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Field Study | 1
The Learner’s Development
and Environment
Course Description
This course is designed to help the Field Study. Students verify the
behavior of the child in the actual learning environment. It will require them to
recognize feasible approaches to facilitate learning considering the learner’s
different phases of development and social environment.
Field Study 1 can be anchored on these professional education subjects:
 Child and Adolescent Development
 Facilitating learning
 Social Dimensions of Education
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
1. Identify the stage of the physical, motor, linguistic, literacy, cognitive,
social and emotional development of the children or adolescents as
manifested in the actual classroom setting.
2. Observe and reflect on the different approaches employed by the teacher
in dealing with learners in the different stages of development.
3. Analyze how the teaching and learning process should be conducted
considering the different phases of child development.
FOCUS SPECIFIC TASK LEARNING
EVIDENCE
DOMAIN COMPETENCIES
School as
a learning
environme
nt
Episode 1
 Visit a school;
look into its
facilities and
areas that
support
learning (i.e.,
classroom,
library,
playground,
An illustration
of a school
that is
supportive of
learning or a
“child-friendly
school”
through any
of the
following:
Learning
Environme
nt
Curriculu
Determines an
environment that
provides social
psychological and
physical
environment
supportive of
learning.
Field Study
Field Study | 2
Peace
Concept in
Focus:
“Building
Friendshi
p”
Learner’s
Characteri
stics and
needs.
Peace
Concept in
Focus:
“Valuing
Diversity”
Classroom
manageme
nt and
learning
and canteen).
 Describe the
school
environment
 Prepare an
observation
log
Episode 2
YOU AND I ARE
DIFFERENT
 Observe 3
groups of
learners from
different levels
(preschool,
elementary
and high
school).
 Describe each
group of
learners based
on your
observations
 Validate your
observation by
interviewing
the learners
 Compare them
in terms of
their interests
and needs.
Episode 3
“IN NOT OUT”
 Observe a
class
 Using a
checklist, find
out the evident
classroom
A descriptive
paragraph.
A photo essay
Narrative
description of
Diversity
among
children
Checklist on
classroom
management
components
m
Diversity of
Learners
Learning
Environme
nt
Differentiate
learners of varied
characteristics
and needs
Manages time,
space and
resources to
provide an
environment
appropriate to the
learners and
conducive for
Field Study | 3
Peace
concept in
Focus:
“Inclusivel
y”
Learner’s
Characteri
stics and
Learning
activities
components
 Describe how
the classroom
is
structured/de
signed to allow
everyone to
participate in
the learning
activities
 Relate the
data in your
checklist to
the learner’s
behavior
 Reflect on how
classroom
management
affects
learning.
Episode 4
TRAITS CHECK
 Observe a
class on a
regular day
 Take note of
characteristics
of the learners
in the class
 Enumerate
and describe
the activities
that took place
in the class.
 Analyze how
the activities
facilitated
learning
considering
the learners’
characteristics
.
Episode 5
Photo
documentatio
n of the
classroom
setting
Reflection
paper on
activities that
allow
inclusively
rather than
exclusively
among
learners
Collection of
classroom
activities
written on
card boards of
rainbow colors
A refection
paper on the
congruence or
match of
learning
activities to
the learners’
characteristics
Reflection on
the interaction
of learners
despite
Diversity of
Learners
Learning
Environme
nt
Diversity of
learners
Diversity of
learners
learning.
Recognizes multi
cultural
backgrounds of
learners when
providing
opportunities
Determines
teaching
approaches and
techniques
appropriate to the
learners
Determines,
understands and
Field Study | 4
Individual
differences
and the
learning
process.
(Difference
in the
ability
level)
Peace
concept in
focus:
“Samenes
s in
difference
s”
Individual
Differences
and the
learning
process
 Observe
learners of
different
learning
abilities but
the same
grade/year
 Interview them
to gather their
background
information
 Observe them
as they
participate in
a classroom
activity
 Write the
narrative
report.
Episode 6
 Observe a
class on a
regular day
 Take note of
characteristics
of the learners
in the class
focusing on
gender and
cultural
diversity
 Interview our
resource
teacher about
principles and
practices that
he/she uses in
dealing with
diversity in the
classroom.
differences
Learner’s
profile
Narrative
Report
Narrative
description of
Diversity
among
children
Description on
how the
teacher
instills among
children the
values and
knowledge on
differences on
gender, social
and cultural
background
Home
visitation
Diversity of
learners
Communit
y linkages
accepts the
learners; diverse
background
Relates the
learner’s
background to
their performance
in the classroom
Recognizes
cultural
backgrounds of
learners when
providing learning
opportunities.
Reflects on the
impact of home
and family life to
learning
Field Study | 5
(social and
cultural
diversity)
Peace
concept
In focus:
“Unity in
diversity”
Episode 7
Home-School Link
CONNECT ME
 Select a
learner from
the class that
you have
observed
 Conduct a
home visit to
your selected
learner
 Describe the
family in
terms of
-number of
siblings
Number of
siblings in
school
 Interview the
parents about
1. Rules they
implement
at home
concerning
their child’s
schooling
2. The
learner’s
activities
and
behavior
while at
home
report
Reflection on
the impact of
home and
Family life to
learning
Learning
Environme
nt
Field Study | 6
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
SCHOOL AS LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity, you will be competent in determining a
school environment that provides social, psychological, and physical
environment supportive of learning.
A general observation of the campus and the classroom is an
exciting way to start your observation.
Your mission is to do the following tasks:
Episode 1
Your Target
Your Map
1.Visit a school. Look into facilities and
support learning areas in the campus,
then in the classroom
2. Accomplish the checklist as you
move around the school
premises.
3. Based on your gathered data
in the checklist, describe the
school environment.
4. Make a reflection on the
characteristics of a school
environment that promotes learning.
5. Present your idea of a good school environment through any of these: a)
Descriptive paragraph; b) Photo Essay c) sketch or drawing d) Poem, song or rap
Field Study
Field Study | 7
As you move around the campus. Activity forms are provided for you to
document your observations. It is advised that you read the entire worksheet
before proceeding to the school site. A good understanding of the activities and
tasks to be accomplished in the activity sheets will yield better learning results.
SCHOOL FACILITIES CHECKLIST
Familiarize yourself with the different areas and facilities of the school. Check the
column to indicate their availability. Give a brief description of those that are
available on the last column.
Facilities Available Not
available
Description
Office of the Principal Small in space but the
things are well organized
Library Well ventilated, has a great
space and learning
resources
Counseling Room The area looks comfortable
to stay and discuss matters
Canteen/Cafeteria Spacious and the foods are
affordable.
Medical clinic Small in space
Audio Visual/Media
Center
Spacious there are available
equipments but seldom in
use.
Reading center
Speech laboratory Wide in space, equipments
are good
Science laboratory Apparatus are available for
expirements
Gymnasium The gym is wide in space
Auditorium
Tools
Field Study | 8
Home Economics Room Well arranged and clean
Industrial Workshop area
PTA Office
Comfort room for boys Needs proper maintenance
Comfort room for girls Needs proper maintenance
Computer laboratory Nice, but needs more unit of
computers
An observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT
Be guided by these tasks as you do your observation. Then accomplish the
matrix to record your data.
1. Look at the walls of the classroom. What are posted on the walls? What
heroes, religious figures, lessons, visual aids, announcements, do you see
posted?
2. Examine how the furniture is arranged. Where is the teacher’s table located?
How are the tables and chairs/desks arranged?
3. What learning materials/equipments are present?
4. Observe the students. How many are occupying one room?
5. Is the room well-lighted and well-ventilated?
CLASSROOM FACILITIES MATRIX
CLASSROOM FACILITIES DESCRIPTION
(location, number, arrangement, condition)
1. Wall displays Found at the back corner of the room, 4
bulletin boards.
2. Teachers table Adjacent to the door, facing the chairs of the
pupils.
3. Learner’s desk Some are old and has defects.
4. Blackboard Big, found in front of the students
5. Learning
Materials/Visual Aids
Fraction charts, word problem visual aids
6. Lightings There are two big fluorescent lamps
7. Book shelves Found near the door; big but few books are
there
Field Study | 9
8. teacher’s stand Found at left corner facing to the chairs of the
pupils
9. Fan There is only one stand fan available
10. Broom Stand Found at the back corner, full of broomsticks
and scrubs.
Write your observation report here:
Name of School Observed: Andres Soriano College
Location of the School: Mangagoy, BIslig City
Date of visit: July 30,2012
The room is spacious and properly decorated. There are six
numbers of students; 3 girls and 3 boys. There is a proper lightings and
ventilation is properly seen. You can hear the noise of the motorcycles
plying to and fro in the main street but it does not affect the learning of
the pupils/students.
How do the school and the classroom in particular impact on the learning of
the students going to school? What are your conclusions?
The school campus creates the learner’s environment so that the
school campus and the classroom must be conducive to learning. Proper
lighting and ventilation should be enhanced in any classroom so that
pupils/students would feel comfortable.
How does this relate to your knowledge of child and adolescent development/
how does this relate to your knowledge of facilitating learning?
A child needs a conducive environment for an effective learning.
Their minds and body are still developing so they need proper care and
nourishment. As teacher, provide them appropriate tools/materials in
understanding and developing their nature that would help in the
teaching-learning process.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 10
1. Would you like to teach in the school environment you just observed? Why?
Why not?
I would like to teach to the school that I have just observed because
the foundation of education here is good, since the pupils are few, I can
focus on them and give them proper attention.
2. What kind of school campus is conducive to learning?
The school campus which is conducive to learning is the one with
quiet atmosphere, plants are visible to give fresh air, offices and halls
must be well-organized and accommodating, must have complete
facilities.
3. What kind of classroom is conducive to learning?
Conducive classrooms is well-ventilated accomplish, has proper
lighting, properly decorated and the furnitures are properly arranged.
The colors must not hurt eyes and has cooling effect.
4. In the future, how can you accomplish your answer in number 3?
I could accomplish my plans in the classroom plans in the
classroom by engaging the parents in the beautification of the
classroom. Creativity and resourcefulness should exert in order to make
my classroom conducive to learning. Classroom management should be
applied too.
5. Write your additional learning’s and insights here:
I realized that every learner needs a learning environment that
would help in processing effectively their knowledge and skills taught by
their teachers.
Your Reflection
Field Study | 11
MY PERSONAL ILLUSTRATION OF AN EFFECTIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
Field Study | 12
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in differentiating the
characteristics and needs of learners from different developmental levels.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 2
Your Target
Your Map
Step 1
Observe 3 groups of
learners from different
levels (preschool, elem.,
and high school)
Step 2
Describe each of the
learners based on
your observations
Step 3
Validate your observation
by interviewing the learners
Step 4
Compare them in terms of
their interests and needs.
Field Study
Field Study | 13
Use the activity form provided for you to
document your observations.
An observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics
Read the following statements carefully. Then write
your observation report on the provided space. Your teacher
may also recommend another observation checklist if a
more detailed observation is preferred
Physical
1. Observe their gross motor skills. How they carry
themselves. How they move, walk, run, go up the
stairs. Etc.
2. Are gross movements clumsy or
deliberate/smooth?
3. How about their fine motor skills? Writing,
drawing, etc.
Social
1. Describe how they interact with teachers and
other adults.
2. Note how they also interact with peers. What to do
they talk about? What are their concerns?
Emotional
1. Describe the emotional disposition or
temperament of the learners (happy, sad, easily
cries ,mood-shifts)
2. How do they express their wants/needs? Can they
wait?
3. How do they handle frustrations?
4. Describe their level of confidence as shown in their
behavior. Are they self-conscious?
Cognitive
1. Describe their ability to use words to communicate
their ideas. Note their language proficiency.
2. Describe how they figure out things. Do they
comprehend easily? Look for evidence of their
thinking skills.
3. Were there opportunities for problem solving?
Describe how they showed problem solving
abilities.
On Erickson’s
Epigenetic Principle
This principle says
that we develop
through a
predetermined
unfolding of our
personalities. Our
progress through each
stage of life is in part
determined by our
success, or lack of
success, in all the
previous stage. A little
like the unfolding of a
rose bud, each petal
opens up at a certain
time, in a certain
order, which nature,
through its genetics,
has determined. If we
interfere in the natural
order of development
by pulling a petal
forward prematurely or
out of order, we ruin
the development of the
entire flower.
-Dr. C. George Boeree
Your Tools
Field Study | 14
Learners’ Development Matrix
Record the data you gathered about the learners’ characteristics and
needs in this matrix. This will allow you to compare the characteristics and
needs of learners at different levels. The items under each domain are by no
means exhaustive. These are just sample indicators. You may add other
aspects which you may have observed.
Development
Domain
Preschooler
Indicate age
range of children:
_____
Elementary
Indicate age range
of children
observed: _____
High school
Indicate age range
from children
observed: _______
Physical
Gross-motor skills
Fine-motor skills
Self-help skills
Others
Moves freely;
runs without
attention on who
and what they
will bumped with;
not so good in
writing, drawing,
mostly made of
lines
Moves, runs, walk
with deliberation.
They would now
pay attention on
whom/what they
will hit if they
move so fast. Very
active, can write
and draw already.
Their actions are
done deliberately
but sometimes
they would still
run and walk
freely especially if
they are playing.
Could write
legibly, read with
comprehension
and some can
draw well.
Social
Interaction with
teachers
Interaction with
classmates/friends
Interests
Others
Some of the
student’s answers
need the follow-
up by the
teachers. Always
ask questions
and seek the help
of the teacher
when they didn’t
understand the
lesson
They respect their
teachers and
could follow their
instructions well.
They share ideas,
stories that build
their self
confidence.
Watching and
observing, talking
and sharing
about their
experiences
Listens attentively
but sometimes
engaged in talking
to their
seatmates.
Teachers are well
respected. Choose
friends whom
they get along
well, where they
could share
similar
experiences.
Field Study | 15
Emotional
Moods and
temperament,
expression of
feelings
Emotional
independence
others
Mostly stubborn,
shows their
emotions when
they feel like
crying, laughing
out loud when
they are happy.
Express emotions
freely, say things
with out proper
thinking.
Depends on
teachers to ease
their feelings.
Stubborn but
behaves when
scolded or dealt
well with the
teacher. Express
feelings but with
limitations.
Emotions are
expressed on
their closest
friends.
They could hide
their feelings,
from being happy
to sad. (mood
swings). They
could handle their
emotions now.
Shy or ashamed
of crying and
showing emotions
in public.
Cognitive
Communication
skills
Thinking skills
Problem-solving
others
Simple words can
be expressed, but
some can’t be
pronounced well
or clearly. Ideas
mostly came from
their experiences.
Problem solving is
always depending
from the teachers.
Can talk and
communicate
well. Words are
pronounced well
and clear. Ideas
are being
expressed with
the sense and
thought. Good
enough in solving
problems.
Talks with sense.
Ideas are
expresses freely,
communicates
well. Their
opinions are
mostly based
from their
experiences and
the teaching they
gathered.
Field Study | 16
Write the most salient developmental characteristics of the learner you
observed. Based on these characteristics, think of implications for the teacher.
Level Salient characteristics
observed
Implications to the
Teaching-learning
Process
Preschool
Age range of
learners observed
3-5
 Preschoolers like
pictures. They like to
listen to stories and
could be easily
motivated with pictures
and drawings.
 Therefore, the
teacher should use
visual aids and
instructional
materials that would
catch their attention
like pictures,
drawings that are
colorful and if
possible, videos/film
showing.
Elementary
Age range of
learners observed
9-12
 These pupils are now
independent. They could
do their assigned tasks,
and could listen
attentively to teachers
 Teachers should
impose rules and
guidelines to make
teaching-learning
process effective.
Discipline of the
students especially
in their study habits
should be imposed
to develop good
attitude values.
Highschool
Age range of
learners observed
13-16
 Very observant. Could
speak well and talks
with sense. Can read
using their eyes only
 Therefore, teachers
should act and
behave accordingly
for they will be the
model of the
students in the
development of right
attitudes and values.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 17
1. While you were observing the learners, did you recall your own
experiences when you were their age? What similarities or differences do
you have with the learners you observed?
I recalled my experiences when I was just the same with their
age, I am also fond of playing , running and talking a lot with my
seatmates and sometimes get scolded with the teacher because of
not paying attention. But, I differ from them, because I focus on my
studies and I’m not ashamed to show my talents.
2. Think of a teacher you cannot forget for positive or negative reasons. How
did she/he help or not help you with your needs (physical, emotional,
social, and cognitive)? How did it affect you?
The teacher that I could not forget is teacher Mercy. I
idolized her for her kindness, humility and have a sense of humor.
She was very talented and motivates me to show my talents in
singing and dancing. Her lessons and values are inculcated in our
hearts and she was one of my inspirations on being a teacher
someday.
