Bennington and Moore - Public Value Theory & Practice - Marian Zinn


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Bennington and Moore - Public Value Theory & Practice - Marian Zinn

  1. 1. Public Value Theory & Practice by Bennington and Moore October, 2013 Authors: Biz Clarkson Katrin Ehnert Olga Javits Maria Kabakova Jaana Pasonen Paula Soares Maria Zinn Media Policy & Theory for Managers Professor Gregory Lowe University of Tampere
  2. 2. Agenda
  3. 3. Agenda 1.………………………...Summary chapter 2 & 13 2.…………………………………….Graphic model 3.……………….....................Evaluation variables 4. ………………………….Measurement methods 5. ……………………...Limitations and challenges 6. ………………………………………..Conclusion
  4. 4. Summary – Ch. 2 & 13
  5. 5. Public Value Creation through Networked Management Public value is created within the public sphere. Public sphere means: Collective concerns: Values Places Rules Organizations Knowledge …democratic space, which includes…the state within which citizens address their collective concerns J. Bennington (p. 31) Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010
  6. 6. Reformulation of public value in a deliberative process 1) What the public values 2) What adds value to the public sphere Public value is about Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 From producer-approach to consumer led public service models What the public needs, wants, desires Client or public satisfaction has to be considered There have to be trade-offs by the public BUT
  7. 7. Effective demand and effective supply Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 EFFECTIVE DEMAND Willingness to “pay” the opportunity costs by:  Monetary (paying taxes, charges)  Granting regulating powers to the state (i.e. for security)  Disclosing of private information (for more personalised services) EFFECTIVE SUPPLY Capacity to provide public value in forms of:  Services (roads, hospitals)  Outcomes (lower crime or prisoner rates)  TRUST The work of government is seen as just and fair
  8. 8. Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 Traditional Public Administration Governance through hierarchies New Public Management Governance through markets New Model Networked Community Governance PEOPLE Civil Society
  9. 9. Networked Community Governance (NCG) Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 1- From state and markets to civil society 2- From regulation by exit/voice to regulation by trust and loyalty 3- From coordination by hierarchies/markets to coordination through networks
  10. 10. Benefits of NCG Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 Political Letigimation Greater range of conflicting/competing interests to governance and management agenda Economic Innovation Greater scope for sharing risks and rewards Social problem-solving Better opportunities to face cross-cutting social problems
  11. 11. Graphic model
  12. 12. Networked Community Governance Governance through hierarchies/markets Civil Society Consumer Citizen People Public Sphere Market State What adds value to the public sphere? What the public Values? Dialogue Effective SUPPLY Capacity to provide a service, outcome, trust Effective DEMAND Willingness to [pay] the opportunity costs Producer-led model Consumer-led model
  13. 13. Evaluating public value of media companies
  14. 14. Variables to evaluate public value (PV) Public value outcomes of media can be analysed in terms of: Economic, cultural, social, educational, political and ecological value added to the public sphere. To define objectives & inform program and content strategies: Need to understand what the public values & and what is seen as a contribution to the public sphere through proactive engagement of the public . To create public value, media companies need to think beyond private & individual supply and demand and consider wider societal goals. Source: (Collins, 2007; Thompson, 2006)
  15. 15. Variables to evaluate public value (PV) • Generation of economic activity, enterprise and employment, supporting local economies •Social cohesion, social relationships and cultural identity • Protecting and promoting diversities of culture → Media are agents of social reproduction, content reflects values and norms, and consumption shapes them Economic value Social, cultural and community value Source: (Thompson, 2006; Bennington & Moore, 2011; Freedman, 2008)
  16. 16. Variables to evaluate public value (PV) • Formal and informal educational opportunity • Equip public with knowledge, skills and capability to act as informed citizens •Providing trusted/impartial news and information that help/encourage citizens engagement • Stimulating democratic dialogue and active public participation Educational Value Political Value Ecological value • Promote sustainable development and reduce negative public behaviour Source: (Thompson, 2006; Bennington & Moore, 2011; Freedman, 2008)
