ x2 = 0 ∧ x3 = 0 011 = 0 111 = 0 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 10 / 29
  26. 26. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning Cleaning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 11 / 29
  27. 27. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning Cleaning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 11 / 29
  28. 28. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryRule Swapping Consist is swapping the order of the rules in the final rulesets. Which rules shall we swap? ⇒ Similarities Measure of similarity Dis Real Dis k Sk (i, j) Real Mi S(i, j) = Dis + Sk (i, j) + NA k numVals(k ) NA NA k Measures the overlapping between rules María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 12 / 29
  29. 29. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  30. 30. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  31. 31. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  32. 32. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  33. 33. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  34. 34. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  35. 35. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  36. 36. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  37. 37. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  38. 38. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 13 / 29
  39. 39. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? Helps erase unnecessary rules It does not ensure the final rule set is minimal It has to reevaluate the rules in the new order in each iteration María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 14 / 29
  40. 40. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? Helps erase unnecessary rules It does not ensure the final rule set is minimal It has to reevaluate the rules in the new order in each iteration María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 14 / 29
  41. 41. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? Helps erase unnecessary rules It does not ensure the final rule set is minimal It has to reevaluate the rules in the new order in each iteration María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 14 / 29
  42. 42. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 15 / 29
  43. 43. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 15 / 29
  44. 44. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryRule pruning Drops attributes that do not affect the accuracy of the rules. Example Problem: x1 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 Good x1 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 000 = 0 100 = 1 Over-specific 001 = 0 101 = 0 x1 = 1 ∧ x2 = 1 ∧ x3 = 0 010 = 0 110 = 1 x1 = 1 ∧ x2 = 0 ∧ x3 = 0 011 = 0 111 = 0 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 16 / 29
  45. 45. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning ⇒ Wait! This does not work if the other attributes are not correctly specified! Cleaning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 17 / 29
  46. 46. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning ⇒ Wait! This does not work if the other attributes are not correctly specified! Cleaning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 17 / 29
  47. 47. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryOur approach: Post-processing the rules Ruleset-wise operators Rule swapping Rule-wise operators Pruning ⇒ Wait! This does not work if the other attributes are not correctly specified! Cleaning María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 17 / 29
  48. 48. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryRule cleaning In the χary domain is not always possible to drop attributes if the correct attributes are misaligned Example Problem: x1 nominal {a,b,c,d,e} Rule 1: x2 nominal {w,y,z} x1 = (a ∨ b) ∧ x2 = w x3 nominal {m,n} Generated Rule: x1 = (a ∨ b ∨ c) ∧ x2 = w ∧ x3 = m We need to deactivate literals in the attributes María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 18 / 29
  49. 49. BioHEL System Swapping Our approach Pruning Results Cleaning SummaryHow does it works? Cleaning approaches: CL - Focus on the positives CL2 - Do not infer Continuous (- - - - ( (+ - + + + + - + -+) ) - - -) OLD CL2 CL CL CL2 OLD Discrete 111011 Values covered by possitive examples: a,b,c OLD Values covered by negative examples: c,e abcdef 111000 111001 CL CL2 abcdef abcdef María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 19 / 29
  50. 50. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryExperimental design We analysed the operators over final rulesets generated with 35 real world problems 3 stages of experiments Independent operators Combinations between CL and PR Combinations with the SW operator Questions Where are the most significant improvements? Are the results significant? What about the computational time? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 20 / 29