3. Which is your favorite theory of development? How can this guide you as
a future teacher?
My favorite theory is; through scaffolding, learners could be
developed from their actual zone of development to the zone of
proximal development. This really inspires me because I could feel
that a teacher’s task is very rewarding since they are instrument
of making the child reach its fullest potentials.
4. Share your other insights here.
Teaching is both a vocation and a mission. Responding to
God’s call is not a simple task and gets even harder when you will
do the mission of being the catalyst for change. Yet, touching one’s
life is priceless and molding them into the best of what can be is
the hardest job, but rewarding.
Your Reflection
Field Study | 18
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in managing time,
space and resources to provide an environment which is appropriate to the
learners and conducive to learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 3
Your Target
Your Map
 Observe a class
 Using a checklist, find out the evident
classroom components.
 Describe how the classroom is
structured/designed to allow
everyone to participate in the learning
activities.
 Relate the data in your checklist to the
learner’s behavior.
 Reflect on how classroom
management affects learning.
Field Study
Field Study | 19
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations.
An Observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics
Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on
the provided space.
1. As you observe the class. Look into the characteristics of the learners. Note
their ages.
2. How many boys are there? How many girls?
3. Focus on their behavior. Are they already able to manage their own
behavior?
4. Can the learners already work independently?
5. Describe their span of attention?
6. Look into their listening skills and ability to concentrate.
Name of school: Andres Soriano College
Observed: Elementary department
Location of the school: Mangagoy, Bislig City
Date of visit: July 30, 2012
During my observation in Grade VI, I found out that the
pupils were mostly 11-12 years old. There are 6 pupils, 3 girls and
3 boys in the classroom. Each of them possesses different
characteristics. Some of them are able to manage their behavior
while others depend upon the management of the teacher, like not
doing the assigned task in cleaning the classroom and not
following the rules. The teacher focuses her attention to all of them
so that they can participate and work well. When she is having her
lesson, she makes it to a point that her pupils are not just a passive
listener but also an active participant.
Your Map
Field Study | 20
An Observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT
Be guided by these questions as you do your observation of the classroom
management. It is also good to ask the teacher for additional information so
you can verify your observation. Write your notes below, and then organize
your data in the table that follows:
1. Are there areas in the classroom for specific purposes (storage of
teaching aids, books, students’ belongings, supplies, etc.)
2. Are there rules and procedures posted in the room?
3. Did the students participate in making the classroom rules?
4. What are the daily routines done by the teacher? (Prayer, attendance,
assignment of monitors, warm-up activities, etc.) How are they done?
5. Is there a seating arrangement? What is the basis of this arrangement?
6. Observe the noise level in the classroom. How is this managed?
7. If a learner is not following instructions is off-task, what does the teacher
do? (behavior strategies)
8. What does the teacher do to reinforce positive behaviors? (behavior
strategies)
Observation notes:
There are areas in the classroom where they store teaching aids,
books as well as the student’s belongings and supplies that can be found
in the corner of the classroom. There are rules and regulations posted
the Do’s and Don’ts that should be followed in the classroom.
Their daily routines are cleaning inside and outside the classroom
before 7:00 am, then the flag ceremony, after that they will have warm-
up activities, a short program and the rest in the lesson proper.
Their seating arrangement consists of two rows. The first row, are
the girls and the next row are the boys. Their noise level is manageable;
the teacher let them take turns in speaking so that everybody can hear
them. If a certain pupil is not following instructions or misbehaving, the
teacher calls her/his attention and talk to the pupils after the class.
The strategies that the teacher used to reinforce positive behavior
are giving praises and rewards.
Field Study | 21
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT MATRIX
Aspect of Classroom
Management
Description Effect on the learner
(to be filled up after you
answer the analysis
questions)
1. Specific Areas in
the classroom
Books and students’
belongings are properly
arranged.
The pupils are
comfortable inside the
classroom since the
areas are well arranged
2. Classroom Rules The rules are posted on
the wall, the Do’s and
Don’ts to be followed by
the pupils
Pupils are very careful in
not breaking the rules
because there is an
equivalent punishment
for it.
3. Classroom
Procedures
The procedure such as
“NO LOITTERING”
between class hours to
avoid distractions.
Pupils follow the
instructions to continue
the lesson smoothly
4. Daily Routine Cleaning inside and
outside the classroom,
flag ceremony, prayer
and warm-up activities
Pupils are responsible
enough to do their
responsibilities and the
rules and procedures.
5. Seating
Arrangement
The girls are in the first
row, and the boys are in
the second row
The pupils are
comfortable in their
seating arrangement
6. Handling
misbehavior/ off
task behavior
The teacher calls the
attention of the
pupils/students, and
later on they will talk
after class.
The pupils/students
would behave when
called by the teacher but
frightened of whatever
the consequences.
7. Reinforcement of
positive behavior
Praises the student’s
good performance and
giving awards like an
extra points on grades
The pupils are motivated
to study harder.
Field Study | 22
1. How did the classroom organization and routines affect the learners’
behavior?
Through classroom organization and routines,
pupils/students actively participate in the classroom
discussions. The lesson plan is carefully prepared such that all
discussions are directed towards the achievement of its
objectives which students could reach the goals of the teaching-
learning process.
2. What should the teacher have in mind when she/he designs the
classroom organization and routines? What theories and principles
should you have in mind?
Teacher should put in his/her mind that designing the
classroom organization and routines that would avoid some of
the distractions that keeps the students from functioning
effectively and would affect the students behavior and learning.
Behaviorist theory should be considered, that the teacher’s role
is to establish rules and procedures and to communicate these
rules clearly to students to implement appropriate reward and
punishment for the compliance of the rules.
3. Which behavior strategies were effective in managing the behavior of
the learners? In motivating students? Why were they effective?
The behavior strategy that is effective in managing the
behavior of the learner is being a role model to the pupils,
meaning to say that teachers should show that they are
responsible if they want pupils to be responsible as well
Student’s motivation is also effective through the use of
appropriate instructional materials.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 23
1. Imagine yourself organizing your classroom in the future. In what
grade/year level do you see yourself? What routine and procedures
would you consider for this level? Why?
If I were a teacher, I will prefer to teach in grade six class too
because at this stage, they are more mature than in lower grades.
They are still manageable though they are independent, they can
work in their own with out being told by the teacher. I would
impose routines like cleaning inside and outside the classroom
before and after the class, prayer and checking the attendance,
and also the rules and regulations to be followed strictly so that
there would be a smooth flow of teaching-learning process.
2. Make a list of the rules you are likely to implement in this level. Why
would you choose these rules?
The following rules are:
Speak English and Filipino
Avoid loitering during class hours
Ask permission before leaving the classroom
Respect yourself, others and environment
Always maintain the cleanliness of the classroom
I would choose theses rules because they are observable and
achievable that would prevent the students from misbehaving.
3. Should learners be involved in making class rules? Why?
Students should also be involved in making the class rules so
that it would be clear to them and they will understand the
importance of the rules and regulations that there is an
appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of these
rules. The students discipline should start from them in following
the rules and regulations.
Your Reflection
Field Study | 24
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION
(focusing on differences in gender, racial, religious backgrounds)
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining
teaching approaches and techniques considering the individual differences of
the learners.
The learners’ individual differences and the type of interaction they bring
surely affect the quality of teaching and learning. This episode is about
observing and gathering data to find out how student diversity affects learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
Episode 4
Your Target
Your Map
Step 1: observe a class in different parts of a school day (beginning of the day, class time,
recess etc)
Step 2: describe the characteristics of the learners in terms of age, gender and asocial cultural diversity
Step 3: Describe the interaction that transpires inside and outside the classroom
Step 4: interview your resource teacher about the principles and practices that she uses in
dealing with the diversity in the classroom
Step 5: Analyze the impact of individual differences on learners’ interaction
Field Study
Field Study | 25
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations:
An Observation Guide for the Learners’ Characteristics
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your
observation report on the space provided on the next page.
1. Find out the number of students; gather data as to their ages, gender,
racial groups, religious and ethnic backgrounds.
During class:
1. How much interaction is there in the classroom? Describe how the
students interact more with the teacher than others.
2. Observe the learners seated at the back and the front part of the room.
Do they behave and interact differently?
3. Describe the relationship among the learners. Do the learners cooperate
with or complete against each other?
4. Which students participate actively? Which students ask for most help?
5. When a student is called and cannot answer the teacher’s question, do
the classmates try to help them? Or do they raise their hands so that the
teacher will call them instead?
Outside class:
1. How do the students group themselves outside the class?
Homogeneously, by age? By gender? By racial or ethnic groups? Or are
the students in mixed social groupings? If so, describe the groupings.
2. Describe how the learners interact with each other? What do they talk
about?
Your Tools
Field Study | 26
OBSERVATION REPORT
Name of the School Observed: Andres Soriano College
School Address: Mangagoy, Bislig City
Date of Visit: July 30,2012
I visited a Grade VI classroom under the advisory of Mrs. Dorothy
Baldomero with 6 pupils only. There are 3 girls and 3 boys. They have
different religious beliefs but then they respect each other, just like
when they pray for those who are not catholic they just bow their heads
and they do not have to do the sign of the cross.
Since they is only a few numbers of pupils. All of them participate
in the class. Each of them is called to answer the questions or do the
board-work exercises especially in math subject. Their seating
arrangement does not affect their learning since they are only few in
numbers and the teacher could accommodate and give attention to
them. There are really good students who excel and answer the
questions correctly. But there are instances that a certain pupil could
not give the answer correctly due to frequent absences. Other pupils will
raise their hands to help him. In a group activity, each group has their
own leader and reporter, while the members share their ideas to
compete with other group.
Outside the class, the pupils play with each other. They run, walk
and move freely. They like to talk about their favorite artists in the
movie, or any soap operas in television, the places they want to go and
favorite sports or anime characters. They were group by gender, the 3
girls talk about their likes and interests while the 3 boys also talk
about their favorite super heroes.
Field Study | 27
1. Identify the persons who play key roles in the relationships and
interactions in the classrooms. What roles do they play? Is there
somebody who appears to be the leader, a mascot/joker, an attention
seeker, a little teacher, a doubter/pessimist?
In a classroom, pupils differ from each other in their skills,
innate talents and abilities. There are pupils that plays as a
leader, a little joker that makes all his classmates laugh, an
attention seeker because she likes to sing and she has a beautiful
voice. There is also a little teacher not to do bad things. In each
role they play in the relationship and interactions in the
classroom, it only shows that they have different characteristics
and interests.
2. Are students coming from minority group accepted or rejected by the
others? How is this shown?
The students were of different cultures since each family has
a culture of their own. Some pupils who belonged to minority group
were still accepted by their classmates. At their age, they just want
to have fun and play together because they respect each other
despite their differences in attitudes, skills, socio-economic status
and abilities. The teacher also shows that they are accepted and
they belong in the class by making her classroom a perfect place to
be.
3. How does the teacher influence the class interaction considering the
individual differences of the students?
The teacher influences the class interaction by encouraging
learners to share their personal experiences through sharing to the
class or by groups, students will be made to realize that they have
something in common with the rest though they possess some
differences. Another way is using varied instructional methods to
accommodate student diversity.
4. What factors influence the grouping of learners outside the classroom?
The factors that bring about the grouping of learners outside
the classroom are; socio-economic status, thinking/learning styles
and exceptionalities.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 28
1. How did you feel being in that classroom? Did you feel a sense of
oneness or unity among the learners and between the teacher and the
learners?
I feel glad and comfortable in observing that classroom since
the teacher acknowledge our presence and the students very polite
to us. I could feel that the teacher is well respected by her pupils
because they listen attentively and participate during discussions.
In that way, I can sense the oneness among the students and the
teacher.
2. In the future, how would you want the learners in your classroom to
interact? How will you make this happen?
I want my learners in the future to be active learners. I could
make this happen by imposing rules and regulations that would
discipline my pupils to make them behave in the class that provide
a positive classroom atmosphere. Through good classroom
management and teaching strategies that would consider student
diversity, I could effectively make my pupils and competitive
learners.
3. How will you encourage all learners, regardless of religious, ethnic or
racial background, to interact and participate?
I could encourage all learners regardless of religious, ethnic or
racial background to interact and participate by initiating co-
curricular activities/experiences that are aimed to promote
diversity awareness such as Linggo ng wika, cultural shows and
intramurals, exposing them to other students with diverse
backgrounds and experiences also serves to help students focus on
their awareness of themselves.
Your Reflection
Field Study | 29
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND
LEARNER’S INTERACTION
(focusing on different levels of abilities)
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining,
understanding and accepting the learners’ diverse backgrounds; an in relating
the learners’ background to their performance in the classroom.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
1. Observe two or more learners of different
abilities but from the same grade or level
4.Write a narrative
Report and a brief
Reflection on your
Experience
3.Observe them as
They participate in a
Classroom
activity 2.Find out some information
About their background
Episode 5
Your Target
Your Map
Field Study
Field Study | 30
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations.
An Observation Guide for Individual Differences
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your
observation report on the space provided.
1. Observe the class to see the differences in abilities of the learners.
2. Try to identify the students who seem to be performing well and those
that seem to be behind.
3. Validate your observations by asking the teacher about the background
(family, socio-economic, presence of some learning disabilities, etc.)Of
these children.
4. Observe the behavior of both the high achieving and low-achieving
learners. Note their dispositions, pace in accomplishing tasks, interaction
with teacher, and interaction with others.
5. Observe the teacher’s method in addressing the individual learning needs
of the students in his/her class.
Your Tools
Field Study | 31
OBSERVATION REPORT
Name of the School Observed: Andres Soriano College
School Address: Mangagoy, Bislig City
Date of Visit: July 30,2012
As I have observed the Grade VI class, I noticed that there
are individual differences among the learners not only in physical
aspects but also with their abilities. There are pupils who have the
ability to become good leaders, an active learner who participate in
the class though some pupils are passive learners and absentees.
As I validate the teacher about the background of one
student who makes frequent absences about 3 to 4 days a week
without any valid reasons. the teacher said that his parents are
busy in their business and tried to send them letters but didn’t
respond to it, so she planned to visit them at home to let them
know the behavior of their son and to know the reason of his
absences.
As I observed the behavior of the high achieving and low
achieving learners; the high achieving learner is active and well
participated during discussions or even group works while the low
learner just sits on his chair and non-participating.
The teacher uses differentiated learning activities so that
slow learners will participate and also the high achieving learner
will not get weary on doing activities which they think very easy
for them she also gave them activities which is something difficult.
Field Study | 32
1. Did your observation match the information given by the teacher? Were
you able to correctly identify who among the students performed well and
who did not? What behavior helped you identify them? (Volunteering to
answer responding to teacher’s directions, etc.)
Yes the information given by the teacher matched my
observation. I could identify the students who performed well since
they are the ones who raise their hands when the teacher asks
some questions and got a high score in exams. Others would just
listen and preferred to be called by the teacher first before they
answer and sometimes hesitates in giving answers. That way, I
have identified those top achievers in the class.
2. Describe the differences in ability levels of the students in the class. Is
there a wide gap between the students who are performing well and
those that are not?
The class that I have observed has only few students , so
there isn’t a wide gap between the students who are performing
well and those are not. Since the teacher could accommodate their
needs, almost all of them could perform well. But there are
students who are ashamed to show their skills. They don’t have
much confidence in giving their answers.
3. Describe the methods used by the teacher in handling the students’
differences in abilities. How did the students respond to the teacher?
The teacher uses student-centered learning procedures such
as class discussions and small group work. But it always depends
on the subject matter. The teaching strategies vary from time to
time.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 33
1. Recall the time when you were in the elementary or high school. Recall
the high and low achievers in your class. How did your teacher deal with
differences in abilities? Was your teacher effective?
When I was in elementary or high school, the high achievers in
class were given awards by our teacher and was even ranked them
from 1-10. They were also awarded in their abilities like best in
Mathematics, English or in Arts. And how their characters in the
class.
2. With the principle of individual differences in mind, what methods and
strategies will you remember in the future to ensure that you will be able
to meet the needs of both the high and low achievers in your class?
I will practice the law of exercise, wherein I will practice
more often the best strategies that will motivate the learners to
learn, law of readiness that I must be prepared all the time and
law of association or belongingness that I will treat my students
equally whether they are fast or slow learners.
Your Reflections
Field Study | 34
The Learner’s Development and
Environment
HOME-SCHOOL LINK
Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo
Course: BEED II
Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero
Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College
At the end of this activity you will gain competence in reflecting on the
impact of home and family life to learning.
To reach your target, do the following tasks:
 select a learner from the class whom you have observed.
 Conduct a home visit to your selected learner.
