+
THE ILLUSORY
SPACE
FROM PERSPECTIVE TO
ANAMORPHOSIS
+
FIRST PART:
THE ILLUSORY SPACE:
OVERVIEW AND OUTLINE OF
PERSPECTIVE REPRESENTATION
+ PERSPECTIVE AND REPRESENTATION
IN GREEK AND ROMAN CULTURE
Then the curvatures of the
vision, ignored in planar
perspecti...
+
 Vitruvius uses the word Scaenographia to remember the existence of a kind of
representation that is different from Ich...
+ PERSPECTIVE
PROGRESS IN THE
MIDDLE AGES
Giotto di Bondone,
was an Italian
painter and
architect.
 At the end of thirtee...
+
 The orthogonal lines
converge towards a vanishing
axis
PERSPECTIVE PROGRESS IN THE MIDDLE AGES
+
 Notice the convergence in a
precise vanishing point of
lines and planes located
above the eye level
PERSPECTIVE PROGRE...
+ THE RENAISSANCE: ART AND SCIENCE
FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI AND ENCODING OF
PERSPECTIVE
 The first experiments from which the...
+FROM PERSPECTIVE
TO OPTICAL CAMERA:
THE “BRUNELLESCHIAN
PLANKS”
Operating assumptions of the first plank:
it represented ...
+ FROM PERSPECTIVE TO OPTICAL CAMERA:THE
“BRUNELLESCHIAN PLANKS”
visual effect of the first plank -
Graphic reconstruction...
+ PERSPECTIVE OF THE
FIFTEENTH CENTURY – THE
DISCIPLES OF NATURE
Masaccio - Trinity
in Santa Maria
Novella, Florence
1427....
+THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427
The work represents
the Trinitarian
dogma, set in an
illusionary painted...
+THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427
The Trinity marks a
turning point in
history of
representation:
the pain...
+THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427
Graphical depiction of
the fake architectural
space painted in the
Trini...
+ ALBRECHT DÜRER -
TOOLS TO DRAW IN
PERSPECTIVE
Albrecht Dürer
was a German
painter, engraver,
mathematician,
and theorist...
+ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN
PERSPECTIVE
A.Durer, illustration from Underweysung der Messung, Nuremberg 1525, depict...
+ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN
PERSPECTIVE
A.Durer, illustration from Underweysung der Messung,
Nuremberg 1525, depict...
+ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN
PERSPECTIVE
Albrecht Dürer; two engravings of tools for drawing in perspective intended...
+ LEONARDO DA
VINCI -
PERSPECTIVA
NATURALIS AND
PERSPECTIVA
ARTIFICIALIS
Portrait of a man in
red chalk (circa
1510),Royal...
+LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS
AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS
Leonardo Da Vinci
(attributed) A
prospective study...
+LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS
AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS
Leonardo - example of
the three circles:
sections ...
+LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS
AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS
Leonardo da Vinci Codex Atlanticus (1483-1518), an...
+
SECOND PART:
THE ILLUSORY SPACE:
TWO EXAMPLES OF
ANAMORPHOSIS
+ PERSPECTIVE
HALLWAY AT THE
PROFESSED HOUSE
OF JESUS
THE PROFESSED
HOUSE OF JESUS -
ARCHITECTURE
 The Professed House, w...
+
the professed house today
 Before Acquaviva started the building, it was
decided to save the rooms where brother Ignazi...
+PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY AT THE PROFESSED
HOUSE OF JESUS
ANDREA
POZZO -
ARTISTIC
LANGUAGE
Andrea Pozzo, self-portrait.
The pai...
+
Andrea Pozzo, fake dome
of the Mission Church in
Mondovi
ANDREA POZZO - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE
 Andrea Pozzo was born in
Tre...
+
PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY
AT THE PROFESSED
HOUSE OF JESUS
PICTORIAL AND
ARCHITECTURAL
WORKS IN THE
PERSPECTIVE
HALLWAY
 The s...
+
PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY
AT THE PROFESSED
HOUSE OF JESUS
PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND
METHODOLOGY
OF
INVESTIGATION
 AN ANAMORP...
+THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF
INVESTIGATION
architecture
design through
perspe...
+THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF
INVESTIGATION
A.Pozzo,
exemplification of the
pr...
+THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF
INVESTIGATION
operations as described by Pozzo i...
+ PERSPECTIVE
GALLERY IN
PALAZZO SPADA
CAPODIFERRO
PALAZZO SPADA
CAPODIFERRO
AND THE SPADA
CARDINAL –
ARCHITECTURE
 Cardi...
+PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA
CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE
 The fact that led Bernardino Spada to
change his mind o...
+PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA
CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE
 All this in a few months, in order to conclude an agree...
+PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA
CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE
 The detailed design of the prospective gallery made it ...
+PERSPECTIVE GALLERY IN PALAZZO SPADA
CAPODIFERRO
FRANCESCO
BORROMINI :
ARTISTIC
LANGUAGE
Francesco Borromini, self-portra...
+
San Carlo alle 4 Fontane
FRANCESCO BORROMINI - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE
The characteristics of his technique are:
 the attenti...
+
Sant’Ivo alla Sapienza
FRANCESCO BORROMINI - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE
 Bruno Zevi wrote: “The case Borromini is specific and u...
+PERSPECTIVE GALLERY
IN PALAZZO SPADA
CAPODIFERRO
PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND
METHODOLOGY
OF INVESTIGATION
F. Borromini, Fa...
+
When the viewer reaches the statue on the bottom
he is surprised to discover it is only 80 cm high. After the immediate...
+
F. Borromini, Fake perspective of
the Gallery of Palazzo Spada in
Rome, 1652-53.
Virtual model realized in CAAD.
PALAZZO...
+PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO - PERSPECTIVE
OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF
INVESTIGATION
Who walked at that
time through the
g...
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Study visit clil architecture english- via di ripetta -Roma

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Experimentation CLIL Architecture-English during the Study Visit-LLP hosted by LAS Via di Ripetta 11-15 March 2013

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Study visit clil architecture english- via di ripetta -Roma

  1. 1. + THE ILLUSORY SPACE FROM PERSPECTIVE TO ANAMORPHOSIS
  2. 2. + FIRST PART: THE ILLUSORY SPACE: OVERVIEW AND OUTLINE OF PERSPECTIVE REPRESENTATION
  3. 3. + PERSPECTIVE AND REPRESENTATION IN GREEK AND ROMAN CULTURE Then the curvatures of the vision, ignored in planar perspective, were well known to the ancient world. Fragments of decorated walls (from Pompeii), I century. A.C. - National Museum of Naples - Reconstruction of the perspective paths Analysis of the eye bending applied to perspective The classical antiquity was used to seeing in perspective but not according to planar perspective.
  4. 4. +  Vitruvius uses the word Scaenographia to remember the existence of a kind of representation that is different from Ichnographia (the plan) and Ortographia (the elevation) specifying that it is the drawing : ...  “... of the front and sides foreshortened, with the convergence of all lines in the center of a circle ...“  Most of the Roman wall paintings show approximate perspective solutions. In fact, we have no certainty of a true prospective system. PERSPECTIVE AND REPRESENTATION IN GREEK AND ROMAN WORLD Graphic reconstruction of the perspective paths, tending to a vanishing area Wall of the "Room of the Masks", house of Augustan age on the Palatine Hill in Rome
  5. 5. + PERSPECTIVE PROGRESS IN THE MIDDLE AGES Giotto di Bondone, was an Italian painter and architect.  At the end of thirteenth and early fourteenth century, painting fetches a specific solidity of forms.  With Giotto the two- dimensional surface is transformed in illusory three- dimensional environment, in "spatial box” suitable to contain subjects that hold mass and volume. Giotto, Innocent III confirms the Franciscan rule (1299 - Upper Church of San Francesco, Assisi).
