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November, 2013

Normative Theories
of the Media

Journalism in Democratic Societies
by Clifford G. Christians et al.

Medi...
AGENDA
1. The Collaborative Role
2. The Collaborative Role in a Democratic Context
3. Structures, Policies & Processes
4. ...
The Collaborative Role
Chapter 9
Introduction to Collaboration
One of the 4 roles the media might assume

Implies a	
  symbiotic
relationship
between
media...
Indicative Reasons
that dictate Collaboration
Developmental Journalism
Natural Disasters & Crisis Situations
National Safe...
Conditions for Collaboration
between the State & Media
Mutual Commitment to Serving Society

Definition of Arrangements & ...
Forms of Collaboration
Coercion – the media is compelled to cooperate

Collaboration
as Compliance

Apathy – the media acc...
The Collaborative Role
in a Democratic Context
Relating Chapter 9 to the substance of Chapter 5
Media in Democratic Societies
Democratic
Cannot be
considered
as a single
institution
The degree
to which they are
obliged...
The Collaborative Role
in Democratic Societies
l 

Collaboration is dictated by exceptional circumstances
è The trap of ...
The Collaborative Role
in Democratic Societies

l 

It collides with neo-liberal thinking

l 

It serves advocacy

l 

...
Collaboration &
the Dimension of Community

It promotes a
collective idea of:

Of great

It can

importance

marginalize

...
Collaboration &
the Dimension of Power

The fourth estate

Collaboration as
Compliance or
as Acquiescence

Collaboration a...
Collaboration &
Legitimation and Accountability
l 

Media Roles carry certain consequences

l 

Collaboration as Complia...
Structures, Policies & Processes
To fulfill the Collaborative Role
Collaboration as Compliance
Central Propaganda Department of the Government

Determines Standards
of News Content

Propaga...
Collaboration as Compliance

Vertically organized ”one level down” system
The Government
Central Organization Department

...
Collaboration as Acquiescence
The collaborative role of the media for the following reasons:

Political environment

Finan...
Collaboration as Acquiescence
The Government
Department of Media & Advertising

Official
requests
to illuminate
the differ...
Collaboration as Acceptance
The Ministry of
Communications

The Parliament
selects the
members of
Administrative
Council

...
Management Competencies
To fulfill the Collaborative Role
Management in a Collaborative
Media Context
Management approaches differ depending on:

Form of
collaboration →

Coercion
...
Areas of Competency to fulfill
the Collaborative Role
Relationship Building
& Liaison skills

Leadership skills

Communica...
1. Relationship Building & Liaison Skills
The collaborative role implies a relationship
with the state to meet a common go...
1. Relationship Building & Liaison Skills
Depending on context, collaboration ranges between:

Close Partnership

VS..

Co...
2. Negotiation & Communication Skills
Depending on the condition of collaboration:

Need to Comply

VS..

Negotiating Term...
2. Negotiation & Communication Skills
Effective communication is key

Maintain consistent flow of clear communications ins...
3. Leadership Skills – Coordination & Control
Strong LEADERSHIP is required to ALIGN, COORDINATE & OVERSEE overall effort
...
REFERENCES
	
  
1.  Chris1ans,	
  C.	
  et	
  al.	
  (2009),	
  "Norma've	
  Theories	
  of	
  the	
  Media:	
  Journalism...
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The Collaborative Role of News Media in Democratic Societies

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The Collaborative Role of News Media in Democratic Societies

Based on the book:
Normative Theories of the Media
Journalism in Democratic Societies
by Clifford G. Christians et al. (2009)

University of Tampere
Media Management

Published in: Business, News & Politics
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The Collaborative Role of News Media in Democratic Societies