 Describe the family in terms of (number of siblings, number of siblings in school)
 Reflect on how the feelings of belongingness and acceptance and cooperation are emphasized in the play.
 Interview the parents about
 - the rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling.
-the learner’s activities and behavior while at home.
Episode 6
Your Target
Your Map
Home and School
Link
Field Study
Field Study | 35
Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations.
An Observation/Interview Guide for Home-School Link
Read the following carefully before you begin to observe/ interview. Then write
your observation report on the provided space.
The Learner
1. Make a general observation of the learner. Describe him in each of the
domains of development.
 Physical-body built and height (thin, chubby, underweight,
overweight) level of physical activity (fast, slow, lethargic, active,
etc.)
 Social-interaction with teachers and classmates (loner, shy,
sociable, friendly, gets into fights, likes by others, etc.)
 Emotional moods, temperament, cry easily, lose temper, happy,
show enthusiasm, excited, indifferent, etc.)
 Cognitive (appears to understand lessons, copes with the lessons,
excels, lags behind, showing reasoning skills, turns in assignments
and requirements, etc.)
Interview the Teacher
1. What are the most noticeable characteristics of the learner? (emotional
disposition, behavior and discipline, sense of responsibility, study habits,
academic performance, relationship with peers, relationship with adults,
social adjustment)
2. How does the teacher communicate with the parents? How often? What
do they discuss? Agree on?
Interview with Parents
1. Conduct a home visit. Once there, observe the home set-up. ( home is
orderly, family pictures in the living room)
2. Use the interview questions on the next page. Just ask the questions
with which you feel comfortable.
Your Tools
Field Study | 36
Suggested Parent Interview Guide
Your teacher may ask you to use a more detailed interview guide. Be free
to translate the questions, if necessary.
Name of learner: Audrey Jill Sardalla
Date of Birth: September 28, 2001 Age: 11 years old
Grade/ Year Level: Grade VI Gender: Female
Number of Siblings: 4
Birth order: Fourth child
Parents:
Mother: Nilda Sardalla
Age: 40 years old
Occupation: Dressmaker
Educational Attainment: College Level
Father: Wilmer Sardalla
Occupation: Government Employee
Educational Attainment: College Level
Learner’s Physical Aspect: She is healthy and Physically fit. The level of
physical activity is very active.
Mother’s health during pregnancy with the learner: The mother during
pregnancy is in good health.
Ailments or health problem of the learner as a child: The child just suffers
colds and fever sometimes.
Age of the learner when he started to walk/talk: She started to walk when
she was 9 months old and talk when she was 1 year old.
Food preferences of the learner as a child and at present: She likes finger
foods such as fried chicken or fried fish.
Who took care of him/her as a child? Both the parents’ take care of the
child, but since the father is in work. The mother got a lot of time taking
care of the child.
Learner’s Social Aspect:
Describe your child sociability (friendly, outgoing or shy, loner)
- She is friendly, easy to deal with peers.
Who were the learner’s playmates?
- She usually plays with her classmates, neighbors mostly boys.
Field Study | 37
As a child then was he/she allowed to play outside?
- Yes, she is allowed with an adult’s supervision.
Is he/she allowed to go out with friends? Yes.
Do you have rules for him/her to follow regarding going out? What are these
rules?
- Yes, the mother allows her but there are rules, ask permission either
the mother or to the father before going out, Go home early, be
careful when crossing the streets glimpsed on both sides just to be
sure there is no vehicle coming.
Emotional –Moral
What are your expectations of your child?
-I expect that she can handle herself well and be good on her studies.
How do you provide a nurturing environment for your child?
-I provide a nurturing environment for my child through exposing her to
circle of her friends whom I can trust with.
Does your child go to you when she/he feels down or has a problem? What do
you do to meet his/her emotional needs?
- yes, sometimes she ask for my advices, I do my best to give her
good advices to comfort her.
What do you do when he/she is not successful in something?
- I encourage her not to give up and support her in all ways to strive
harder.
How do you discipline your children?
- I will discipline my children through giving a punishment when they
have done something wrong.
Do you have rules in the house? What are they?
- Yes, I have rules, by cleaning the house, doing assignments/
projects, ask permission if they go out with friends.
How do you impose the rules?
- I impose the rules by explaining to them that there is a n equivalent
punishment once they fail to obey the rules.
What are the consequences of breaking the rules?
- The consequences of breaking the rules are to be whipped by a piece
of broom stick and distrust to the child.
Field Study | 38
Learner’s Cognitive Aspect:
What are the child’s interests?
- The child is interested into sports especially in playing basketball.
What is he/she good at in school:
- She is good in English. She is also good in playing basketball.
In what subject does he/she have difficulty?
- She finds Mathematics a difficult subject.
How do you monitor his/her performance in school? How do you motivate
him/her?
- I ask the teacher about her progress in school. I motivate her
through reviewing her lessons and supporting her in all activities in
school.
Do you have rules at home to help him develop good study habits? What are
these rules? How are they implemented?
- Yes, she will do her homework/ projects, and no watching TV after
dinner because she has to study her lessons.
After you have gathered all the necessary data. Write the Learner’s profile
using the outline below. Type the profile in a separate sheet and attached it to
this learning episode.
THE LEARNER’S DEVELOPMENT PROFILE (outline)
The Learner’s Development Profile
Name of the learner: Audrey Jill Sardalla
School: Andres Soriano College
Date of Home visit: September 16,2012
Date of Birth: September 28,2001 Age: 11 years old
Grade/ Year Level: Grade VI Gender: Female
Family Profile
Number of Siblings: 4 siblings
Birth order: Fourth child
Parents
Mother: Nilda Sardalla
Age: 40 years old
Field Study | 39
Occupation: Dressmaker
Educational attainment: College Level
Father: Wilmer Sardalla
Occupation: Government Employee
Educational attainment: College Level
Physical Development
The child is physically fit and healthy. She is very active in all
activities. She can work independently without the assistance of others.
Social Development
The learner is friendly and sociable. She interacts with her
teacher, classmates and friends outside the school. She learns to
communicate with other respectfully. She knows how to socialize other
people in a good way.
Emotional-Moral Development
The child grows with self confidence and assurance that her
family will support her all the way. From authoritative type of parenting
she received love, respect and warmth from her parents.
Cognitive Development
Her cognitive aspect continuously developed as she comes to
school and study. She is not the same as the other learner. She learns
fast and participates actively during class activities.
Findings
I found out that the child is friendly, active and she likes to
socialize with her peers. She likes to play basketball that is why most of
her friends are boys. She also participates in school activities. The
teacher that makes the child motivated to learn. She is responsible in
carrying and molding the cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills as well
as the total personality of the leaner.
Conclusions
I conclude that the school and home contributes a great impact in
developing the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and so as to the total
personality of the pupils. Hence the learning of the child begins at home.
The child learns values, good attitude and discipline. However, school
plays a vital role in molding the child. Since the school is made for
the purpose of developing physical, social, emotional-moral and
cognitive aspect of the learner. The total development of the child
depends in school as well as the teacher which is the most
Field Study | 40
important person in school that bears knowledge and values to share with
the learner.
Recommendations
For the parents, they are responsible in guiding and disciplining
their children. They must be open with their children. They should ask
them about their study and give encouragement to focus and study hard
so as to become successful in their life. For the teachers, the use of
technologies is a great to enhance learning which they impart to the
students to have a good quality of teaching.
Your findings and recommendations in the learner Development Profile will
help you answer the questions here.
1. From your home visit and interview, what do you think is the style of
parenting experienced by the learner? Explain your answer.
From the home I visited and interviewed, they practice the
authoritative style of parenting. Parents achieve a good blend.
They are firm yet loving. They treat children with respect and
warmth; make children understand consequence of their behavior.
2. Relating your data with what you learned from child development, what
family factors do you think contribute to the development and over-all
adjustment of the learner in school?
The family factors that contribute to the development and
over-all adjustment of the learner in school are first, the emotional-
moral development; on how the learners are nurtured by his
parents, second is the financial setting and last is the cultural
background of the family.
Your Analysis
Field Study | 41
3. Does the communication between the home-school have an effect on the
learner? If yes, what are these effects?
Learner can absorb the way they communicate in their home,
they can bring this in school which reflects how the learner
nurtured and reared by his parents at home because I believe that
“education begins at home”.
1. Reflect on your own development as a child. What type of parenting did
you experience? How did it affect you?
In my own experiences, the type of parenting style is
authoritative style. They have a clear and reasonable expectations
and limitations for us. For instance, my mother would let me play
and go with my friends outside but never too far away so that she
can see us easily and to make sure we are safe. She also
encourages us to participate any school activities depends on our
skills and interest. She always told us the old saying “Do not do
unto others the things that you don’t want others do to you”.
2. As a future teacher, how would you establish good home-school
collaboration? How can you work well with the parents? How can you
help them? How can they help you?
As a future teacher to be, I will build a good working
relationship to the parents. Their collaboration would be a great
help in regards to home-school link. I will make sure that they will
do their job in providing the needs of their children. I can work
well with the parents through consulting the behavior of the child
in their house. I can help them through reporting the child’s
progress and performance in school.
Your Reflections
Field Study | 42
Optional Reflection Activities
2.
H- Helping
O- Our
M- Members
E- Educate
S- States
C- Calmness
H- Humor
O- On
O- Our
L- Lives
Field Study | 43
THE LEARNER
I. The Biological and Physiological Development of the Learner
1. The Prenatal Period
- from conception to birth
- all parts of the human body are already formed
- inherited characteristics from parents are also imparted to the child
during this period
2. Infancy of Babyhood
- From birth to two years
- Basic physical and physiological behavior patterns begin to develop
- The child begins to learn the rudiments of right and wrong
- “oral stage” wherein the child usually puts into his mouth anything
he happens to take hold of
- Usually, the child uses tantrums to call attention
- Baby teeth are already out by the end of the period
3. Early Childhood
- +From two to six years
- “pre-school age”
- Exploratory and inquisitive period
- The child begins to learn some social relationship
- Learns some physical and manual skills
- The child can walk and run with steadiness, talk understandably,
and can already follow simple directions by the end of the period
4. Late Childhood
- From six or seven to eleven or twelve years
- “elementary school age”
- The child learns some manual skills taught at home and in school
- Learns the essential subjects (reading, writing, arithmetic)
- Joins peer groups
Field Study | 44
- Further learns what is right and wrong and how to relate himself to
and with others
- Becomes critical of others
- Begins to get attracted to opposite sex
5. Puberty Stage
- From twelve or thirteen or fourteen years
- “early high school age”
- The urge of sex begins to assert itself very rapidly
- Man is already capable of procreation
- Physical and physiological changes in both sexes take place very
fast
6. Early Adolescence
- From puberty to seventeen years
- “late high school age”
- Rapid sex maturation occurs
- Some young people get married at this stage
- Voice, feeling, and thinking continue to change
- Youth continue their studies and develop their life ambitions and
aspirations in life
7. Late Adolescence
- From eighteen to twenty-one years
- The process of development continues
- “college age”
- There is already independence
- Development of intellectual and social skills continues
8. Early Adulthood
- From twenty-one to forty years
- New life adjustments occur (courtship, marriage, parenthood,
employment, etc.)
- Higher studies may be pursued
- Start of productive years
Field Study | 45
9. Middle Age
- From forty to sixty-five
- A man or a woman must have achieved most of his or her
aspirations
- Preparation for retirement
- Some physical and physiological functions begin to deteriorate
10. Old Age
- starts at age sixty-five
- “retirement period”
- Some physical and physiological and mental functions continue to
decline
- Some ailments and characteristics of old age occur (deafness,
failing eyesight, forgetfulness, baldness, etc.)
II. Developmentalism
 Developmentalism
- Pestalozzianizm”
- This system subjects the individual to develop mental tasks
arranged from easy to difficult
 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
- Swiss educator who developed the system of Developmentalism
BASIC FACTS ABOUT DEVELOPMENT
 Development is Sequential
- Development follows strictly a definite sequence of steps or stages of
progression
 The rate of development is not the same for all individuals
- Some persons develop and learn faster than others
Field Study | 46
- Uneven rate of growth and learning is caused by:
a. Heredity
- Gives all the potentialities for growth and development
b. Environment
- Provides the direction of the growth and development of an
individual
III. Individual Differences “
- uniqueness of an individual”
Heredity
1. Age
- A big factor in making one different from another.
- Older learners have more physical strength and higher level of
comprehension than younger ones.
- Mature learners have greater capacity to receive instruction
2. Sex
- Determines certain roles; males are expected to be aggressive,
fearless and capable of doing heavier work while females are
expected to be passive, demure and prim and because of these
attributions, females are just expected to do the lighter works.
- Determines the direction of growth and development of individuals.
3. Physical Condition
- Naturally, healthier persons progress more rapidly in their
development that those who are less healthy.
- Normally, normal people develop faster and better and able to
attain higher status than the handicapped people.
4. Intelligence (mental ability)
Field Study | 47
- People do not have the same level of intelligence, some are more
intelligent than the others, and those who are more intelligent
progress and grow faster than those who are less intelligent.
5. Aptitude and Special Talent
- People who were given special aptitudes and talents are somehow
given the chance to often show excellence of performance and
leadership in their respective fields of specialization far above the
ordinary individuals.
6. Temperament (emotional maturity and stability)
- There are individuals who are easily irritated and tensed even with
trivial things, symptomatic of emotional immaturity and instability.
- Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable
are more patient in studying their lessons hence; learn faster than
those who are more temperamental.
7. Extroversion – Introversion, Dominance-Submissiveness
- Extroverts are like dominants that are usually gregarious and enjoy
interacting with people.
- Introverts and Submissiveness prefer jobs that can be performed in
peace, quite, and with less contact with people.
8. Effort-making Capacity
- An important trait, one with much effort-making capacity studies
and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits steadiness in
his work.
- Having this capacity is a great determinant to success.
9. Criminal Tendency
- Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble
makers, and they commit anti social acts, in or out school.
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Environment
1. Family Background
- If the parents suffer ignorance and wrong values, the children
likewise suffer the adverse consequences because such parents
cannot pay much attention to the proper upbringing of their
children.
- Children coming from affluent families are educated parents with
the right values can grow and develop more progressively than
children coming from the poor families.
2. Community Background
- Children coming from squatter or slum areas and from crimes
infested areas have very slim chance of growing progressively
because of the bad influence of their neighborhood.
- Children coming from affluent areas, and from average social class,
have all the opportunities offered by the society for them to attain
optimum growth and development.
3. School
- Good schools can develop pupils better than poor schools.
- Components make the difference between good and poor schools:
 Teacher. If teachers are efficient, pupils learn well than when
the teachers are inefficient, the pupils may suffer seatback.
 Facilities. If facilities are adequate, learners learn rapidly,
otherwise the pupils will be retarded in their learning.
 Location. Children studying in a school located in a quiet
place and are conducive to learning; learn more than the
children studying in a school near noisy surroundings.
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TEMPERAMENT
I. Emotion as it affects the Learner
- Emotion is stirred-up state or disorganized behavior caused by a
situation which the individual cannot cope with.
II. Theories of Emotion
1. Evolutionary Theory
“Emotion is the primitive matrix from which all later mental
powers are developed”
2. James-Lange Theory
“Bodily changes are antecedents of the mental state”
3. Cannon-Dana Theory
“Emotion is the result of the action and reaction of the
cerebral cortex and the diencephalon”
4. Emergency or Conflict Theory
“Emotion is a mechanism that enables an individual to meet
conflicts or emergencies.”
III. Importance of Emotion
1. Emotion shapes up the personality of a person
2. Emotion either makes us strong to do actions or prevents us from
doing any action during emergencies.
3. Emotion enables us to cope with conflicts and emergencies.
4. Emotion dominates our lives.
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IV.Methods of Eradicating Undesirable Emotional Behavior
1. Disuse
- Avoid that which causes the undesirable behavior. If one is afraid of
the dark, do not give him a chance to be in the dark.
2. Frequent Application of the Stimulus
- If a child is afraid of the dark, bring him often to the dark.
3. Ridicule or Scorn
-If a male child is fearful of the dark, call him a “coward” or “you are
not a man”. His pride will dare him go into the dark.
4. Social Imitation
- If a child is afraid of puppies, show him that other persons are not
afraid of puppies and that he can handle them without getting
harmed.
5. Verbal Appeal
- Give as my plausible reasons as possible against an undesirable
emotional attitude.
6. Reconditioning
- If a child does not like to take medicine because it is bitter, make
the medicine sweet. If he is afraid to take a bath, let him play with
water of possible.
V. Means of Indirect Adjustment of Frustration
1. Sublimation or Substitution
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 Sublimation. An indirect but socially acceptable expression of
emotion or drive
 Substitution. Is replacing an activity for another in which the
individual fails to excel.