  6. 6. +  The orthogonal lines converge towards a vanishing axis PERSPECTIVE PROGRESS IN THE MIDDLE AGES
  7. 7. +  Notice the convergence in a precise vanishing point of lines and planes located above the eye level PERSPECTIVE PROGRESS IN THE MIDDLE AGES
  8. 8. + THE RENAISSANCE: ART AND SCIENCE FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI AND ENCODING OF PERSPECTIVE  The first experiments from which the rules were encoded are due to the Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi, who, came to the idea of getting the illusionist image of the real through the process of "Cutting off the visual pyramid“.  Filippo Brunelleschi, conveyed the principles of perspective to the artists of his circle and invented "the first rule of perspective“: the process whereby, it was possible to determine precisely the perspective image.  Thanks to this rule we can retrace his operative method, which determined the intersection of the visual rays proceeding from the plan and from the elevation.  To this method was then given the name of "legitimate construction”.  The visual pyramid was formed by the visual rays ranging from the eye of the observer at various points of the observed objects Filippo Brunelleschi – Legitimate Construction
  9. 9. +FROM PERSPECTIVE TO OPTICAL CAMERA: THE “BRUNELLESCHIAN PLANKS” Operating assumptions of the first plank: it represented the Baptistery of Florence seen from the door of S. Maria del Fiore. To focus the chosen point of view with that of the observer, a hole had been drilled in the plank. Looking through the hole, the viewer saw the painting reflected in a mirror placed in front of the painting.  Filippo Brunelleschi devised a perspective machine, that was lost, to give a demonstration of the procedure which portrayed the Baptistery of Florence.  The mechanism shows how to perform a perspective: the observer is located behind the painting and looks through a hole at the image reflected on a mirror placed at the right distance.
  10. 10. + FROM PERSPECTIVE TO OPTICAL CAMERA:THE “BRUNELLESCHIAN PLANKS” visual effect of the first plank - Graphic reconstruction of Brunelleschi's perspective plank with the Baptistery of San Giovanni (assuming Luigi Vagnetti) Reconstruction of the first plank of Brunelleschi, Florence, Institute and Museum of History of Science
  11. 11. + PERSPECTIVE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY – THE DISCIPLES OF NATURE Masaccio - Trinity in Santa Maria Novella, Florence 1427. Detail.  Masaccio was an Italian painter.  He was one of the performers of Renaissance in Florence, renewing the painting according to a new rigorous vision, revisited through the perspective construction of Brunelleschi.  Giorgio Vasari wrote that, besides other things, Masaccio should be remembered as the inventor of perspective  In a note Leonardo calls him and Giotto "disciples of Nature". The message is clear: the imitation of teachers leads to decay, while the study of nature is the very lifeblood of artistic creation. Between 1426 and 1428 Masaccio painted the fresco of the Trinity in Santa Maria Novella Detail of Resurrezione del figlio di Teofilo e san Pietro in cattedra , Brancacci Chapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence. Presumed self-portrait
  12. 12. +THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427 The work represents the Trinitarian dogma, set in an illusionary painted chapel, which stands the impressive barrel vault with coffers. The painting, not only reproduced the reality according to the visual appearance, but took the place of reality itself, replicating in real scale what the observer would see if in that place had been a real chapel. Masaccio's Trinity in Santa Maria Novella, Florence 1427 - detail of the barrel vault with lacunars, and of the coffin
  13. 13. +THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427 The Trinity marks a turning point in history of representation: the painting is based on the assumption that space is an infinite, continuous and homogeneous element, and we see things uniformly, with a single and immobile eye. The vanishing point of the whole representation is located on the feet of Christ, like the point of view. So as to make the viewer participant, attracted to the attention of the sacred scene. The fact remains that the joined visual and conceptual articulation remains the body of Christ. The guidelines of architecture necessarily head the viewer's eye on the figure of the crucified Christ, supported by God the Father and the dove of the Holy Spirit in flight between the two Graphical depiction of the rules of perspective used in the drawing of the Trinity.