  17. 17. Measuring public value in media Civil society involvement:  continuous and proactive dialogue & engagement with audiences, citizens, communities and other public stakeholders. To understand public value  Consider what the public wants right now  Evaluate the wider/long term impacts of the content offered . Media companies need to define precise objectives with a focus on delivering long term public purposes.  Be clear on the public value outcomes that you want to achieve!  Public value should be based on long term outcomes, while taking into account short term needs and wants. Define a set of standards/criteria by which added public value can be measured accurately and reliably Source: (Hills & Sullivan, 2013; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007)
  18. 18. BBC’s Performance Measurement Framework The BBC developed a new approach to performance management with a range of techniques to identify key drivers of public value.  Reach  Quality  Impact  Value for Money Criteria for measurement include: 1. Content and programme specific outcome measures 2. Broader outcome and impact measures 3. Effectiveness & efficiency measures The BBC establishes public value through: Sources: (BBC, 2004; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007)
  19. 19. Measurement methods
  20. 20. RQIV CRITERIA FOR MEASURING PV • How many people do we reach, how many people have access in a given territory Reach Sources: (BBC, 2004; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007) Metrics for Reach 1. Share of audience / Weekly Reach 2. Reach of online services 3. Number of online unique users 4. Volume of online Live Streaming & On-Demand uses 5. Reach of underserved audiences 6. Reach of new platforms (mobile, web, digital TV, etc)
  21. 21. RQIV CRITERIA FOR MEASURING PV • Direct feedback about the perceptions of quality judged by individuals, citizens and experts Quality Sources: (BBC, 2004; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007) Metrics for Quality 1. Overall approval of services offered 2. Appreciation Index 3. Perceptions of quality 4. Perceptions of innovation 5. Awards (industry recognition)
  22. 22. RQIV CRITERIA FOR MEASURING PV • Assessing effects of content based on audience usage and in support of long- term public value outcomesImpact Sources: (BBC, 2004; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007) Metrics for Impact 1. Perceptions of challenging and engaging 2. Perceptions of trust and transparency 3. Perceptions of meeting defined purposes/public value outcomes 4. Impact beyond broadcasting 5. Impact of diversity on society
  23. 23. RQIV CRITERIA FOR MEASURING PV • Measure of cost efficiency and effectiveness in delivering public value, and perceived monetary value Value for Money Metrics for Value for Money 1. Cost per user hour 2. Cost per unique user 3. Perceptions of value for money 4. Willingness to pay from an individual perspective (market satisfaction & demand) 5. Willingness to pay from a citizen perspective (adding to public interest) Sources: (BBC, 2004; Thompson, 2006; Collins, 2007)
  24. 24. Measuring public opinion SATISFACTION SURVEYS COMPLAINTS & SUGGESTION SCHEMES AUDIENCE & MARKET RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS ATTITUDINAL SURVEYS & OPINION POLLING PUBLIC FORUMS & CONSULTATION Q&A SESSIONS Sources: (Hills & Sullivan, 2013) Data from these sources needs to be continuously available and should inform programming and resource allocation decisions.
  25. 25. Limitations and challenges
  26. 26. Source: Public Value Theory and Practice 2010 • Networked and multilevel society characterized by instability and inconstancy • Coordinating different stakeholders behind common goals  How to lead/steer all actors?  How to sustain clear strategic decisions?  Who is accountable? (Different stakeholders with different mandates) • It is not easy to measure the value of social, cultural, ecological and other intangible benefits • The measurement of public value often depends upon subjective judgements about the quality, impact and value for money • Who is to judge whether society’s interests are served or not sufficiently? Limitations and challenges
  27. 27. Conclusion
  28. 28. References •BBC (2004), "Building public value: Renewing the BBC for a digital world", British Broadcasting Company (Online) Available at: [Accessed 21 September 2013] ••Benington, J. and Moore, M (2011), Public Value: Theory & Practice, 1st Edition, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan ••Collins, R. (2007), "Public Value and the BBC”, The Work Foundation (Online) Available at: ue_bbc.pdf [Accessed 21 September 2013] ••Freedman, D. (2008), The Politics of Media Policy, 1st Edition, Cambridge: Polity Press ••Hills, D. and Sullivan, F. (2013), "Measuring public value 2: Practical approaches", The Work Foundation (Online) Available at: content/uploads/2013/03/Tavistock_Projects_A-Think-Piece-on-Measurement-of- Public-Value.pdf [Accessed 21 September 2013] ••Thompson, M. (2006), "The Smith Institute Media Lecture Delivering public value: The BBC and public sector reform.", New Statesman; Supplement, p1-14