2. Compensation and Overcompensation
 Compensation. A socially acceptable means of adjustment to
make up for deficiency or inferiority, physical or otherwise.
 Overcompensation. An extreme form of compensation less
rational and often anti-social.
3. Fantasy or Introversion
- Act of imagining success and satisfactions that are not attained.
Types:
 Conquering hero type. Imagines himself to be victorious hero.
 Suffering Hero or Martyr type. Believes that the world is
sympathetic to his cause.
4. Rationalization
- Act of giving some socially acceptable reasons for one’s frustrations
Methods:
 Sour Grapes Mechanism. Finds fault in a motive which fails
to attain.
 Sweet Lemon Mechanism. Finds satisfaction in his failure
because it is a blessing in disguise.
 Projection. Act of blaming somebody or something for one’s
failure.
5. Stimulation of Physical Ailments
 Hysteria, Simulation of localized ailments. Usually a combination
of screaming and crying
 Neurasthenia. Simulation of generalized bodily ailments. A nervous
breakdown is an evident
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6. Nomadism
- Act of wandering aimlessly.
7. Regression
- Act of submerging into the subconscious state or forgetting.
- If one is wronged, instead of taking revenge he just forgets the
matter.
8. Delusions
- Strong beliefs in things opposite to reality.
- Usually, patients in the mental hospital suffer from delusions.
9. Regression
- Act of seeking infantile expression of motives.
- A grown-up person acts like a child is an example.
10. Escapes through alcohol and drugs
- Act of excessive drinking of liquor and taking prohibited drugs to
forget or ease up frustrations.
PERSONALITY
I. Components of Personality
1. Physical or Biological Traits and Characteristics
 General physical appearance size of the body, height, weight,
color of hair, manner of walking, health, etc.
2. Capacities
 Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in
art, music, science, etc.
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3. Psychosocial Traits
 Good manners, gregariousness, extroversion-introversion,
dominance-submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle,
patterns of adjustments, etc.
4. Spiritual and Moral Values
 Piety, honesty, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality,
responsibility, devotion to duty, absence of anti-social
tendencies, etc.
5. Temperament
 Emotional maturity and stability
 The ability to keep one’s cool when under stress and strain,
the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc.
II. Mind Theories of Personality
A. Type Theories
1. Physique: Body Types
a. Kretschemer’s Classification
1. Asthenic – tall, thin body associated with schizophrenia
or schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder
characterized by splitting of personality dissociation,
emotional deterioration and out of ideational content.
2. Pyknic – short, fat body with cyclothymic temperament, a
mild manic-depressive psychosis involving recurring
cycles of exhilaration and depression.
3. Dysplastic – bodily defective and handicapped
4. Normal – has only mild forms of asthenic and pyknic
characteristics and has bodies and temperaments that
are appropriate and accepted as normal by the majority.
b. Sheldon’s classification (not confirmed)
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1. Endomorphic (endomorph, n) – prominence of the
intestine and other visceral organs, round but weak
muscles and bones.
2. Mesomorphic (mesomorph, n) – athletic with strong and
rippling muscles, broad shouldered and narrow-hipped.
3. Ectomorphic (ectomorph, n) – tail, thin, stoop
shouldered, with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive
nervous system.
2. Temperament Types
a. Sheldon Temperament Types are:
1. Viscerotonic – predominantly endomorphic, loves to eat,
seeks bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and
movement, and slow in reactions.
2. Somatotonic – predominantly mesomorphic, energetic,
like exercise, direct in his manners, and loves competitive
aggressiveness.
3. Cerebrotonic – predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and
emotional, worries much, does not like groups and loves
solitude.
b. Greek classification usually attributed to Hippocrates.
Temperament is dependent upon the predominant body
fluid.
1. Sanguine – warm-hearted, pleasant quick to react,
balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid
blood.
2. Melancholic - suffers from depression and sadness,
unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is the
black bile.
3. Choleric – easily angered and quick to react, easily
excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow
bile.
4. Phlegmatic – listless, slow, apathetic, calm emotion,
weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm.
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3. Behavior: Psychological Types
a. Introvert – refers to be alone, shy. Withdrawn but may be a
leader in a discussion if this level of intelligence is high.
b. Extrovert –tends or prefers to be amidst people, very
sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and outgoing,
chooses an occupation that deals with people like sales, or
promotional work.
c. Ambivert – the normal that is in-between the two extremes
of introversion and extroversion.
B. Trait Theories
1. Allport’s Personal Dispositions
a. Secondary Traits –when the traits are so many that they
merely express isolated interests or modes of responding and
are better characterized as attitudes than traits such as likes
and dislikes, positive or negative attitude toward something.
b. Central Traits – when the traits are too few to describe a
person
c. Cardinal Traits – when a person is dominated by a singles
outstanding trait that makes him stand out and he becomes
a reference personality whose characteristics we expect
others to know.
2. Cattell’s Theory of Surface and Source of Traits
a. Surface Traits – mostly learned or acquired values that
make man acceptable or not socially such as honest or
dishonest, truthful or untruthful, sociably or shy,
affectionate or cold.
b. Source Traits – more innate or inborn such as mental
ability, dominance-submissiveness, emotional stability, and
introversion-extroversion.
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III. Developmental Theories
1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development
- Holds that we undergo maturational scheme of psychosexual stages
and at each stage, psychosocial crises occur which is successfully
met lead to maturity of psychological development.
a. Compulsive Personality - characterized by excessive
cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess, and punctuality.
b. Authoritarian Personality – characterized by “highly
conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and
cynicism, desire for power, concern over sex.
2. Learning Theories
- Personality is the result of learning through reward and
punishment. The things learned become habits and traits that
make up the individual’s personality distinct from those of others.
3. Role Theories
- Describe personality according to the manner in which the
individual meets the various demands that society makes upon his
role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen.”
a. Age – sex positions – a child should act like a child, a man
acts like a man, and woman as a woman.
b. Occupational positions –a farmer develops a farmer
personality, a doctor personality, a lawyer, personality, etc.
c. Prestige positions – a slave has a slave personality, a
millionaire has a millionaire personality, a President has a
President Personality, etc.
d. Family, Clan, Household – a father has a breadwinner
personality, a child has a subservient to the parents, the
head of a clan must have that personality, etc.
e. Position in association groups based on congeniality or
common interest – on orchestra member must act as such,
member of a Lion’s Club acts as a Lion’s Club member, etc.
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IV. Theories of Personality Dynamics
1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
a. The Id
- This consists of innate instinctual drives of sexual and
aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of
primitive, irrational pleasure seeking of drives such as sex, hunger,
thirst, etc.
b. The Ego
- This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in
socially approved ways: there is rational thinking.
c. The Superego
- This is conscience, the sense of right and wrong, that works
according to the ideal.
- When Id predominates, man becomes irrational and commits
anti-social acts; when the ego predominates, man becomes socially
good; when the superego predominates, man does the exceptional
ideal such as becoming heroes, scientists, writers, explorers, etc.
-
2. Lewin’s Field Theory
- The individual is embedded in a field called his life space,
which is usually his environment, in which conflicts arise and the
alternatives open to the individual to resolve conflicts.
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STUDENT DIVERSITY
Factors that bring about Student Diversity
1. Socioeconomic status- the millionaires’ lifestyle differs from that of the
middle income or lower income group.
2. Thinking/learning style – some of you learn better by seeing
something; others by just listening; and still others by manipulating
something.
3. Exceptionalities – the one that has difficulty in spoken language,
comprehension or in seeing. Hearing and etc.
How student Diversity Enriches the Learning Environment
 Students’ self-awareness is enhanced by diversity- exposing
students to others with diverse backgrounds and experiences also
serve to help students focus on their awareness of themselves.
 Student Diversity contributes to cognitive development- the
opportunity to gain access to the perspectives of peers and to learn
from other students, rather than in instructor only, may be
especially important for promoting the cognitive development of the
learners. Supreme Court justice, William J. Brennan said “the
classroom is peculiarly the marketplace of ideas”.
 Students’ diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible
members of society.- Suzzanne Morse stresses one competency
that has strong implications for instructional strategies that
capitalize on diversity. “The capacity to imagine situations or
problems from all perspectives and to appreciate all aspect of
diversity”.
 Student Diversity can promote harmony- when diversity is
integrated into the classroom teaching and learning process. It can
become the vehicle for promoting harmonious race relations.
Some tips on Student Diversity
Encourage learners to share their personal history and
experiences- students will be made to realize that they have
something in common with the rest. They also differ in several
ways.
 You can encourage or even initiate co-curricular experiences
that are aimed at promoting diversity awareness.
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 Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote
students’ multicultural and cross-cultural awareness
 Let students interview other students in campus who are from
diverse backgrounds
 Invite students to internet discussion groups or e-mail; have
students visit foreign countries and talk to natives of those
countries.
 Ask students if they have even the personal target to prejudice
or discrimination and have them share these experiences with
other members of the class.
Aside from highlighting diversity, identify patterns of unity that
transcend group differences.
Communicate high expectations to students from all subgroups.
Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student
diversity in learning styles.
Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to
provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse
backgrounds.
Adapt to the student’s diverse backgrounds and learning styles by
allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities
concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it.
Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student
learning.
Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse
backgrounds. You can form groups of students with different
learning styles, different cultural background.
LEARNING/THINKING STYLES AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
LEARNING/THINKING STYLES- refer to the preferred way an
individual processes information. They describe a person’s typical
mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. Furthermore,
styles are usually considered to be bipolar dimensions.
Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or
two types of sensory input and maintain dominance in one of the
following types.
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Visual Learners- these learners must see their teacher’s
actions and facial expression to fully understand the content
of the lesson. They tend to prefer sitting in front so no one
would block their view.
Ri Charde breaks sown visual learners into:
o Visual iconic- those who prefer this form of input are
more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic
displays or pictures in order to solidify learning.
o Visual –symbolic- those who prefer this form of input
feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as
mathematical formulas or the written word.
Auditory Learners- they learn best through verbal lectures,
discussions, talking things through and listening to what
others have to say. They interpret the underlying meaning s
of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and
other nuances.
Auditory learners also fall into two categories:
 The “Listeners”- they remember things said to them
and make the information their own.
 The “Talkers”- they are the ones who prefer to talk and
discuss. They often find themselves talking to those
around them.
Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners- persons benefit much from a
hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world
around them.
Global-Analytic Continuum
 Analytic – tend to forward the linear, step by
step processes of learning. They are “tree
seers”.
 Global- learn towards non-linear thought and
tend to see the whole pattern rather than in
particle elements. They are the “forest seers”
o A successive processor (left brain)- prefers to learn in a
step by step sequential format, beginning with details
leading to a conceptual understanding of the skill.
o A simultaneous processor (right brain)-prefers to learn
beginning with the general concept and then going on to
specifics.
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MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
The theory of multiple intelligences was first
described by Howard Gardner in Frames of Mind (1983).
Gardner defines intelligence as ability or set of abilities that
allow a person to solve problem or fashion a product that is
valued in one or more cultures.
Forms of Intelligences
 Visual/Spatial Intelligence (Picture smart)- learning
visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing
concepts in action in order to understand them.
 Verbal/Linguistic (word smart)- learning through the
spoken and written word. This intelligence was always
valued in the traditional classroom and in traditional
assessments of intelligence and achievement.
 Mathematical/Logical (number smart/ logic smart)-
learning through reasoning and problem solving. Also
highly valued in the traditional classroom.
 Bodily/Kinesthetic (body smart)- learning through
interaction with one’s environment. This intelligence is
not the domain of overly active learners. It promotes
understanding through concrete experience.
 Musical (music smart)-learning through patterns,
rhythms and music. This includes auditory learning,
but the identification of patterns through all the
senses.
 Intrapersonal (self smart)- learning through feelings,
values and attitudes. This is decidedly affective
component of learning through which the students
place value on what they learn and take ownership for
their learning.
 Interpersonal (people smart)- learning through
interaction with others. Not the domain if children who
are simply talkative or overly social..
 Existential (spirit smart)- learning by seeing the big
picture. Why are we here? What is my role in the
world? – this intelligence seeks connections to real
world understanding and application of new learning.
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LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES
DISABILITY- is a measurable impairment or limitation that
interferes with a person’s ability to walk, lift, hear or learn. It may
refer to a physical, sensory or mental condition.
HANDICAP- is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability
or impairment. The degree of disadvantage is often dependent on
the adjustment made by both the person and his environment.
Specific of Exceptionalities
Learning Disabilities- involves difficulties in specific cognitive
processes like perception, language, memory or metacognition.
Examples:
Dyslexia – difficulty in reading
Dyscalculia- difficulty in number operations
Dysgraphia- difficulty in writing
Aphasia- difficulty in language
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- is manifested in
either or both of these:
1. Difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention
2. Recurrent hyperactive and impulsive behavior.
Emotional /Conduct Disorders- this involves the presence of
emotional states like depression and aggression over a considerable
amount in time that they notably disturb learning and performance in
school.
Autism- is a condition manifested by different levels of impaired
social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors and limited
interests.
Mental retardation- refers to significant sub-average intelligence
and deficits in adaptive behavior.
Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments
Physical and health impairments- this involves physical or medical
conditions (usually long-term) including one or more of these:
1. Limited energy and strength
2. Reduced mental alertness
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3. Little muscle control.
Severe and Multiple Disabilities- refers to the presence of two or
more different types of disability at times at a profound level.
Visual Impairments- these are conditions when there is
malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevent normal vision even
with corrective lenses.
Hearing impairments- these involves malfunction of the ear or
auditory nerves that hinder perception of sounds within the frequency
range of normal speech.
Giftedness-this involves a significantly high level of cognitive
development. There is usually high ability or aptitude in one or more of
these objects.
THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE
The classroom climate- is more a product of the interaction between and
among teacher and students than that of the physical condition of the
classroom.
The conducive classroom is one that is business like yet non-threatening.
It is a classroom where:
 Expectations, rules and procedures, limits on behavior are made
clear from the very first day of school;
 The teacher, who is the leader, is fully aware of what is happening
and is in control of the classroom proceedings and yet conveys the
message that she/he is interested in the concerns of students as
individuals and the class as a whole.
 Students are made responsible for their own behavior.
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ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING
ASSESSMENT- is basically the processes of gathering information about the
student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of
making decisions.
Purposes of Assessment
 Diagnosis- is used to determine any special learning need that a
learner may have.
 Placement- the learner can be placed in the best learning
environment where he can better learn and develop.
 Effectiveness of the progress- can also provide data about how a
particular curriculum or program is effective in meeting the goals.
 Student Feedback- to have objective information that can be used
to communicate to the learner his current level of performance.
 Research- assessment results can also be used as a source of very
useful data in a wide range topic in the field of educational
research.
Research –based Principles of Assessment for Learning
 Assessment for learning should be part of effective planning and
learning.
 Assessment for learning should focus on how students learn.
 Assessment of learning should be considered central to classroom
practice.
 Assessment of learning should be considered as a key professional
skill for teachers.
 Assessment for learning must be sensitive and constructive
because it has an emotional impact
 Assessment of learning should be consider the importance of
learners motivation.
 Assessment of learning should promote commitment to learning
goals and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are
assessed.
 Assessment of learning should include constructive guidance on
how learners can improve.
 Assessment of learning develops learner’s skills on self-
assessment.
 Assessment of learning should recognize the full range of
achievements of all learners
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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Some guiding principles in classroom management and their
implications to teaching.
 Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom
management.
Inside the classroom, we could always expect some disciplinary
problems, but some teacher could immediately handle the said
problems. Instead of formulating immediate medicine for the
behavioral problems, the teacher should focus on how to prevent
these predicaments to occur. As much as possible, lets avoid these
dilemmas because it’s too pathetic for us to cry over spilled milk.
 Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs.
To avoid turmoil inside the classroom, the teacher must
ascertain routines from the start of the class, up to the class
dismissal. This could also help a lot in saving much time and effort
because their work is already routinized.
 Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum
throughout the day.
As much as possible, the teacher must avoid dull moments
inside the classroom to motivate the students to always pay attention
to the speakers. The teacher must scheme smooth transitions of
activities inside and outside the classroom through the day.
 Strike a balance variety and challenge in students’ activities in
the classroom.
There should be a variation of activities inside the classroom to
avoid the students and even the teacher from being bored.
 As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in
the classroom
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Even if the teacher is not around, she is still responsible for the
students. That is why she must know the things that are happening
inside the classroom and what her students are up to.
 Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they became
major disruptions.