  14. 14. +THE TRINITY - SANTA MARIA NOVELLA, FLORENCE 1427 Graphical depiction of the fake architectural space painted in the Trinity by Masaccio. The observer is located in the central nave, but he can also be in the secondary ones. It would be an understatement considering perspective as a simple collection of geometric rules. Renaissance perspective is one of those symbolic forms through which a particular idea of the reality of the world is connected to a particular visible sign
  15. 15. + ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, engraver, mathematician, and theorist. He was the greatest disseminator of perspective science In his Treaty on the Measures, Dürer illustrated the use of certain devices to draw perspectives mechanically. The various versions of his “hatch”, increasingly refined, are illustrated in his famous engravings, which represent four practical procedures for the construction of perspective images. A.Durer, illustrations from Underweysung der Messung (treaty of measures) , Nuremberg 1525, depicting the technique of the 'veil'. Let us consider one of these mechanical processes, such as the one that is composed of a transparent glass (the “veil”) placed vertically on a table and in front of which there is a viewfinder indicating the position of the eye. In this way, the sketcher did not have to do anything but follow, on the glass, with a pencil, the outline of the object to be reproduced.
  16. 16. +ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE A.Durer, illustration from Underweysung der Messung, Nuremberg 1525, depicting the technique of graticule Machines reproducing the technique of the graticule
  17. 17. +ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE A.Durer, illustration from Underweysung der Messung, Nuremberg 1525, depicting the technique of hatch Machine reproducing the technique of the hatch If we use the hatch in the wrong position, by placing the glass in an oblique position with respect to the main optical ray, we will obtain a deformed reproduction of the object itself: an anamorphosis
  18. 18. +ALBRECHT DÜRER - TOOLS TO DRAW IN PERSPECTIVE Albrecht Dürer; two engravings of tools for drawing in perspective intended to illustrate the "Treaty on the measures" 1525. Machine reproducing the technique of the pantograph
  19. 19. + LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS Portrait of a man in red chalk (circa 1510),Royal Library,Turin  Leonardo was the first to consider the use of a non-geometric perspective, made of color, light and shade, gradient and distances, expressed by decreasing of tones rather than of lines, an "aerial perspective" that responded perfectly to the peculiar characteristics of his paintings. Leonardo, The Cenacolo, ca. from 1495 to 1497. Tempera and oil on plaster, 460x880 cm, Milan, the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie
  20. 20. +LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS Leonardo Da Vinci (attributed) A prospective study for the background of the Adoration of the Magi, Florence, Uffizi Gallery, the Cabinet of Drawings and Prints  With the figure of Leonardo da Vinci (1482-1518) we definitely leave the field of assumptions and hypotheses to arrive at one of certainties, because both his notes and some of his drawings show the perfect acquisition of anamorphosis.  For Leonardo, perspective is divided into 'natural' and 'accidental'.  'Natural' perspective concerns the phenomenon of vision, that is optics, the 'perspectiva naturalis'.  'Accidental' perspective instead is the representation of the visible artifact, namely the 'perspectiva artificialis‘
  21. 21. +LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS Leonardo - example of the three circles: sections of three columns of equal measure,take very different sizes if drawn with the natural perspective (curved) rather than artificial  Leonardo's words are very clear and include an acute phenomenon of 'marginal aberrations' in the example known of the three circles  Often the notes of Leonardo were accompanied by drawings of his intuitions; in one of these a simple diagram shows how equal distances differentiate in perspective foreshortening if the position of the point of view is too close to the surface that receives the projection Leonardo,demonstration of perspective aberrations
  22. 22. +LEONARDO DA VINCI - PERSPECTIVA NATURALIS AND PERSPECTIVA ARTIFICIALIS Leonardo da Vinci Codex Atlanticus (1483-1518), anamorphic sketches  Finally, as a practical demonstration of theoretical speculation, there is still a piece of the Codex Atlanticus, 35 verso-a, in which there are two anamorphotic drawings of Leonardo, representing the head of a child and one eye
  23. 23. + SECOND PART: THE ILLUSORY SPACE: TWO EXAMPLES OF ANAMORPHOSIS
  24. 24. + PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY AT THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - ARCHITECTURE  The Professed House, wanted by Ignazio of Loyola, was originally made of an old house.  The Jesuits settled there in 1544.  Ignazio lived there occupying a small apartment, where he died in July 1556.  The Professed House, reduced in poor condition by the flood of 1598, was rebuilt thanks to the General Brother of the Society of Jesus, Claudio Acquaviva. Plan of Rome by G. Cartaro (left); and by Du Perac (right)