  1. 1. November, 2013 Normative Theories of the Media Journalism in Democratic Societies by Clifford G. Christians et al. Media Policy & Theory for Managers Professor Gregory Lowe University of Tampere Authors: Maria Kabakova Keti Limani Jaana Pasonen Marian Zinn
  2. 2. AGENDA 1. The Collaborative Role 2. The Collaborative Role in a Democratic Context 3. Structures, Policies & Processes 4. Management Competencies
  3. 3. The Collaborative Role Chapter 9
  4. 4. Introduction to Collaboration One of the 4 roles the media might assume Implies a  symbiotic relationship between media & state - Adopted in times of emergency or need - Jeopardizes press freedom and autonomy - Clashes with the notion of journalism in a neo-liberal context Source: (Christians et al., 2009) Establishes a genuinely normative role for journalism - Guarantees a “public purpose for a private press” - Evens out the needs and expectations of state and press Has to be condoned by the public - Normatively & - Democratically
  5. 5. Indicative Reasons that dictate Collaboration Developmental Journalism Natural Disasters & Crisis Situations National Safety Issues Public Security Issues Public Health Issues Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  6. 6. Conditions for Collaboration between the State & Media Mutual Commitment to Serving Society Definition of Arrangements & Goals Trust and Transparency Public Endorsement Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  7. 7. Forms of Collaboration Coercion – the media is compelled to cooperate Collaboration as Compliance Apathy – the media accept state arrangements due to indifference or ignorance The weakest form Tradition – the media accept the collaboration due to habitual reasons Collaboration as Acquiescence Reluctant acceptance Pragmatic – the media accept collaboration for fear of coercion Instrumental – the media accept the collaboration for reasons extraneous to the results of the collaboration Collaboration as Acceptance Practical arrangement Normatively acceptable Normative arrangement Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  8. 8. The Collaborative Role in a Democratic Context Relating Chapter 9 to the substance of Chapter 5
  9. 9. Media in Democratic Societies Democratic Cannot be considered as a single institution The degree to which they are obliged to serve society is unclear Are expected to perform certain tasks Subscribe to Democratic Principles MEDIA Usually not held accountable Societies Source: (Christians et al., 2009) Ought to promote the Public's Welfare Observe the socio-political environment independently Operate in an autonomous & independent way
  10. 10. The Collaborative Role in Democratic Societies l  Collaboration is dictated by exceptional circumstances è The trap of perpetuity l  Is not intended to become the dominant type of journalism l  Has to be considered in the context of its application What is normatively acceptable? Source: (Christians et al., 2009) ? What is democratically acceptable?
  11. 11. The Collaborative Role in Democratic Societies l  It collides with neo-liberal thinking l  It serves advocacy l  Might be dictated under authoritative tendencies that emerge in democracies l  At times, the general public might demand collaboration Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  12. 12. Collaboration & the Dimension of Community It promotes a collective idea of: Of great It can importance marginalize l  Brotherhood l  Identity in times of major diverse l  Cohesion crisis situations social groups Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  13. 13. Collaboration & the Dimension of Power The fourth estate Collaboration as Compliance or as Acquiescence Collaboration as Acceptance …of the branches of government (legislative, judiciary, and executive) State takes advantage of the power of the press to facilitate its agendas The media use its power to promote state interests to serve the interests of the public Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  14. 14. Collaboration & Legitimation and Accountability l  Media Roles carry certain consequences l  Collaboration as Compliance & Acquiescence - the state is the one holding the media accountable l  Collaboration as Acceptance - mainly, the public judges accountability and legitimation Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  15. 15. Structures, Policies & Processes To fulfill the Collaborative Role
  16. 16. Collaboration as Compliance Central Propaganda Department of the Government Determines Standards of News Content Propaganda Circulars Monthly Reports - Indicates news stories that should not appear in reports - Criticize "harmful" content (from county to central level) - Provides guidance for treatment of certain news stories Source: (Esarey,  2006) Monitors and appoints Media Personnel - Organizes ideological training sessions - Evaluates conduct of media professionals for loyalty to the party in power - Membership in the party in power a crucial advantage for journalists
  17. 17. Collaboration as Compliance Vertically organized ”one level down” system The Government Central Organization Department Central Propaganda Department National Media Managers Provincial Government Provincial Media Managers City Government City Media Managers County Government County Media Managers Source: (Esarey,  2006)