Disruptions seem to be part in every classroom and in every
lesson. No matter how big or small the hitch is, it could still give so
much distraction not only to the teacher, but foremost to the
students. That is why, if the disruption is still controllable, the
teacher must try to stop it before it becomes too late for her to control
the situation, and worse, it could spoil the whole transition of the
lesson inside the classroom.
 Reinforce positive behavior
To motivate the students to always do the good and right thing,
the teacher should always pay even the simplest compliment in her
students’ actions especially to the appreciating ones.
 Treat minor disturbances calmly
If a simple rising of the voice could control the simple problem,
then do it. There’s no need for you to be hysterical and over-react on
something that’s just under control.
 Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an
interactive teaching-learning process.
Some teachers change seating arrangement quarterly. This is to
enhance interactions between the teacher and students.
 Make good use every instructional moment. Minimize discipline
time to maximize instructional time.
The teacher must use time in order to attain all activities planned
and therefore, can meet the objectives of the class.
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Routines can be established for efficient and effective learning
The routines can be established for efficient and effective learning
are the following:
 Beginning and ending the class day period
 Transitions
 Getting/distribution of material and equipment
 Group work
 Seatwork and teacher-led activities
Techniques are effective in the maximization of instructional time
Here are some research-based effective techniques to maximize the
academic time for instruction:
 Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions
 Remain involved with the students during the entire class period
allowing for no idle time
 Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead time
 Remain involved with the student throughout the period
 Use a common place to keep materials such as scissors and other
school supplies. This saves time. You won’t find it hard looking for
them when you need them.
 Follow a consistent schedule and maintain the procedures and
routines established at the beginning of the year
 Prepare materials in advance
 Make clear and smooth transitions
 Limit disruptions and interruptions through appropriate behavioral
management technique
Ways by which a teacher can prevent or solve disciplinary problems in
class
The following are some proven preventive measures:
 The teachers can implement group-oriented methodologies such as
(1) Cooperative learning approach, (2) Team learning, (3) Peer tutoring,
and (4) group projects and collections. These strategies depend on
the student’s abilities and interests. The strategies promote strong
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cooperation a301.nd shared group responsibility in all classroom
undertakings, thus, eliminating sources of potential problems.
Involving them in planning learning tasks ensure active
involvement and participation rather than passive attention as in
routine activities.
 Teachers who are sensitive to possible misdirection of efforts and
interactions are fast to switch from one technique to another as the
need arises. There must be clear understanding of the objectives of
the lesson and the strategies to be used. Any misstep in the procedure
will then be avoided. But if the continuous flow of the activity is
hampered by an uncontrolled action, then the ability of the teacher to
shift an alternate activity will be necessary.
 Of prime importance are the teacher’s personal attributes such as: (1)
patience, (2) compassion, (3) concern and caring attitude, and (4)
respect and trust for others. A calm and composed reaction in the
midst of an untoward behavior can ensure an acceptable solution for
all. A compassionate teacher understands and feels sympathetic
towards students’ struggles are sufferings. A deep concern fro their
welfare and growth is easily appreciated.
 The teacher’s personalities are their “arms” that can either win or fail
amidst a controllable learning situation. A warm, respectable
relationship with students through sincere and straightforward
communications can demonstrate trust and credibility. Unpretentious
gestures and genuine nodes of receiving student’s explanations bring
about much needed peace of mind. Recognize and appreciate their
progress improvement. A caring attitude can be modeled and the
students will feel confident, secure and upright in return.
 The teacher’s teaching style will determine how the students will
respond, at times, receptive, sometimes withdrawn. These points to
the way they move around during the class activity, how they give
others in the form of requests and how the procedures are clearly
explained. Involving everyone from the flaming to the implementing of
the lesson results in well coordinated investigations and discussions
of findings, thus learning no one in drawing correct conclusions. The
use of appropriate assessment tools and evaluation techniques will
show a final achievement of learning objectives.
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How can a teacher come up with a physical environment that is
supportive of learning?
The physical features of the classroom are a very important factor to
consider in achieving the learning objectives. A conducive physical
learning environment includes:
 Conveniently arranged furniture
 Flexible seating arrangement
 Clean, well-lighted, well-ventilated, noise free and fresh classroom.
PARAMETERS OF TEACHING
ATTENTION
1.0 Definition
The attention parameter concerns teachers’ skills in getting and
keeping student on task during classroom time that is engaging and
involving students in legitimate curriculum activities.
Research study supports the positive correlation of time on task
with student achievement: the more time students spend seriously
engaged in learning activities, the likelier they are master the
material.
2.0 Repertoire of Attention Moves
2.1 Desisting – carry the message “get with it.” They tell the
student that they’re doing something that they shouldn’t be doing
and imply what the students should do (reengage the task). They
vary in degree to which they are corrective and direct.
2.2 Alerting –these moves are meant to keep the student on
their toes, minimizing distraction and keep them in anticipation.
They are often targeted at a group of students as opposed to
individuals.
Field Study | 70
2.3 Acknowledging – teaching students to reenter “here and
now task” by merely acknowledging out loud to students your
understanding of what on their mind.
2.4 Winning – winning moves are similar to enlisting moves in
that they are positive and tend to attract rather than force
students’ attention to the learning experience. However, winning
moves focus student on the teacher, whereas enlisting moves focus
student’s attention more on the activity.
3.0 Matching with the attention parameter
It is important to note that the moves used by the teacher
match with the needs of the students of the group.
MOMENTUM
1.0 Definition
Momentum pertains to the smooth ongoing flow of events in the
classroom. When momentum is not maintained, students get bored
or look for things to do, potentially filling their time by
daydreaming or engaging in disruptive behavior.
Many other parameters relate with momentum (e.g. attention,
routine, expectation, personal relationship building, space, time,
and curriculum parameters). Therefore, we will narrow our
definition of momentum to eight key sub-parameters whose
primary purpose is to keep things moving along, and which when
improperly done or ignore, break the orderly flow of events.
2.0 Sub-parameter
2.1 Provisioning – having things ready to go the space, the
materials
2.2 Overlapping – the ability to manage two or more parallel
events simultaneously with evidence of attention to both.
“Manage” here includes two aspects of teaching performance.
Field Study | 71
 Keeping in touch with what is going on in one, more than
one or areas, or activities at one. It implies knowing that
nature of the activity, the appropriate pupil behavior
within the activity and the current quality of the pupil’s
performance
 Helping pupils over blockages (what may prevent student
to move on with the learning activity)
Wittiness – teacher having eyes in the back of their heads,
seeing the whole room and letting pupils know what’s going on-
is a prerequisite for overlapping.
2.3 Fillers –engaging the students to learning activity when the
teachers are caught with groups of students for short periods
where nothing is planned.
2.4 Intrusions –these are disruptions during moments of
instruction. Every intrusion has the potential to disrupt
momentum. Intrusions take many forms and there are four
basic levels of performance that describes a teacher’s ability to
deal with intrusions:
 Allows intrusions to fracture momentum
 Deals with intrusions in uniform way
 Matches response to intrusion to the characteristics of
the students involved, or to the particular situation.
DISCIPLINE
1.0 Definition
The creation and maintenance of an orderly and favorably
environment that facilitates learning of students.
2.0 Causes of discipline problems
 Poor general management (attention, momentum, space, time
routines, personal relationship building
Field Study | 72
 Inappropriate work that is too hard, too easy, or a glaring
mismatch to students’ learning styles (objectives, learning
experience)
 Boring instructions (learning experiences)
 Confusing instruction (clarity)
 Unclear expectations and consequences (expectations)
 Student sense of powerlessness
 Physical cause
 Ignorance of how to do the expected behavior
 Value clashes
 Heavy emotional baggage students bring with them
3.0 Figuring out discipline problems
 Is the work too hard or too easy?
 Do I build good personal relationships with students?
 Do I maintain good momentum lessons?
 Do I manage time and space well?
 Do I make appropriate attention moves and make them
promptly enough?
 Is my instruction confusing to some students?
 Do I vary instructional formal and materials enough to avoid
students being bored?
 Are the rules and consequences clear and specific enough both
to me and to the students?
 Do I communicate expectations in a way that is …?
- Direct
- Specific
- Repeated
- Shows positive expectancy (both “you can” and “you will”)
 Are the consequences logical rather than positive?
 Do I have a range of consequences rather than one rigid
response for every transgression?
 Do I deliver consequences in a way that is…?
- Consistent and tenacious
- Prompt
- Matter of fact
- Indicates student choice
Field Study | 73
 Do I take sufficient time and care at the beginning of the year to
establish all of the above?
 Do I have high enough expectations for behavior no matte what
the students’ backgrounds?
 Do I refuse to accept excuses?
 Do I give students a real and legitimate sense of control,
influence, responsibility, power in class life?
 Do I recognize and reward responsible behavior effectively?
 Do I explicitly build community in the class (Knowledge about
appreciation of, cooperation with one another)?
 Are there physical reason (hearing, vision loss, organic
hyperactivity) for this behavior?
 Do the students know how to do what I’m expecting of them?
4.0 Planning for Very Resistant Students
 Have I gathered enough objective data on the student’s
behavior?
 Have I presented it to a team to get additional input and
questions?
 Have we come up with the best guesses as to the “psychological
need?”
 Have we picked a matched response model?
 Have we worked out a coordinated plan for all teachers who
contact this youngster?
 Have we included the youngster’s family in the plan?
 Have we provided for periodic review and modification of the
plan?
5.0 Models of Discipline
 Behavior Modification
 Self-Awareness Training
 Personal Influence
 Logical Consequence
 Reality Therapy
 Teacher Effectiveness
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FS 1 Episodes 1-6 plus attachments

  • 1. Field Study | 1 The Learner’s Development and Environment Course Description This course is designed to help the Field Study. Students verify the behavior of the child in the actual learning environment. It will require them to recognize feasible approaches to facilitate learning considering the learner’s different phases of development and social environment. Field Study 1 can be anchored on these professional education subjects:  Child and Adolescent Development  Facilitating learning  Social Dimensions of Education GENERAL OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the stage of the physical, motor, linguistic, literacy, cognitive, social and emotional development of the children or adolescents as manifested in the actual classroom setting. 2. Observe and reflect on the different approaches employed by the teacher in dealing with learners in the different stages of development. 3. Analyze how the teaching and learning process should be conducted considering the different phases of child development. FOCUS SPECIFIC TASK LEARNING EVIDENCE DOMAIN COMPETENCIES School as a learning environme nt Episode 1  Visit a school; look into its facilities and areas that support learning (i.e., classroom, library, playground, An illustration of a school that is supportive of learning or a “child-friendly school” through any of the following: Learning Environme nt Curriculu Determines an environment that provides social psychological and physical environment supportive of learning. Field Study
  • 2. Field Study | 2 Peace Concept in Focus: “Building Friendshi p” Learner’s Characteri stics and needs. Peace Concept in Focus: “Valuing Diversity” Classroom manageme nt and learning and canteen).  Describe the school environment  Prepare an observation log Episode 2 YOU AND I ARE DIFFERENT  Observe 3 groups of learners from different levels (preschool, elementary and high school).  Describe each group of learners based on your observations  Validate your observation by interviewing the learners  Compare them in terms of their interests and needs. Episode 3 “IN NOT OUT”  Observe a class  Using a checklist, find out the evident classroom A descriptive paragraph. A photo essay Narrative description of Diversity among children Checklist on classroom management components m Diversity of Learners Learning Environme nt Differentiate learners of varied characteristics and needs Manages time, space and resources to provide an environment appropriate to the learners and conducive for
  • 3. Field Study | 3 Peace concept in Focus: “Inclusivel y” Learner’s Characteri stics and Learning activities components  Describe how the classroom is structured/de signed to allow everyone to participate in the learning activities  Relate the data in your checklist to the learner’s behavior  Reflect on how classroom management affects learning. Episode 4 TRAITS CHECK  Observe a class on a regular day  Take note of characteristics of the learners in the class  Enumerate and describe the activities that took place in the class.  Analyze how the activities facilitated learning considering the learners’ characteristics . Episode 5 Photo documentatio n of the classroom setting Reflection paper on activities that allow inclusively rather than exclusively among learners Collection of classroom activities written on card boards of rainbow colors A refection paper on the congruence or match of learning activities to the learners’ characteristics Reflection on the interaction of learners despite Diversity of Learners Learning Environme nt Diversity of learners Diversity of learners learning. Recognizes multi cultural backgrounds of learners when providing opportunities Determines teaching approaches and techniques appropriate to the learners Determines, understands and
  • 4. Field Study | 4 Individual differences and the learning process. (Difference in the ability level) Peace concept in focus: “Samenes s in difference s” Individual Differences and the learning process  Observe learners of different learning abilities but the same grade/year  Interview them to gather their background information  Observe them as they participate in a classroom activity  Write the narrative report. Episode 6  Observe a class on a regular day  Take note of characteristics of the learners in the class focusing on gender and cultural diversity  Interview our resource teacher about principles and practices that he/she uses in dealing with diversity in the classroom. differences Learner’s profile Narrative Report Narrative description of Diversity among children Description on how the teacher instills among children the values and knowledge on differences on gender, social and cultural background Home visitation Diversity of learners Communit y linkages accepts the learners; diverse background Relates the learner’s background to their performance in the classroom Recognizes cultural backgrounds of learners when providing learning opportunities. Reflects on the impact of home and family life to learning
  • 5. Field Study | 5 (social and cultural diversity) Peace concept In focus: “Unity in diversity” Episode 7 Home-School Link CONNECT ME  Select a learner from the class that you have observed  Conduct a home visit to your selected learner  Describe the family in terms of -number of siblings Number of siblings in school  Interview the parents about 1. Rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling 2. The learner’s activities and behavior while at home report Reflection on the impact of home and Family life to learning Learning Environme nt
  • 6. Field Study | 6 The Learner’s Development and Environment SCHOOL AS LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity, you will be competent in determining a school environment that provides social, psychological, and physical environment supportive of learning. A general observation of the campus and the classroom is an exciting way to start your observation. Your mission is to do the following tasks: Episode 1 Your Target Your Map 1.Visit a school. Look into facilities and support learning areas in the campus, then in the classroom 2. Accomplish the checklist as you move around the school premises. 3. Based on your gathered data in the checklist, describe the school environment. 4. Make a reflection on the characteristics of a school environment that promotes learning. 5. Present your idea of a good school environment through any of these: a) Descriptive paragraph; b) Photo Essay c) sketch or drawing d) Poem, song or rap Field Study
  • 7. Field Study | 7 As you move around the campus. Activity forms are provided for you to document your observations. It is advised that you read the entire worksheet before proceeding to the school site. A good understanding of the activities and tasks to be accomplished in the activity sheets will yield better learning results. SCHOOL FACILITIES CHECKLIST Familiarize yourself with the different areas and facilities of the school. Check the column to indicate their availability. Give a brief description of those that are available on the last column. Facilities Available Not available Description Office of the Principal Small in space but the things are well organized Library Well ventilated, has a great space and learning resources Counseling Room The area looks comfortable to stay and discuss matters Canteen/Cafeteria Spacious and the foods are affordable. Medical clinic Small in space Audio Visual/Media Center Spacious there are available equipments but seldom in use. Reading center Speech laboratory Wide in space, equipments are good Science laboratory Apparatus are available for expirements Gymnasium The gym is wide in space Auditorium Tools
  • 8. Field Study | 8 Home Economics Room Well arranged and clean Industrial Workshop area PTA Office Comfort room for boys Needs proper maintenance Comfort room for girls Needs proper maintenance Computer laboratory Nice, but needs more unit of computers An observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT Be guided by these tasks as you do your observation. Then accomplish the matrix to record your data. 1. Look at the walls of the classroom. What are posted on the walls? What heroes, religious figures, lessons, visual aids, announcements, do you see posted? 2. Examine how the furniture is arranged. Where is the teacher’s table located? How are the tables and chairs/desks arranged? 3. What learning materials/equipments are present? 4. Observe the students. How many are occupying one room? 5. Is the room well-lighted and well-ventilated? CLASSROOM FACILITIES MATRIX CLASSROOM FACILITIES DESCRIPTION (location, number, arrangement, condition) 1. Wall displays Found at the back corner of the room, 4 bulletin boards. 2. Teachers table Adjacent to the door, facing the chairs of the pupils. 3. Learner’s desk Some are old and has defects. 4. Blackboard Big, found in front of the students 5. Learning Materials/Visual Aids Fraction charts, word problem visual aids 6. Lightings There are two big fluorescent lamps 7. Book shelves Found near the door; big but few books are there
  • 9. Field Study | 9 8. teacher’s stand Found at left corner facing to the chairs of the pupils 9. Fan There is only one stand fan available 10. Broom Stand Found at the back corner, full of broomsticks and scrubs. Write your observation report here: Name of School Observed: Andres Soriano College Location of the School: Mangagoy, BIslig City Date of visit: July 30,2012 The room is spacious and properly decorated. There are six numbers of students; 3 girls and 3 boys. There is a proper lightings and ventilation is properly seen. You can hear the noise of the motorcycles plying to and fro in the main street but it does not affect the learning of the pupils/students. How do the school and the classroom in particular impact on the learning of the students going to school? What are your conclusions? The school campus creates the learner’s environment so that the school campus and the classroom must be conducive to learning. Proper lighting and ventilation should be enhanced in any classroom so that pupils/students would feel comfortable. How does this relate to your knowledge of child and adolescent development/ how does this relate to your knowledge of facilitating learning? A child needs a conducive environment for an effective learning. Their minds and body are still developing so they need proper care and nourishment. As teacher, provide them appropriate tools/materials in understanding and developing their nature that would help in the teaching-learning process. Your Analysis
  • 10. Field Study | 10 1. Would you like to teach in the school environment you just observed? Why? Why not? I would like to teach to the school that I have just observed because the foundation of education here is good, since the pupils are few, I can focus on them and give them proper attention. 2. What kind of school campus is conducive to learning? The school campus which is conducive to learning is the one with quiet atmosphere, plants are visible to give fresh air, offices and halls must be well-organized and accommodating, must have complete facilities. 3. What kind of classroom is conducive to learning? Conducive classrooms is well-ventilated accomplish, has proper lighting, properly decorated and the furnitures are properly arranged. The colors must not hurt eyes and has cooling effect. 4. In the future, how can you accomplish your answer in number 3? I could accomplish my plans in the classroom plans in the classroom by engaging the parents in the beautification of the classroom. Creativity and resourcefulness should exert in order to make my classroom conducive to learning. Classroom management should be applied too. 5. Write your additional learning’s and insights here: I realized that every learner needs a learning environment that would help in processing effectively their knowledge and skills taught by their teachers. Your Reflection
  • 11. Field Study | 11 MY PERSONAL ILLUSTRATION OF AN EFFECTIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
  • 12. Field Study | 12 The Learner’s Development and Environment LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in differentiating the characteristics and needs of learners from different developmental levels. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 2 Your Target Your Map Step 1 Observe 3 groups of learners from different levels (preschool, elem., and high school) Step 2 Describe each of the learners based on your observations Step 3 Validate your observation by interviewing the learners Step 4 Compare them in terms of their interests and needs. Field Study
  • 13. Field Study | 13 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on the provided space. Your teacher may also recommend another observation checklist if a more detailed observation is preferred Physical 1. Observe their gross motor skills. How they carry themselves. How they move, walk, run, go up the stairs. Etc. 2. Are gross movements clumsy or deliberate/smooth? 3. How about their fine motor skills? Writing, drawing, etc. Social 1. Describe how they interact with teachers and other adults. 2. Note how they also interact with peers. What to do they talk about? What are their concerns? Emotional 1. Describe the emotional disposition or temperament of the learners (happy, sad, easily cries ,mood-shifts) 2. How do they express their wants/needs? Can they wait? 3. How do they handle frustrations? 4. Describe their level of confidence as shown in their behavior. Are they self-conscious? Cognitive 1. Describe their ability to use words to communicate their ideas. Note their language proficiency. 2. Describe how they figure out things. Do they comprehend easily? Look for evidence of their thinking skills. 3. Were there opportunities for problem solving? Describe how they showed problem solving abilities. On Erickson’s Epigenetic Principle This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities. Our progress through each stage of life is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stage. A little like the unfolding of a rose bud, each petal opens up at a certain time, in a certain order, which nature, through its genetics, has determined. If we interfere in the natural order of development by pulling a petal forward prematurely or out of order, we ruin the development of the entire flower. -Dr. C. George Boeree Your Tools
  • 14. Field Study | 14 Learners’ Development Matrix Record the data you gathered about the learners’ characteristics and needs in this matrix. This will allow you to compare the characteristics and needs of learners at different levels. The items under each domain are by no means exhaustive. These are just sample indicators. You may add other aspects which you may have observed. Development Domain Preschooler Indicate age range of children: _____ Elementary Indicate age range of children observed: _____ High school Indicate age range from children observed: _______ Physical Gross-motor skills Fine-motor skills Self-help skills Others Moves freely; runs without attention on who and what they will bumped with; not so good in writing, drawing, mostly made of lines Moves, runs, walk with deliberation. They would now pay attention on whom/what they will hit if they move so fast. Very active, can write and draw already. Their actions are done deliberately but sometimes they would still run and walk freely especially if they are playing. Could write legibly, read with comprehension and some can draw well. Social Interaction with teachers Interaction with classmates/friends Interests Others Some of the student’s answers need the follow- up by the teachers. Always ask questions and seek the help of the teacher when they didn’t understand the lesson They respect their teachers and could follow their instructions well. They share ideas, stories that build their self confidence. Watching and observing, talking and sharing about their experiences Listens attentively but sometimes engaged in talking to their seatmates. Teachers are well respected. Choose friends whom they get along well, where they could share similar experiences.