  25. 25. + the professed house today  Before Acquaviva started the building, it was decided to save the rooms where brother Ignazio lived.  That decision involved the construction of a complicated system of vaults under the existing rooms to support their weight, then the construction of the new building around them, and finally their union to the fabric of the new building.  The front side was completely rebuilt by Jacopo Barozzi from Vignola.  Of the old building only the apartment of S. Ignazio is preserved.  Few years later, the General Brother Gian Paolo Oliva decided to decorate the hallway running along the four rooms and commissioned the painter Jacques Courtois, called Borgognone. The premature death of the artist, left the work unfinished and so, brother Oliva called Andrea Pozzo, whose reputation of “perspective painter” began to expand among the Jesuits. THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - ARCHITECTURE
  26. 26. +PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY AT THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS ANDREA POZZO - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE Andrea Pozzo, self-portrait. The painting is a kind of autobiography of the author:  under the left hand the Treaties of Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Piero della Francesca;  beside these the compass and some architectural drawings;  Bottom left, a palette with brushes;  the position of the right hand pointing to an anamorphic perspective. The meaning is as follows:  Andrea Pozzo is a researcher of architectural theory;  is a professional architect;  is a recognized painter;  and has the ability to paint the anamorphosis.
  27. 27. + Andrea Pozzo, fake dome of the Mission Church in Mondovi ANDREA POZZO - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE  Andrea Pozzo was born in Trento in 1642. When he was twenty-three, he joined the Jesuit order but continued his work as a painter.  He was already famous when the Jesuit brothers of the college of Mondovi asked him to fix some problems in their church. Pozzo painted a fake dome and a series of architectural elements to complete the real architecture.  Among the Jesuits his work aroused great interest, so Andrea was called to Rome by brother Oliva to entrust the work left unfinished by Borgognone: the Hallway of the Professed House of Jesus.
  28. 28. + PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY AT THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS PICTORIAL AND ARCHITECTURAL WORKS IN THE PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY  The space where Andrea had to work is a barrel- vaulted corridor with a slanting bottom wall, so it has a very long trapezoidal plan: in fact, the left side is 15.60 m long and the right is 18 m.  The main customer's request was to decorate the environment in such a way that its irregularities proved less evident.  So he prepared a project to enrich the bare side walls, to break through the slanting wall and to deform the space upwards, so as to make the curvature of the vault indistinguishable. Entrance wall and ceiling of architecture designed by Pozzo
  29. 29. + PERSPECTIVE HALLWAY AT THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION  AN ANAMORPHIC VIRTUOSITY.  So far we have limited ourselves to a brief description of the work.  The whole perspective building must have a unique point of view, in perfect harmony with what Pozzo wrote a few years later in his famous treatise.  This also applies to the shapes of angels and cherubs, which are extended to appear perfect to the observer, located at the precise point chosen for the construction of the perspective. anamorphosis of angels and cherubs
  30. 30. +THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION architecture design through perspective - slanted wall
  31. 31. +THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION A.Pozzo, exemplification of the projection system of 'grate' on the vault, from Perspectiva Pictorum et Architectorum, 1693 In Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum he explains his method:  He tends a grid of strings across the opening of the barrel vault, and, working at night, he places a torch in the position of the observer’s eye, so that the shadow of the strings is projected on the barrel vault.  Then he tracks with charcoal the lines defined by the shadows, so as to have a grid in perspective which is adapted to the design previously prepared.
  32. 32. +THE PROFESSED HOUSE OF JESUS - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION operations as described by Pozzo in the treatise  This method is mostly valid in theory because in practical terms the operation is carried out using a wire which assumes the function of a single light beam of a hypothetical torch.  The result is amazing.