  51. 51. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryExperimental design We analysed the operators over final rulesets generated with 35 real world problems 3 stages of experiments Independent operators Combinations between CL and PR Combinations with the SW operator Questions Where are the most significant improvements? Are the results significant? What about the computational time? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 20 / 29
  52. 52. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryResults of the operators independently Atts 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 Rules 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 Algorithm % of variation Test_acc CL 2 CL2 1 PR 0 SW −1 −2 −3 Test_ensemble 2 0 −2 −4 Ad C− CN CN KD in Pa up SS X ba bp bre cm co cr− gls h− h− h− he ion irs lab lym pe pim pr t sa so thy vo wa wb wd win wp zo t o l t n l a p n c1 h s rM ult v cd bc bc 4 1 c DC a −b e María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 21 / 29
  53. 53. 22 / 29 PR−CL2−PR PR−CL−PR CL2−PR PR−CL2 CL−PR PR−CL Algorithm Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists Atts Test_acc Test_ensemble o zo bc wp e winbc wdcd wbv wa t vo thy n so t sa pr t pim n pe lym lab irs ionp CL2 hes h−h h−c1 h− gls a cr− l co c cm bre a bpl ba 1 SSrMX p Pa DCu KD −bin CN CN4 Results of combining CL and PR C−ult AdBioHEL System Our approach Results Summary María A. Franco. University of Nottingham o zo bc wp e winbc wdcd wbv wa t vo thy n so t sa pr t pim n pe lym lab irs ionp CL hes h−h h−c1 h− gls a cr− l co c cm bre a bpl ba 1 SSrMX p Pa DCu KD −bin CN CN4 C−ult Ad 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 4 2 0 −2 −4 % of variation
  54. 54. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryResults of combining CL, PR and SW Atts 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 Rules 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 −25 −30 Algorithm % of variation Test_acc CL−SW 2 CL2−SW 1 PR−SW 0 PR−CL2−PR−SW −1 −2 −3 Test_ensemble 4 2 0 −2 −4 Ad C− CN CN KD bin Pa Cup SS X ba bp bre cm co cr− gls h− h− h− he ion irs lab lym pe pim pr t sa so thy vo wa wb wd win wp zo t o l t n l a p n c1 h s rM ult v cd bc bc 4 1 c D a − e María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 23 / 29
  55. 55. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryAre the results significant? Table: Rankings of the Friedman statistical tests. indicates that the algorithm is significantly better (Holm test with 99% confidence). Test Test # Rules # Atts acc ensem P-Values 0.708 0.962 8.9e-09 2.2e-16 Base 7.80 7.07 3.73 10.84 CL 7.73 7.86 – 10.84 CL2 7.64 7.84 – 10.84 PR 7.57 7.21 – 5.53 SW 7.51 6.60 2.59 11.30 CL-PR 6.37 7.29 – 3.97 PR -CL 6.67 7.31 – 5.53 PR-CL-PR 5.87 6.79 – 1.51 CL2-PR 6.59 6.79 – 5.81 PR -CL2 6.89 7.16 – 5.71 PR-CL2-PR 6.36 6.91 – 2.29 CL-SW 7.14 6.51 2.07 11.23 CL2-SW 7.46 6.83 2.40 11.17 PR-SW 6.94 6.29 2.14 5.94 PR-CL2-PR-SW 6.46 6.54 2.07 2.47 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 24 / 29
  56. 56. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryAre the results significant? Table: Rankings of the Friedman statistical tests. indicates that the algorithm is significantly better (Holm test with 99% confidence). Test Test # Rules # Atts acc ensem P-Values 0.708 0.962 8.9e-09 2.2e-16 Base 7.80 7.07 3.73 10.84 CL 7.73 7.86 – 10.84 CL2 7.64 7.84 – 10.84 PR 7.57 7.21 – 5.53 SW 7.51 6.60 2.59 11.30 CL-PR 6.37 7.29 – 3.97 PR -CL 6.67 7.31 – 5.53 PR-CL-PR 5.87 6.79 – 1.51 CL2-PR 6.59 6.79 – 5.81 PR -CL2 6.89 7.16 – 5.71 PR-CL2-PR 6.36 6.91 – 2.29 CL-SW 7.14 6.51 2.07 11.23 CL2-SW 7.46 6.83 2.40 11.17 PR-SW 6.94 6.29 2.14 5.94 PR-CL2-PR-SW 6.46 6.54 2.07 2.47 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 24 / 29
  57. 57. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryAre the results significant? Table: Rankings of the Friedman statistical tests. indicates that the algorithm is significantly better (Holm test with 99% confidence). Test Test # Rules # Atts acc ensem P-Values 0.708 0.962 8.9e-09 2.2e-16 Base 7.80 7.07 3.73 10.84 CL 7.73 7.86 – 10.84 CL2 7.64 7.84 – 10.84 PR 7.57 7.21 – 5.53 SW 7.51 6.60 2.59 11.30 CL-PR 6.37 7.29 – 3.97 PR -CL 6.67 7.31 – 5.53 PR-CL-PR 5.87 6.79 – 1.51 CL2-PR 6.59 6.79 – 5.81 PR -CL2 6.89 7.16 – 5.71 PR-CL2-PR 6.36 6.91 – 2.29 CL-SW 7.14 6.51 2.07 11.23 CL2-SW 7.46 6.83 2.40 11.17 PR-SW 6.94 6.29 2.14 5.94 PR-CL2-PR-SW 6.46 6.54 2.07 2.47 María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 24 / 29