  • 15. Field Study | 15 Emotional Moods and temperament, expression of feelings Emotional independence others Mostly stubborn, shows their emotions when they feel like crying, laughing out loud when they are happy. Express emotions freely, say things with out proper thinking. Depends on teachers to ease their feelings. Stubborn but behaves when scolded or dealt well with the teacher. Express feelings but with limitations. Emotions are expressed on their closest friends. They could hide their feelings, from being happy to sad. (mood swings). They could handle their emotions now. Shy or ashamed of crying and showing emotions in public. Cognitive Communication skills Thinking skills Problem-solving others Simple words can be expressed, but some can’t be pronounced well or clearly. Ideas mostly came from their experiences. Problem solving is always depending from the teachers. Can talk and communicate well. Words are pronounced well and clear. Ideas are being expressed with the sense and thought. Good enough in solving problems. Talks with sense. Ideas are expresses freely, communicates well. Their opinions are mostly based from their experiences and the teaching they gathered.
  • 16. Field Study | 16 Write the most salient developmental characteristics of the learner you observed. Based on these characteristics, think of implications for the teacher. Level Salient characteristics observed Implications to the Teaching-learning Process Preschool Age range of learners observed 3-5  Preschoolers like pictures. They like to listen to stories and could be easily motivated with pictures and drawings.  Therefore, the teacher should use visual aids and instructional materials that would catch their attention like pictures, drawings that are colorful and if possible, videos/film showing. Elementary Age range of learners observed 9-12  These pupils are now independent. They could do their assigned tasks, and could listen attentively to teachers  Teachers should impose rules and guidelines to make teaching-learning process effective. Discipline of the students especially in their study habits should be imposed to develop good attitude values. Highschool Age range of learners observed 13-16  Very observant. Could speak well and talks with sense. Can read using their eyes only  Therefore, teachers should act and behave accordingly for they will be the model of the students in the development of right attitudes and values. Your Analysis
  • 17. Field Study | 17 1. While you were observing the learners, did you recall your own experiences when you were their age? What similarities or differences do you have with the learners you observed? I recalled my experiences when I was just the same with their age, I am also fond of playing , running and talking a lot with my seatmates and sometimes get scolded with the teacher because of not paying attention. But, I differ from them, because I focus on my studies and I’m not ashamed to show my talents. 2. Think of a teacher you cannot forget for positive or negative reasons. How did she/he help or not help you with your needs (physical, emotional, social, and cognitive)? How did it affect you? The teacher that I could not forget is teacher Mercy. I idolized her for her kindness, humility and have a sense of humor. She was very talented and motivates me to show my talents in singing and dancing. Her lessons and values are inculcated in our hearts and she was one of my inspirations on being a teacher someday. 3. Which is your favorite theory of development? How can this guide you as a future teacher? My favorite theory is; through scaffolding, learners could be developed from their actual zone of development to the zone of proximal development. This really inspires me because I could feel that a teacher’s task is very rewarding since they are instrument of making the child reach its fullest potentials. 4. Share your other insights here. Teaching is both a vocation and a mission. Responding to God’s call is not a simple task and gets even harder when you will do the mission of being the catalyst for change. Yet, touching one’s life is priceless and molding them into the best of what can be is the hardest job, but rewarding. Your Reflection
  • 18. Field Study | 18 The Learner’s Development and Environment LEARNERS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in managing time, space and resources to provide an environment which is appropriate to the learners and conducive to learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 3 Your Target Your Map  Observe a class  Using a checklist, find out the evident classroom components.  Describe how the classroom is structured/designed to allow everyone to participate in the learning activities.  Relate the data in your checklist to the learner’s behavior.  Reflect on how classroom management affects learning. Field Study
  • 19. Field Study | 19 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An Observation Guide for the Learner’s Characteristics Read the following statements carefully. Then write your observation report on the provided space. 1. As you observe the class. Look into the characteristics of the learners. Note their ages. 2. How many boys are there? How many girls? 3. Focus on their behavior. Are they already able to manage their own behavior? 4. Can the learners already work independently? 5. Describe their span of attention? 6. Look into their listening skills and ability to concentrate. Name of school: Andres Soriano College Observed: Elementary department Location of the school: Mangagoy, Bislig City Date of visit: July 30, 2012 During my observation in Grade VI, I found out that the pupils were mostly 11-12 years old. There are 6 pupils, 3 girls and 3 boys in the classroom. Each of them possesses different characteristics. Some of them are able to manage their behavior while others depend upon the management of the teacher, like not doing the assigned task in cleaning the classroom and not following the rules. The teacher focuses her attention to all of them so that they can participate and work well. When she is having her lesson, she makes it to a point that her pupils are not just a passive listener but also an active participant. Your Map
  • 20. Field Study | 20 An Observation Guide for the CLASSROOM VISIT Be guided by these questions as you do your observation of the classroom management. It is also good to ask the teacher for additional information so you can verify your observation. Write your notes below, and then organize your data in the table that follows: 1. Are there areas in the classroom for specific purposes (storage of teaching aids, books, students’ belongings, supplies, etc.) 2. Are there rules and procedures posted in the room? 3. Did the students participate in making the classroom rules? 4. What are the daily routines done by the teacher? (Prayer, attendance, assignment of monitors, warm-up activities, etc.) How are they done? 5. Is there a seating arrangement? What is the basis of this arrangement? 6. Observe the noise level in the classroom. How is this managed? 7. If a learner is not following instructions is off-task, what does the teacher do? (behavior strategies) 8. What does the teacher do to reinforce positive behaviors? (behavior strategies) Observation notes: There are areas in the classroom where they store teaching aids, books as well as the student’s belongings and supplies that can be found in the corner of the classroom. There are rules and regulations posted the Do’s and Don’ts that should be followed in the classroom. Their daily routines are cleaning inside and outside the classroom before 7:00 am, then the flag ceremony, after that they will have warm- up activities, a short program and the rest in the lesson proper. Their seating arrangement consists of two rows. The first row, are the girls and the next row are the boys. Their noise level is manageable; the teacher let them take turns in speaking so that everybody can hear them. If a certain pupil is not following instructions or misbehaving, the teacher calls her/his attention and talk to the pupils after the class. The strategies that the teacher used to reinforce positive behavior are giving praises and rewards.
  • 21. Field Study | 21 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT MATRIX Aspect of Classroom Management Description Effect on the learner (to be filled up after you answer the analysis questions) 1. Specific Areas in the classroom Books and students’ belongings are properly arranged. The pupils are comfortable inside the classroom since the areas are well arranged 2. Classroom Rules The rules are posted on the wall, the Do’s and Don’ts to be followed by the pupils Pupils are very careful in not breaking the rules because there is an equivalent punishment for it. 3. Classroom Procedures The procedure such as “NO LOITTERING” between class hours to avoid distractions. Pupils follow the instructions to continue the lesson smoothly 4. Daily Routine Cleaning inside and outside the classroom, flag ceremony, prayer and warm-up activities Pupils are responsible enough to do their responsibilities and the rules and procedures. 5. Seating Arrangement The girls are in the first row, and the boys are in the second row The pupils are comfortable in their seating arrangement 6. Handling misbehavior/ off task behavior The teacher calls the attention of the pupils/students, and later on they will talk after class. The pupils/students would behave when called by the teacher but frightened of whatever the consequences. 7. Reinforcement of positive behavior Praises the student’s good performance and giving awards like an extra points on grades The pupils are motivated to study harder.
  • 22. Field Study | 22 1. How did the classroom organization and routines affect the learners’ behavior? Through classroom organization and routines, pupils/students actively participate in the classroom discussions. The lesson plan is carefully prepared such that all discussions are directed towards the achievement of its objectives which students could reach the goals of the teaching- learning process. 2. What should the teacher have in mind when she/he designs the classroom organization and routines? What theories and principles should you have in mind? Teacher should put in his/her mind that designing the classroom organization and routines that would avoid some of the distractions that keeps the students from functioning effectively and would affect the students behavior and learning. Behaviorist theory should be considered, that the teacher’s role is to establish rules and procedures and to communicate these rules clearly to students to implement appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of the rules. 3. Which behavior strategies were effective in managing the behavior of the learners? In motivating students? Why were they effective? The behavior strategy that is effective in managing the behavior of the learner is being a role model to the pupils, meaning to say that teachers should show that they are responsible if they want pupils to be responsible as well Student’s motivation is also effective through the use of appropriate instructional materials. Your Analysis
  • 23. Field Study | 23 1. Imagine yourself organizing your classroom in the future. In what grade/year level do you see yourself? What routine and procedures would you consider for this level? Why? If I were a teacher, I will prefer to teach in grade six class too because at this stage, they are more mature than in lower grades. They are still manageable though they are independent, they can work in their own with out being told by the teacher. I would impose routines like cleaning inside and outside the classroom before and after the class, prayer and checking the attendance, and also the rules and regulations to be followed strictly so that there would be a smooth flow of teaching-learning process. 2. Make a list of the rules you are likely to implement in this level. Why would you choose these rules? The following rules are: Speak English and Filipino Avoid loitering during class hours Ask permission before leaving the classroom Respect yourself, others and environment Always maintain the cleanliness of the classroom I would choose theses rules because they are observable and achievable that would prevent the students from misbehaving. 3. Should learners be involved in making class rules? Why? Students should also be involved in making the class rules so that it would be clear to them and they will understand the importance of the rules and regulations that there is an appropriate reward and punishment for the compliance of these rules. The students discipline should start from them in following the rules and regulations. Your Reflection
  • 24. Field Study | 24 The Learner’s Development and Environment INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION (focusing on differences in gender, racial, religious backgrounds) Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining teaching approaches and techniques considering the individual differences of the learners. The learners’ individual differences and the type of interaction they bring surely affect the quality of teaching and learning. This episode is about observing and gathering data to find out how student diversity affects learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks: Episode 4 Your Target Your Map Step 1: observe a class in different parts of a school day (beginning of the day, class time, recess etc) Step 2: describe the characteristics of the learners in terms of age, gender and asocial cultural diversity Step 3: Describe the interaction that transpires inside and outside the classroom Step 4: interview your resource teacher about the principles and practices that she uses in dealing with the diversity in the classroom Step 5: Analyze the impact of individual differences on learners’ interaction Field Study
  • 25. Field Study | 25 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations: An Observation Guide for the Learners’ Characteristics Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your observation report on the space provided on the next page. 1. Find out the number of students; gather data as to their ages, gender, racial groups, religious and ethnic backgrounds. During class: 1. How much interaction is there in the classroom? Describe how the students interact more with the teacher than others. 2. Observe the learners seated at the back and the front part of the room. Do they behave and interact differently? 3. Describe the relationship among the learners. Do the learners cooperate with or complete against each other? 4. Which students participate actively? Which students ask for most help? 5. When a student is called and cannot answer the teacher’s question, do the classmates try to help them? Or do they raise their hands so that the teacher will call them instead? Outside class: 1. How do the students group themselves outside the class? Homogeneously, by age? By gender? By racial or ethnic groups? Or are the students in mixed social groupings? If so, describe the groupings. 2. Describe how the learners interact with each other? What do they talk about? Your Tools
  • 26. Field Study | 26 OBSERVATION REPORT Name of the School Observed: Andres Soriano College School Address: Mangagoy, Bislig City Date of Visit: July 30,2012 I visited a Grade VI classroom under the advisory of Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero with 6 pupils only. There are 3 girls and 3 boys. They have different religious beliefs but then they respect each other, just like when they pray for those who are not catholic they just bow their heads and they do not have to do the sign of the cross. Since they is only a few numbers of pupils. All of them participate in the class. Each of them is called to answer the questions or do the board-work exercises especially in math subject. Their seating arrangement does not affect their learning since they are only few in numbers and the teacher could accommodate and give attention to them. There are really good students who excel and answer the questions correctly. But there are instances that a certain pupil could not give the answer correctly due to frequent absences. Other pupils will raise their hands to help him. In a group activity, each group has their own leader and reporter, while the members share their ideas to compete with other group. Outside the class, the pupils play with each other. They run, walk and move freely. They like to talk about their favorite artists in the movie, or any soap operas in television, the places they want to go and favorite sports or anime characters. They were group by gender, the 3 girls talk about their likes and interests while the 3 boys also talk about their favorite super heroes.
