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Literary criticism


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Literary criticism

  1. 1. LITERARY CRITICISM AND ANALYSIS OF POEMRichards Principles of literary Criticism
  2. 2. Literary criticism Criticism, as its etymology indicates, isthe act of judging. Literary criticism endeavors to form a correctestimate of literary productions. Its endeavor is to see a piece of writing as it is. It brings literary productions into comparison with recognized principles and ideal standards; it investigates them in their matter, form, and spirit; and, as a result of this process, it determines their merits and their defects.
  3. 3. Literary CriticismCarroll a critic said that serious critics see the task of criticism as primarily interpretive, notevaluative. The literary critic gives a work context,illustrates its main themes and motifs, commentson its use of language, and perhaps situates it ina tradition. But a literary critic should be reluctant to praise or condemn, or otherwise judge the worth, of the literary works she discusses. Much of the , is not focused on the question of whatmakes particular works good or bad, but on what such works can show us about the societies in which they are created and consumed.
  4. 4. Poetry We may approximately define poetry as the metricalexpression of lofty or beautiful thought, feeling, or action, in maginative and artistic form.It is the metrical expression of an exaltation ofsoul, which sometimes suffuses the objects of nature and the scenes of human life with a beauty and glory of its own,-- "The light that never was on sea or land, The consecration and the poets dream."
  5. 5. Analysis Of PoemPoem can be analyzed generally by the terms Of: Content / Context ●Form / style ●Imagery / Voice ●Tone / Mood ●Structure ●Figures of speech ●Rhythm and rhyme ●And other stylistics features (Deviation, parallelism)
  6. 6. Literary analysis of poem What is the genre, or form, of the poem? Who is speaking in the poem? What is the structure of the poem? ow does the poem use imagery?How does the sound of the poetry contribute to its meaning? Examine the use of language. What qualities does the poem evoke in the reader?
  7. 7. Analysis of PoemAnalysis of the a poem,can be easilyunderstand by adiagram, or hieroglyph. POEM
  8. 8. Rhythm Rhythm is the ordered application of stress from onesyllable to the next. Rhythm can help to convey specific meanings. For example, the speed of the rhythm can help the reader understand the poem. If the rhythm is fast, the poem indicates action or excitement. If the rhythm is slow, the poem indicates peacefulness, or harmony. A NIGHT or TWO aGO, And NOW she TURNS her PERfect FACE UPON the WORLD beLOW.
  9. 9. RhymeMany poems have a repeated sound. This sound helps to connect the poem together and gives pleasure to the listener. The first sound pattern that is most common is rhyme. It is the use of repetition of sound Not a single sound is stirring, All is silent, all is still
  10. 10. Form /visual sensations These are individual shapes of the letters, their size and spacing and the form in which poetry iswritten one line, couplet or triplet. All graphologicalfeatures are included in it. Form can be lyrical, or free verse. "Those Evening Bells," And so twill be when I am gone; That tuneful peal will still ring on, While other bards shall walk these dells, And sing your praise, sweet evening bells (quatrian four lines, lyrical)
  11. 11. ImageryImagery is very closely related with sensations. Itmay be auditory, visual olfactory (anything which appeals to our five senses) for example William Wordsworths poem They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils.
  12. 12. Imagery Tied Images:visual sensations of words do not commonly occur by themselves. They have certain regular companions so closely tied to them as to be only with difficulty disconnected. The chief of these are the auditory image the sound of the words in the mind’s ear and the image of articulation the feel in the lips, mouth, and throat, of what the wordswould be like to speak. Auditory images of words are among the most obvious of mental happenings. Any line of verse or prose slowly read, will, for most people, sound mutely in the imagination somewhat as it would if read aloud.
  13. 13. Imagery "Imagery" refers to any sort of image, and there are two basic kinds. One is the images of thephysical setting, described above. The other kind is images as figures of speech, such as metaphors. These figures of speech extend the imaginative range, the complexity andcomprehensibility of the subject. They can be very brief, a word or two, a glistening fragment ofinsight, a chance connection sparked into a blaze(warming or destroying) of understanding; or they can be extended analogies, such as Donnes conceitsor Miltons epic similes.
  14. 14. Reflective (Mood, Tone) ’ There glowing ghosts of flowers ’. Who’s in the next room?―who? I seemed to see Draw down, draw nigh;Somebody in the dawning passing through And wings of swift spent hours Unknown to me.’ Take flight and fly;‘Nay: you saw nought. He passed invisibly’. She sees by formless gleams She hears across cold streams Dead mouths of many dreams that sing and sigh.
  15. 15. Structure of Poem There are two basic kinds of structure, formal and thematic. Formal structure is the way the poem goes together in terms of its component parts:stanzas, paragraphs or relation between the parts.Thematic structure, known in respect to fiction as plot, is the way the argument or presentation of the material ofthe poem is developed. For instance a poem might statea problem in eight lines, an answer to the problem in thenext six; of the eight lines stating the problem, four mightprovide a concrete example, four a reflection on what the example implies.
  16. 16. Emotions and AttitudesIt refers to anything in the way things described in the poem. Emotions are the signs of attitudes. It deals with the poets feelings, experience with things and behaviour. A Question - a poem by Robert Frost A voice said, Look me in the stars And tell me truly, men of earth, If all the soul-and-body scars Were not too much to pay for birth.
  17. 17. Conclusion Literary criticism is the study, evaluation and interpretation of data. Poetry is also a genre ofLiterature. So L.C opens a new way to interpretpoetry which we seen through analysis of poem. …........THANKS.........