  58. 58. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryHow long does the post-processing takes? Table: Execution time of the application of each one of the different operators independently Prob Ins Rules Atts CL2 (s) PR (s) SW (s) CN-bin 493788 38.20 ± 1.85 7.12±0.73 17.44±0.76 20.52±0.82 157.51±76.42 Adult 43960 194.24 ± 10.26 10.18±2.80 49.87±3.85 69.60±10.22 5855.04±874.14 CN 234638 253.34 ± 12.48 10.09±2.78 314.02±26.01 631.68±70.09 43097.44±5429.48 KDD 444619 188.84 ± 13.52 4.25±2.99 213.95±18.25 375.85±59.00 23791.21±5041.45 C-4 60803 316.14 ± 19.10 9.96±3.23 96.49±8.33 192.21±24.76 18763.03±2614.41 ParMX 235929 394.34 ± 19.39 9.00±0.01 405.77±37.05 619.20±82.02 106343.70±13094.78 SS1 75583 773.26 ± 30.42 11.49±3.40 293.70±23.26 649.51±85.94 133415.03±19160.27 Swapping is very slow... It depends on the number of instances and number of rules generated. María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 25 / 29
  59. 59. BioHEL System Our approach Results SummaryHow long does the post-processing takes? Table: Execution time of the application of each one of the different operators independently Prob Ins Rules Atts CL2 (s) PR (s) SW (s) CN-bin 493788 38.20 ± 1.85 7.12±0.73 17.44±0.76 20.52±0.82 157.51±76.42 Adult 43960 194.24 ± 10.26 10.18±2.80 49.87±3.85 69.60±10.22 5855.04±874.14 CN 234638 253.34 ± 12.48 10.09±2.78 314.02±26.01 631.68±70.09 43097.44±5429.48 KDD 444619 188.84 ± 13.52 4.25±2.99 213.95±18.25 375.85±59.00 23791.21±5041.45 C-4 60803 316.14 ± 19.10 9.96±3.23 96.49±8.33 192.21±24.76 18763.03±2614.41 ParMX 235929 394.34 ± 19.39 9.00±0.01 405.77±37.05 619.20±82.02 106343.70±13094.78 SS1 75583 773.26 ± 30.42 11.49±3.40 293.70±23.26 649.51±85.94 133415.03±19160.27 Swapping is very slow... It depends on the number of instances and number of rules generated. María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 25 / 29
  60. 60. BioHEL System Our approach Where to go from here? Results SummarySummary and next steps Summary The operators manage to reduce the number of rules and expressed attributes in 30% in some cases. Next steps Apply the CL and PR operators during the learning process Investigate other measures of similarities among rules Apply these operators over other systems Different representations CUDA accelerated operators? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 26 / 29
  61. 61. BioHEL System Our approach Where to go from here? Results SummarySummary and next steps Summary The operators manage to reduce the number of rules and expressed attributes in 30% in some cases. Next steps Apply the CL and PR operators during the learning process Investigate other measures of similarities among rules Apply these operators over other systems Different representations CUDA accelerated operators? María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 26 / 29
  62. 62. BioHEL System Our approach Where to go from here? Results SummaryReferences I Bacardit, J., Burke, E., and Krasnogor, N. (2009). Improving the scalability of rule-based evolutionary learning. Memetic Computing, 1(1):55–67. Bacardit, J. and Krasnogor, N. (2009). A mixed discrete-continuous attribute list representation for large scale classification domains. In GECCO ’09: Proceedings of the 11th Annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation, pages 1155–1162, New York, NY, USA. ACM Press. Franco, M., Krasnogor, N., and Bacardit, J. (2012a). Analysing biohel using challenging boolean functions. Evolutionary Intelligence, 5:87–102. 10.1007/s12065-012-0080-9. Franco, M. A., Krasnogor, N., and Bacardit, J. (2010). Speeding up the evaluation of evolutionary learning systems using GPGPUs. In GECCO ’10: Proceedings of the 12th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation, pages 1039–1046, New York, NY, USA. ACM. Franco, M. A., Krasnogor, N., and Bacardit, J. (2011). Modelling the initialisation stage of the alkr representation for discrete domains and gabil encoding. In Proceedings of the 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation, GECCO ’11, pages 1291–1298, New York, NY, USA. ACM. María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 27 / 29
  63. 63. BioHEL System Our approach Where to go from here? Results SummaryReferences II Franco, M. A., Krasnogor, N., and Bacardit, J. (2012b). Postprocessing operators for decision lists. In GECCO ’12: Proceedings of the 14th annual conference comp on Genetic and evolutionary computation, page to appear, New York, NY, USA. ACM Press. Venturini, G. (1993). SIA: a supervised inductive algorithm with genetic search for learning attributes based concepts. In Brazdil, P. B., editor, Machine Learning: ECML-93 - Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning, pages 280–296. Springer-Verlag. María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 28 / 29
  64. 64. BioHEL System Our approach Where to go from here? Results Summary Questions or comments?María A. Franco. University of Nottingham Post-processing Operators for Decision Lists 29 / 29

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