  • 27. Field Study | 27 1. Identify the persons who play key roles in the relationships and interactions in the classrooms. What roles do they play? Is there somebody who appears to be the leader, a mascot/joker, an attention seeker, a little teacher, a doubter/pessimist? In a classroom, pupils differ from each other in their skills, innate talents and abilities. There are pupils that plays as a leader, a little joker that makes all his classmates laugh, an attention seeker because she likes to sing and she has a beautiful voice. There is also a little teacher not to do bad things. In each role they play in the relationship and interactions in the classroom, it only shows that they have different characteristics and interests. 2. Are students coming from minority group accepted or rejected by the others? How is this shown? The students were of different cultures since each family has a culture of their own. Some pupils who belonged to minority group were still accepted by their classmates. At their age, they just want to have fun and play together because they respect each other despite their differences in attitudes, skills, socio-economic status and abilities. The teacher also shows that they are accepted and they belong in the class by making her classroom a perfect place to be. 3. How does the teacher influence the class interaction considering the individual differences of the students? The teacher influences the class interaction by encouraging learners to share their personal experiences through sharing to the class or by groups, students will be made to realize that they have something in common with the rest though they possess some differences. Another way is using varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity. 4. What factors influence the grouping of learners outside the classroom? The factors that bring about the grouping of learners outside the classroom are; socio-economic status, thinking/learning styles and exceptionalities. Your Analysis
  • 28. Field Study | 28 1. How did you feel being in that classroom? Did you feel a sense of oneness or unity among the learners and between the teacher and the learners? I feel glad and comfortable in observing that classroom since the teacher acknowledge our presence and the students very polite to us. I could feel that the teacher is well respected by her pupils because they listen attentively and participate during discussions. In that way, I can sense the oneness among the students and the teacher. 2. In the future, how would you want the learners in your classroom to interact? How will you make this happen? I want my learners in the future to be active learners. I could make this happen by imposing rules and regulations that would discipline my pupils to make them behave in the class that provide a positive classroom atmosphere. Through good classroom management and teaching strategies that would consider student diversity, I could effectively make my pupils and competitive learners. 3. How will you encourage all learners, regardless of religious, ethnic or racial background, to interact and participate? I could encourage all learners regardless of religious, ethnic or racial background to interact and participate by initiating co- curricular activities/experiences that are aimed to promote diversity awareness such as Linggo ng wika, cultural shows and intramurals, exposing them to other students with diverse backgrounds and experiences also serves to help students focus on their awareness of themselves. Your Reflection
  • 29. Field Study | 29 The Learner’s Development and Environment INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND LEARNER’S INTERACTION (focusing on different levels of abilities) Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity, you will gain competence in determining, understanding and accepting the learners’ diverse backgrounds; an in relating the learners’ background to their performance in the classroom. To reach your target, do the following tasks: 1. Observe two or more learners of different abilities but from the same grade or level 4.Write a narrative Report and a brief Reflection on your Experience 3.Observe them as They participate in a Classroom activity 2.Find out some information About their background Episode 5 Your Target Your Map Field Study
  • 30. Field Study | 30 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An Observation Guide for Individual Differences Read the following carefully before you begin to observe. Then write your observation report on the space provided. 1. Observe the class to see the differences in abilities of the learners. 2. Try to identify the students who seem to be performing well and those that seem to be behind. 3. Validate your observations by asking the teacher about the background (family, socio-economic, presence of some learning disabilities, etc.)Of these children. 4. Observe the behavior of both the high achieving and low-achieving learners. Note their dispositions, pace in accomplishing tasks, interaction with teacher, and interaction with others. 5. Observe the teacher’s method in addressing the individual learning needs of the students in his/her class. Your Tools
  • 31. Field Study | 31 OBSERVATION REPORT Name of the School Observed: Andres Soriano College School Address: Mangagoy, Bislig City Date of Visit: July 30,2012 As I have observed the Grade VI class, I noticed that there are individual differences among the learners not only in physical aspects but also with their abilities. There are pupils who have the ability to become good leaders, an active learner who participate in the class though some pupils are passive learners and absentees. As I validate the teacher about the background of one student who makes frequent absences about 3 to 4 days a week without any valid reasons. the teacher said that his parents are busy in their business and tried to send them letters but didn’t respond to it, so she planned to visit them at home to let them know the behavior of their son and to know the reason of his absences. As I observed the behavior of the high achieving and low achieving learners; the high achieving learner is active and well participated during discussions or even group works while the low learner just sits on his chair and non-participating. The teacher uses differentiated learning activities so that slow learners will participate and also the high achieving learner will not get weary on doing activities which they think very easy for them she also gave them activities which is something difficult.
  • 32. Field Study | 32 1. Did your observation match the information given by the teacher? Were you able to correctly identify who among the students performed well and who did not? What behavior helped you identify them? (Volunteering to answer responding to teacher’s directions, etc.) Yes the information given by the teacher matched my observation. I could identify the students who performed well since they are the ones who raise their hands when the teacher asks some questions and got a high score in exams. Others would just listen and preferred to be called by the teacher first before they answer and sometimes hesitates in giving answers. That way, I have identified those top achievers in the class. 2. Describe the differences in ability levels of the students in the class. Is there a wide gap between the students who are performing well and those that are not? The class that I have observed has only few students , so there isn’t a wide gap between the students who are performing well and those are not. Since the teacher could accommodate their needs, almost all of them could perform well. But there are students who are ashamed to show their skills. They don’t have much confidence in giving their answers. 3. Describe the methods used by the teacher in handling the students’ differences in abilities. How did the students respond to the teacher? The teacher uses student-centered learning procedures such as class discussions and small group work. But it always depends on the subject matter. The teaching strategies vary from time to time. Your Analysis
  • 33. Field Study | 33 1. Recall the time when you were in the elementary or high school. Recall the high and low achievers in your class. How did your teacher deal with differences in abilities? Was your teacher effective? When I was in elementary or high school, the high achievers in class were given awards by our teacher and was even ranked them from 1-10. They were also awarded in their abilities like best in Mathematics, English or in Arts. And how their characters in the class. 2. With the principle of individual differences in mind, what methods and strategies will you remember in the future to ensure that you will be able to meet the needs of both the high and low achievers in your class? I will practice the law of exercise, wherein I will practice more often the best strategies that will motivate the learners to learn, law of readiness that I must be prepared all the time and law of association or belongingness that I will treat my students equally whether they are fast or slow learners. Your Reflections
  • 34. Field Study | 34 The Learner’s Development and Environment HOME-SCHOOL LINK Name of FS Student: Marian B. Tiempo Course: BEED II Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dorothy Baldomero Cooperating School: Andres Soriano College At the end of this activity you will gain competence in reflecting on the impact of home and family life to learning. To reach your target, do the following tasks:  select a learner from the class whom you have observed.  Conduct a home visit to your selected learner.  Describe the family in terms of (number of siblings, number of siblings in school)  Reflect on how the feelings of belongingness and acceptance and cooperation are emphasized in the play.  Interview the parents about  - the rules they implement at home concerning their child’s schooling. -the learner’s activities and behavior while at home. Episode 6 Your Target Your Map Home and School Link Field Study
  • 35. Field Study | 35 Use the activity form provided for you to document your observations. An Observation/Interview Guide for Home-School Link Read the following carefully before you begin to observe/ interview. Then write your observation report on the provided space. The Learner 1. Make a general observation of the learner. Describe him in each of the domains of development.  Physical-body built and height (thin, chubby, underweight, overweight) level of physical activity (fast, slow, lethargic, active, etc.)  Social-interaction with teachers and classmates (loner, shy, sociable, friendly, gets into fights, likes by others, etc.)  Emotional moods, temperament, cry easily, lose temper, happy, show enthusiasm, excited, indifferent, etc.)  Cognitive (appears to understand lessons, copes with the lessons, excels, lags behind, showing reasoning skills, turns in assignments and requirements, etc.) Interview the Teacher 1. What are the most noticeable characteristics of the learner? (emotional disposition, behavior and discipline, sense of responsibility, study habits, academic performance, relationship with peers, relationship with adults, social adjustment) 2. How does the teacher communicate with the parents? How often? What do they discuss? Agree on? Interview with Parents 1. Conduct a home visit. Once there, observe the home set-up. ( home is orderly, family pictures in the living room) 2. Use the interview questions on the next page. Just ask the questions with which you feel comfortable. Your Tools
  • 36. Field Study | 36 Suggested Parent Interview Guide Your teacher may ask you to use a more detailed interview guide. Be free to translate the questions, if necessary. Name of learner: Audrey Jill Sardalla Date of Birth: September 28, 2001 Age: 11 years old Grade/ Year Level: Grade VI Gender: Female Number of Siblings: 4 Birth order: Fourth child Parents: Mother: Nilda Sardalla Age: 40 years old Occupation: Dressmaker Educational Attainment: College Level Father: Wilmer Sardalla Occupation: Government Employee Educational Attainment: College Level Learner’s Physical Aspect: She is healthy and Physically fit. The level of physical activity is very active. Mother’s health during pregnancy with the learner: The mother during pregnancy is in good health. Ailments or health problem of the learner as a child: The child just suffers colds and fever sometimes. Age of the learner when he started to walk/talk: She started to walk when she was 9 months old and talk when she was 1 year old. Food preferences of the learner as a child and at present: She likes finger foods such as fried chicken or fried fish. Who took care of him/her as a child? Both the parents’ take care of the child, but since the father is in work. The mother got a lot of time taking care of the child. Learner’s Social Aspect: Describe your child sociability (friendly, outgoing or shy, loner) - She is friendly, easy to deal with peers. Who were the learner’s playmates? - She usually plays with her classmates, neighbors mostly boys.
  • 37. Field Study | 37 As a child then was he/she allowed to play outside? - Yes, she is allowed with an adult’s supervision. Is he/she allowed to go out with friends? Yes. Do you have rules for him/her to follow regarding going out? What are these rules? - Yes, the mother allows her but there are rules, ask permission either the mother or to the father before going out, Go home early, be careful when crossing the streets glimpsed on both sides just to be sure there is no vehicle coming. Emotional –Moral What are your expectations of your child? -I expect that she can handle herself well and be good on her studies. How do you provide a nurturing environment for your child? -I provide a nurturing environment for my child through exposing her to circle of her friends whom I can trust with. Does your child go to you when she/he feels down or has a problem? What do you do to meet his/her emotional needs? - yes, sometimes she ask for my advices, I do my best to give her good advices to comfort her. What do you do when he/she is not successful in something? - I encourage her not to give up and support her in all ways to strive harder. How do you discipline your children? - I will discipline my children through giving a punishment when they have done something wrong. Do you have rules in the house? What are they? - Yes, I have rules, by cleaning the house, doing assignments/ projects, ask permission if they go out with friends. How do you impose the rules? - I impose the rules by explaining to them that there is a n equivalent punishment once they fail to obey the rules. What are the consequences of breaking the rules? - The consequences of breaking the rules are to be whipped by a piece of broom stick and distrust to the child.
  • 38. Field Study | 38 Learner’s Cognitive Aspect: What are the child’s interests? - The child is interested into sports especially in playing basketball. What is he/she good at in school: - She is good in English. She is also good in playing basketball. In what subject does he/she have difficulty? - She finds Mathematics a difficult subject. How do you monitor his/her performance in school? How do you motivate him/her? - I ask the teacher about her progress in school. I motivate her through reviewing her lessons and supporting her in all activities in school. Do you have rules at home to help him develop good study habits? What are these rules? How are they implemented? - Yes, she will do her homework/ projects, and no watching TV after dinner because she has to study her lessons. After you have gathered all the necessary data. Write the Learner’s profile using the outline below. Type the profile in a separate sheet and attached it to this learning episode. THE LEARNER’S DEVELOPMENT PROFILE (outline) The Learner’s Development Profile Name of the learner: Audrey Jill Sardalla School: Andres Soriano College Date of Home visit: September 16,2012 Date of Birth: September 28,2001 Age: 11 years old Grade/ Year Level: Grade VI Gender: Female Family Profile Number of Siblings: 4 siblings Birth order: Fourth child Parents Mother: Nilda Sardalla Age: 40 years old
  • 39. Field Study | 39 Occupation: Dressmaker Educational attainment: College Level Father: Wilmer Sardalla Occupation: Government Employee Educational attainment: College Level Physical Development The child is physically fit and healthy. She is very active in all activities. She can work independently without the assistance of others. Social Development The learner is friendly and sociable. She interacts with her teacher, classmates and friends outside the school. She learns to communicate with other respectfully. She knows how to socialize other people in a good way. Emotional-Moral Development The child grows with self confidence and assurance that her family will support her all the way. From authoritative type of parenting she received love, respect and warmth from her parents. Cognitive Development Her cognitive aspect continuously developed as she comes to school and study. She is not the same as the other learner. She learns fast and participates actively during class activities. Findings I found out that the child is friendly, active and she likes to socialize with her peers. She likes to play basketball that is why most of her friends are boys. She also participates in school activities. The teacher that makes the child motivated to learn. She is responsible in carrying and molding the cognitive, affective, psychomotor skills as well as the total personality of the leaner. Conclusions I conclude that the school and home contributes a great impact in developing the cognitive, affective, psychomotor and so as to the total personality of the pupils. Hence the learning of the child begins at home. The child learns values, good attitude and discipline. However, school plays a vital role in molding the child. Since the school is made for the purpose of developing physical, social, emotional-moral and cognitive aspect of the learner. The total development of the child depends in school as well as the teacher which is the most
  • 40. Field Study | 40 important person in school that bears knowledge and values to share with the learner. Recommendations For the parents, they are responsible in guiding and disciplining their children. They must be open with their children. They should ask them about their study and give encouragement to focus and study hard so as to become successful in their life. For the teachers, the use of technologies is a great to enhance learning which they impart to the students to have a good quality of teaching. Your findings and recommendations in the learner Development Profile will help you answer the questions here. 1. From your home visit and interview, what do you think is the style of parenting experienced by the learner? Explain your answer. From the home I visited and interviewed, they practice the authoritative style of parenting. Parents achieve a good blend. They are firm yet loving. They treat children with respect and warmth; make children understand consequence of their behavior. 2. Relating your data with what you learned from child development, what family factors do you think contribute to the development and over-all adjustment of the learner in school? The family factors that contribute to the development and over-all adjustment of the learner in school are first, the emotional- moral development; on how the learners are nurtured by his parents, second is the financial setting and last is the cultural background of the family. Your Analysis
  • 41. Field Study | 41 3. Does the communication between the home-school have an effect on the learner? If yes, what are these effects? Learner can absorb the way they communicate in their home, they can bring this in school which reflects how the learner nurtured and reared by his parents at home because I believe that “education begins at home”. 1. Reflect on your own development as a child. What type of parenting did you experience? How did it affect you? In my own experiences, the type of parenting style is authoritative style. They have a clear and reasonable expectations and limitations for us. For instance, my mother would let me play and go with my friends outside but never too far away so that she can see us easily and to make sure we are safe. She also encourages us to participate any school activities depends on our skills and interest. She always told us the old saying “Do not do unto others the things that you don’t want others do to you”. 2. As a future teacher, how would you establish good home-school collaboration? How can you work well with the parents? How can you help them? How can they help you? As a future teacher to be, I will build a good working relationship to the parents. Their collaboration would be a great help in regards to home-school link. I will make sure that they will do their job in providing the needs of their children. I can work well with the parents through consulting the behavior of the child in their house. I can help them through reporting the child’s progress and performance in school. Your Reflections
  • 42. Field Study | 42 Optional Reflection Activities 2. H- Helping O- Our M- Members E- Educate S- States C- Calmness H- Humor O- On O- Our L- Lives
  • 43. Field Study | 43 THE LEARNER I. The Biological and Physiological Development of the Learner 1. The Prenatal Period - from conception to birth - all parts of the human body are already formed - inherited characteristics from parents are also imparted to the child during this period 2. Infancy of Babyhood - From birth to two years - Basic physical and physiological behavior patterns begin to develop - The child begins to learn the rudiments of right and wrong - “oral stage” wherein the child usually puts into his mouth anything he happens to take hold of - Usually, the child uses tantrums to call attention - Baby teeth are already out by the end of the period 3. Early Childhood - +From two to six years - “pre-school age” - Exploratory and inquisitive period - The child begins to learn some social relationship - Learns some physical and manual skills - The child can walk and run with steadiness, talk understandably, and can already follow simple directions by the end of the period 4. Late Childhood - From six or seven to eleven or twelve years - “elementary school age” - The child learns some manual skills taught at home and in school - Learns the essential subjects (reading, writing, arithmetic) - Joins peer groups
  • 44. Field Study | 44 - Further learns what is right and wrong and how to relate himself to and with others - Becomes critical of others - Begins to get attracted to opposite sex 5. Puberty Stage - From twelve or thirteen or fourteen years - “early high school age” - The urge of sex begins to assert itself very rapidly - Man is already capable of procreation - Physical and physiological changes in both sexes take place very fast 6. Early Adolescence - From puberty to seventeen years - “late high school age” - Rapid sex maturation occurs - Some young people get married at this stage - Voice, feeling, and thinking continue to change - Youth continue their studies and develop their life ambitions and aspirations in life 7. Late Adolescence - From eighteen to twenty-one years - The process of development continues - “college age” - There is already independence - Development of intellectual and social skills continues 8. Early Adulthood - From twenty-one to forty years - New life adjustments occur (courtship, marriage, parenthood, employment, etc.) - Higher studies may be pursued - Start of productive years
  • 45. Field Study | 45 9. Middle Age - From forty to sixty-five - A man or a woman must have achieved most of his or her aspirations - Preparation for retirement - Some physical and physiological functions begin to deteriorate 10. Old Age - starts at age sixty-five - “retirement period” - Some physical and physiological and mental functions continue to decline - Some ailments and characteristics of old age occur (deafness, failing eyesight, forgetfulness, baldness, etc.) II. Developmentalism  Developmentalism - Pestalozzianizm” - This system subjects the individual to develop mental tasks arranged from easy to difficult  Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi - Swiss educator who developed the system of Developmentalism BASIC FACTS ABOUT DEVELOPMENT  Development is Sequential - Development follows strictly a definite sequence of steps or stages of progression  The rate of development is not the same for all individuals - Some persons develop and learn faster than others
  • 46. Field Study | 46 - Uneven rate of growth and learning is caused by: a. Heredity - Gives all the potentialities for growth and development b. Environment - Provides the direction of the growth and development of an individual III. Individual Differences “ - uniqueness of an individual” Heredity 1. Age - A big factor in making one different from another. - Older learners have more physical strength and higher level of comprehension than younger ones. - Mature learners have greater capacity to receive instruction 2. Sex - Determines certain roles; males are expected to be aggressive, fearless and capable of doing heavier work while females are expected to be passive, demure and prim and because of these attributions, females are just expected to do the lighter works. - Determines the direction of growth and development of individuals. 3. Physical Condition - Naturally, healthier persons progress more rapidly in their development that those who are less healthy. - Normally, normal people develop faster and better and able to attain higher status than the handicapped people. 4. Intelligence (mental ability)
  • 47. Field Study | 47 - People do not have the same level of intelligence, some are more intelligent than the others, and those who are more intelligent progress and grow faster than those who are less intelligent. 5. Aptitude and Special Talent - People who were given special aptitudes and talents are somehow given the chance to often show excellence of performance and leadership in their respective fields of specialization far above the ordinary individuals. 6. Temperament (emotional maturity and stability) - There are individuals who are easily irritated and tensed even with trivial things, symptomatic of emotional immaturity and instability. - Generally, children who are more emotionally mature and stable are more patient in studying their lessons hence; learn faster than those who are more temperamental. 7. Extroversion – Introversion, Dominance-Submissiveness - Extroverts are like dominants that are usually gregarious and enjoy interacting with people. - Introverts and Submissiveness prefer jobs that can be performed in peace, quite, and with less contact with people. 8. Effort-making Capacity - An important trait, one with much effort-making capacity studies and works harder, concentrates more, and exhibits steadiness in his work. - Having this capacity is a great determinant to success. 9. Criminal Tendency - Children who have this tendency are usually bullies, trouble makers, and they commit anti social acts, in or out school.