  33. 33. + PERSPECTIVE GALLERY IN PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE  Cardinal Bernardino Spada purchased Palazzo Capodiferro, which was restored and embellished by mandating Francesco Borromini also for some decorative work.  In 1636 the Cardinal got to incorporate in its properties the adjacent vicolo dell'Arcaccio, which was closed to transit by Capodiferro square, and used as a coach house to via Giulia. Plan of Rome by Du Perac
  34. 34. +PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE  The fact that led Bernardino Spada to change his mind on the appearance of his garden, leaving the painting, was the offering for sale in January-February 1652, of the remaining contiguous property Capodiferro.  He agreed with the future owner, giving up the jus praelationis, to acquire a piece of property, charging immediately Borromini to draw the desired project.
  35. 35. +PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE  All this in a few months, in order to conclude an agreement with the future owner Massari.
  36. 36. +PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO AND THE SPADA CARDINAL – ARCHITECTURE  The detailed design of the prospective gallery made it possible to identify with certainty the area and allowed the transaction with the Cardinal (November 27nth, 1652). Just a week later, on December 4th, he started work on the perspective colonnade.
  37. 37. +PERSPECTIVE GALLERY IN PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO FRANCESCO BORROMINI : ARTISTIC LANGUAGE Francesco Borromini, self-portrait. One of the most important and original Italian architects of the seventeenth century.  The buildings designed by Borromini transformed Rome into a Baroque city.  In its buildings the combination of full and empty masses gave rise to a dynamic movement and a theatricality unique in the Baroque style.  More than his contemporaries, he managed to create in his architecture an effect more fantastic than rational.  The first real architectural task was the design of the church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,  Soon after, he realized Saint Ivo alla Sapienza,  His last major projects were the College of Propaganda Fide and the Filippini’s Oratory.
  38. 38. + San Carlo alle 4 Fontane FRANCESCO BORROMINI - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE The characteristics of his technique are:  the attention to details,  the taste of small as opposed to big,  the use of common materials, such as plaster and brick,  the research and construction of spaces capable of expanding illusionistically,  the curved line,  the ability to lead and direct the light.
  39. 39. + Sant’Ivo alla Sapienza FRANCESCO BORROMINI - ARTISTIC LANGUAGE  Bruno Zevi wrote: “The case Borromini is specific and unique: it consists in the heroiceffort, almost superhuman, to make an architectural revolution in a social context closed and unavailable despite the new address of science”. in "Attualità di Borromini" (L'architettura cronache e storia 519, gennaio 1999)  The classical world is destroyed: a new language is born, in which each preceding element is desacralized;  It has been four centuries since his birth. Nowadays we can say that Borromini won.  The dream has now become reality: architecture emancipated from rules, precepts, universal laws, principles, harmonic and proportional taboo, geometric and stereometric constraints. Architecture is now democratic and popular, marked by the needs of individuals and groups.  This goal would be unthinkable without the revolutionary contribution of Borromini.
  40. 40. +PERSPECTIVE GALLERY IN PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION F. Borromini, Fake perspective of the Gallery of Palazzo Spada in Rome, 1652-53.
  41. 41. + When the viewer reaches the statue on the bottom he is surprised to discover it is only 80 cm high. After the immediate visual wonder, however, it remains a curiosity to understand.  How was the Gallery built ?  Which rules does it respond to?  How should it be walked down, to recreate the clear correspondence with a regular gallery?  And which regular gallery? PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION virtual model created in CAAD
  42. 42. + F. Borromini, Fake perspective of the Gallery of Palazzo Spada in Rome, 1652-53. Virtual model realized in CAAD. PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION  On the basis of an accurate survey and thorough analysis of the scope and measures of distances and squares of the original flooring we are led to the conclusion that a rule exists and is defined by a geometric series.
  43. 43. +PALAZZO SPADA CAPODIFERRO - PERSPECTIVE OPERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY OF INVESTIGATION Who walked at that time through the gallery, in fact, came to be in a sort of faux garden, which according to the customer, Cardinal Bernardino Spada, was meant to restore the image of an illusory world that showed the apparently great things so small when they are reached. For the deformation the two mechanisms outlined above, always apply combined together. Courtesy of Superintendence for the Historical, Artistic and Ethno- anthropological Heritage and Museums of the City of Rome

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