  18. 18. Collaboration as Acquiescence The collaborative role of the media for the following reasons: Political environment Financial dependence on the Government Historical aspects Media maintain the positive image of the Government of the country The top-down processes: - centralisation of the power - control over the performance - monitoring of the outgoing information - the main funding The bottom-up processes: - accountability - coordination of the information - adapting of the information - approval of the content
  19. 19. Collaboration as Acquiescence The Government Department of Media & Advertising Official requests to illuminate the different activities of the Government CEO of the TV Channel Unofficial and unspoken rules what is allowed and not allowed to broadcast Deputy Director for Information Head of News Department Official reports of what was done Chief-Editor of the Newscast Reporter Reporter Chief-Editor of the Newscast Reporter Reporter Chief-Editor of the Newscast Reporter Chief-Editor of the Newscast Reporter Reporter Chief-Editor of the Newscast Reporter Reporter
  20. 20. Collaboration as Acceptance The Ministry of Communications The Parliament selects the members of Administrative Council The Parliament Administrative Council Administrative Council selects the CEO and other Directors, decides budget frame etc. Board of Directors CEO Director of News and Current Affairs Chief-Editor Reporter Source: (YLE, 2013) Reporter Chief-Editor Reporter Reporter Chief-Editor Reporter Chief-Editor Reporter Reporter Chief-Editor Reporter Reporter
  21. 21. Management Competencies To fulfill the Collaborative Role
  22. 22. Management in a Collaborative Media Context Management approaches differ depending on: Form of collaboration → Coercion Context of collaboration → Principles for Successful Collaboration Source: (Mattessich et al., 2001) Compliance Temporary Trusting & Sustainable Relationships Clear Purpose & Objectives Acceptance Long-Term Consistent & Clear Flow of Communication Aligned Efforts of everyone involved
  23. 23. Areas of Competency to fulfill the Collaborative Role Relationship Building & Liaison skills Leadership skills Communication & Negotiation skills Question: Why do we consider those areas important?
  24. 24. 1. Relationship Building & Liaison Skills The collaborative role implies a relationship with the state to meet a common goal. Management liaises between news organisation & collaborative partner Management should aim to: l  Build positive sustainable relationships & communication links l  Understand interests of the state & collaboration objectives l  Achieve mutual trust & shared commitment l  Assess benefits & consequences of collaboration Source: (Christians et al., 2009)
  25. 25. 1. Relationship Building & Liaison Skills Depending on context, collaboration ranges between: Close Partnership VS.. Compliance with Limited Direct Interaction Management approaches range from: Engaging in dialogue to understand interests & define mutual goals VS. Understanding & complying with what is expected in a forced collaboration
  26. 26. 2. Negotiation & Communication Skills Depending on the condition of collaboration: Need to Comply VS.. Negotiating Terms of the Collaboration Management should be competent in: l  Debating acceptable circumstances that justify a collaboration l  Negotiate objectives of collaboration & means to achieve them l  Defend interests of the organisation & professional journalistic norms l  Align interests of the press with interests of the state
  27. 27. 2. Negotiation & Communication Skills Effective communication is key Maintain consistent flow of clear communications inside, with partners & the public Why is this important? •  Clarity about aims & benefits of the collaboration l  Create realistic expectations & commitment by defining purpose & importance l  Consistent feedback on progress & problems l  Issue of public trust & credibility → Generate public endorsement Source: (Winer, 1994)
  28. 28. 3. Leadership Skills – Coordination & Control Strong LEADERSHIP is required to ALIGN, COORDINATE & OVERSEE overall effort Communicate a clear Direction, build Commitment & Support Ensure everyone understands acceptable Practices of Public Communication Importance of Employee Accountability & Controlling the Content Authority to intervene to ensure Legal Compliance & Goal Achievement
  29. 29. REFERENCES   1.  Chris1ans,  C.  et  al.  (2009),  "Norma've  Theories  of  the  Media:  Journalism  in   Democra'c  Socie'es",  1st  Edi1on,  Urbana:  University  of  Illinois  Press   2.  MaBessich,  P.  et  al.  (2001),  "Collabora'on:  What  Makes  It  Work",  2nd  Edi1on,  St   Paul:  Amherst  H.  Wilder  Founda1on   3.  Winer,  M.  (1994),  "Collabora'on  Handbook:  Crea'ng,  Sustaining,  and  Enjoying  the   Journey",  1st  Edi1on,  St  Paul:  Amherst  H.  Wilder  Founda1on   4.  Esarey,  A.  (2006),  "Speak  No  Evil  -­‐Mass  Media  Control  in  Contemporary  China”,   Freedom  House  (Online),  Available  at:   hBp://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/inline_images/Speak%20No %20Evil%20Mass%20Media%20Control%20in%20Contemporary%20China.pdf   (Accessed  on  27  October  2013)     5.  YLE  Broadcas1ng  Comapny  (2013).  “How  YLE  Works”  (Online)  Available  at:   hBp://yle.fi/yleisradio/about-­‐yle/how-­‐yle-­‐works  (Accessed  on  27  October  2013)      

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