  • 48. Field Study | 48 Environment 1. Family Background - If the parents suffer ignorance and wrong values, the children likewise suffer the adverse consequences because such parents cannot pay much attention to the proper upbringing of their children. - Children coming from affluent families are educated parents with the right values can grow and develop more progressively than children coming from the poor families. 2. Community Background - Children coming from squatter or slum areas and from crimes infested areas have very slim chance of growing progressively because of the bad influence of their neighborhood. - Children coming from affluent areas, and from average social class, have all the opportunities offered by the society for them to attain optimum growth and development. 3. School - Good schools can develop pupils better than poor schools. - Components make the difference between good and poor schools:  Teacher. If teachers are efficient, pupils learn well than when the teachers are inefficient, the pupils may suffer seatback.  Facilities. If facilities are adequate, learners learn rapidly, otherwise the pupils will be retarded in their learning.  Location. Children studying in a school located in a quiet place and are conducive to learning; learn more than the children studying in a school near noisy surroundings.
  • 49. Field Study | 49 TEMPERAMENT I. Emotion as it affects the Learner - Emotion is stirred-up state or disorganized behavior caused by a situation which the individual cannot cope with. II. Theories of Emotion 1. Evolutionary Theory “Emotion is the primitive matrix from which all later mental powers are developed” 2. James-Lange Theory “Bodily changes are antecedents of the mental state” 3. Cannon-Dana Theory “Emotion is the result of the action and reaction of the cerebral cortex and the diencephalon” 4. Emergency or Conflict Theory “Emotion is a mechanism that enables an individual to meet conflicts or emergencies.” III. Importance of Emotion 1. Emotion shapes up the personality of a person 2. Emotion either makes us strong to do actions or prevents us from doing any action during emergencies. 3. Emotion enables us to cope with conflicts and emergencies. 4. Emotion dominates our lives.
  • 50. Field Study | 50 IV.Methods of Eradicating Undesirable Emotional Behavior 1. Disuse - Avoid that which causes the undesirable behavior. If one is afraid of the dark, do not give him a chance to be in the dark. 2. Frequent Application of the Stimulus - If a child is afraid of the dark, bring him often to the dark. 3. Ridicule or Scorn -If a male child is fearful of the dark, call him a “coward” or “you are not a man”. His pride will dare him go into the dark. 4. Social Imitation - If a child is afraid of puppies, show him that other persons are not afraid of puppies and that he can handle them without getting harmed. 5. Verbal Appeal - Give as my plausible reasons as possible against an undesirable emotional attitude. 6. Reconditioning - If a child does not like to take medicine because it is bitter, make the medicine sweet. If he is afraid to take a bath, let him play with water of possible. V. Means of Indirect Adjustment of Frustration 1. Sublimation or Substitution
  • 51. Field Study | 51  Sublimation. An indirect but socially acceptable expression of emotion or drive  Substitution. Is replacing an activity for another in which the individual fails to excel. 2. Compensation and Overcompensation  Compensation. A socially acceptable means of adjustment to make up for deficiency or inferiority, physical or otherwise.  Overcompensation. An extreme form of compensation less rational and often anti-social. 3. Fantasy or Introversion - Act of imagining success and satisfactions that are not attained. Types:  Conquering hero type. Imagines himself to be victorious hero.  Suffering Hero or Martyr type. Believes that the world is sympathetic to his cause. 4. Rationalization - Act of giving some socially acceptable reasons for one’s frustrations Methods:  Sour Grapes Mechanism. Finds fault in a motive which fails to attain.  Sweet Lemon Mechanism. Finds satisfaction in his failure because it is a blessing in disguise.  Projection. Act of blaming somebody or something for one’s failure. 5. Stimulation of Physical Ailments  Hysteria, Simulation of localized ailments. Usually a combination of screaming and crying  Neurasthenia. Simulation of generalized bodily ailments. A nervous breakdown is an evident
  • 52. Field Study | 52 6. Nomadism - Act of wandering aimlessly. 7. Regression - Act of submerging into the subconscious state or forgetting. - If one is wronged, instead of taking revenge he just forgets the matter. 8. Delusions - Strong beliefs in things opposite to reality. - Usually, patients in the mental hospital suffer from delusions. 9. Regression - Act of seeking infantile expression of motives. - A grown-up person acts like a child is an example. 10. Escapes through alcohol and drugs - Act of excessive drinking of liquor and taking prohibited drugs to forget or ease up frustrations. PERSONALITY I. Components of Personality 1. Physical or Biological Traits and Characteristics  General physical appearance size of the body, height, weight, color of hair, manner of walking, health, etc. 2. Capacities  Mental ability or intelligence, special abilities and talents in art, music, science, etc.
  • 53. Field Study | 53 3. Psychosocial Traits  Good manners, gregariousness, extroversion-introversion, dominance-submissiveness, affluence, generosity, lifestyle, patterns of adjustments, etc. 4. Spiritual and Moral Values  Piety, honesty, sincerity, keeping of promises, punctuality, responsibility, devotion to duty, absence of anti-social tendencies, etc. 5. Temperament  Emotional maturity and stability  The ability to keep one’s cool when under stress and strain, the ability to control irritability and irascibility, etc. II. Mind Theories of Personality A. Type Theories 1. Physique: Body Types a. Kretschemer’s Classification 1. Asthenic – tall, thin body associated with schizophrenia or schizothyme temperament, a mental disorder characterized by splitting of personality dissociation, emotional deterioration and out of ideational content. 2. Pyknic – short, fat body with cyclothymic temperament, a mild manic-depressive psychosis involving recurring cycles of exhilaration and depression. 3. Dysplastic – bodily defective and handicapped 4. Normal – has only mild forms of asthenic and pyknic characteristics and has bodies and temperaments that are appropriate and accepted as normal by the majority. b. Sheldon’s classification (not confirmed)
  • 54. Field Study | 54 1. Endomorphic (endomorph, n) – prominence of the intestine and other visceral organs, round but weak muscles and bones. 2. Mesomorphic (mesomorph, n) – athletic with strong and rippling muscles, broad shouldered and narrow-hipped. 3. Ectomorphic (ectomorph, n) – tail, thin, stoop shouldered, with delicate skin, fine hair and sensitive nervous system. 2. Temperament Types a. Sheldon Temperament Types are: 1. Viscerotonic – predominantly endomorphic, loves to eat, seeks bodily comfort, sociable, relaxed in posture and movement, and slow in reactions. 2. Somatotonic – predominantly mesomorphic, energetic, like exercise, direct in his manners, and loves competitive aggressiveness. 3. Cerebrotonic – predominantly ectomorphic, sensitive and emotional, worries much, does not like groups and loves solitude. b. Greek classification usually attributed to Hippocrates. Temperament is dependent upon the predominant body fluid. 1. Sanguine – warm-hearted, pleasant quick to react, balance emotional excitement. Predominant body fluid blood. 2. Melancholic - suffers from depression and sadness, unpleasant, calm emotion. Predominant body fluid is the black bile. 3. Choleric – easily angered and quick to react, easily excited emotionally. Predominant body fluid is the yellow bile. 4. Phlegmatic – listless, slow, apathetic, calm emotion, weak. Predominant body fluid is the phlegm.
  • 55. Field Study | 55 3. Behavior: Psychological Types a. Introvert – refers to be alone, shy. Withdrawn but may be a leader in a discussion if this level of intelligence is high. b. Extrovert –tends or prefers to be amidst people, very sociable, conventional, orthodox, well-dressed, and outgoing, chooses an occupation that deals with people like sales, or promotional work. c. Ambivert – the normal that is in-between the two extremes of introversion and extroversion. B. Trait Theories 1. Allport’s Personal Dispositions a. Secondary Traits –when the traits are so many that they merely express isolated interests or modes of responding and are better characterized as attitudes than traits such as likes and dislikes, positive or negative attitude toward something. b. Central Traits – when the traits are too few to describe a person c. Cardinal Traits – when a person is dominated by a singles outstanding trait that makes him stand out and he becomes a reference personality whose characteristics we expect others to know. 2. Cattell’s Theory of Surface and Source of Traits a. Surface Traits – mostly learned or acquired values that make man acceptable or not socially such as honest or dishonest, truthful or untruthful, sociably or shy, affectionate or cold. b. Source Traits – more innate or inborn such as mental ability, dominance-submissiveness, emotional stability, and introversion-extroversion.
  • 56. Field Study | 56 III. Developmental Theories 1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Development - Holds that we undergo maturational scheme of psychosexual stages and at each stage, psychosocial crises occur which is successfully met lead to maturity of psychological development. a. Compulsive Personality - characterized by excessive cleanliness, orderliness, obstinacy, stinginess, and punctuality. b. Authoritarian Personality – characterized by “highly conventional behavior, superstition, destructiveness and cynicism, desire for power, concern over sex. 2. Learning Theories - Personality is the result of learning through reward and punishment. The things learned become habits and traits that make up the individual’s personality distinct from those of others. 3. Role Theories - Describe personality according to the manner in which the individual meets the various demands that society makes upon his role as a child, parent, man, woman, worker, citizen.” a. Age – sex positions – a child should act like a child, a man acts like a man, and woman as a woman. b. Occupational positions –a farmer develops a farmer personality, a doctor personality, a lawyer, personality, etc. c. Prestige positions – a slave has a slave personality, a millionaire has a millionaire personality, a President has a President Personality, etc. d. Family, Clan, Household – a father has a breadwinner personality, a child has a subservient to the parents, the head of a clan must have that personality, etc. e. Position in association groups based on congeniality or common interest – on orchestra member must act as such, member of a Lion’s Club acts as a Lion’s Club member, etc.
  • 57. Field Study | 57 IV. Theories of Personality Dynamics 1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory a. The Id - This consists of innate instinctual drives of sexual and aggressive in nature which seeks immediate gratification of primitive, irrational pleasure seeking of drives such as sex, hunger, thirst, etc. b. The Ego - This is a personality responsible for controlling behavior in socially approved ways: there is rational thinking. c. The Superego - This is conscience, the sense of right and wrong, that works according to the ideal. - When Id predominates, man becomes irrational and commits anti-social acts; when the ego predominates, man becomes socially good; when the superego predominates, man does the exceptional ideal such as becoming heroes, scientists, writers, explorers, etc. - 2. Lewin’s Field Theory - The individual is embedded in a field called his life space, which is usually his environment, in which conflicts arise and the alternatives open to the individual to resolve conflicts.
  • 58. Field Study | 58 STUDENT DIVERSITY Factors that bring about Student Diversity 1. Socioeconomic status- the millionaires’ lifestyle differs from that of the middle income or lower income group. 2. Thinking/learning style – some of you learn better by seeing something; others by just listening; and still others by manipulating something. 3. Exceptionalities – the one that has difficulty in spoken language, comprehension or in seeing. Hearing and etc. How student Diversity Enriches the Learning Environment  Students’ self-awareness is enhanced by diversity- exposing students to others with diverse backgrounds and experiences also serve to help students focus on their awareness of themselves.  Student Diversity contributes to cognitive development- the opportunity to gain access to the perspectives of peers and to learn from other students, rather than in instructor only, may be especially important for promoting the cognitive development of the learners. Supreme Court justice, William J. Brennan said “the classroom is peculiarly the marketplace of ideas”.  Students’ diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible members of society.- Suzzanne Morse stresses one competency that has strong implications for instructional strategies that capitalize on diversity. “The capacity to imagine situations or problems from all perspectives and to appreciate all aspect of diversity”.  Student Diversity can promote harmony- when diversity is integrated into the classroom teaching and learning process. It can become the vehicle for promoting harmonious race relations. Some tips on Student Diversity Encourage learners to share their personal history and experiences- students will be made to realize that they have something in common with the rest. They also differ in several ways.  You can encourage or even initiate co-curricular experiences that are aimed at promoting diversity awareness.
  • 59. Field Study | 59  Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote students’ multicultural and cross-cultural awareness  Let students interview other students in campus who are from diverse backgrounds  Invite students to internet discussion groups or e-mail; have students visit foreign countries and talk to natives of those countries.  Ask students if they have even the personal target to prejudice or discrimination and have them share these experiences with other members of the class. Aside from highlighting diversity, identify patterns of unity that transcend group differences. Communicate high expectations to students from all subgroups. Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity in learning styles. Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse backgrounds. Adapt to the student’s diverse backgrounds and learning styles by allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it. Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student learning. Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse backgrounds. You can form groups of students with different learning styles, different cultural background. LEARNING/THINKING STYLES AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE LEARNING/THINKING STYLES- refer to the preferred way an individual processes information. They describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. Furthermore, styles are usually considered to be bipolar dimensions. Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory input and maintain dominance in one of the following types.
  • 60. Field Study | 60 Visual Learners- these learners must see their teacher’s actions and facial expression to fully understand the content of the lesson. They tend to prefer sitting in front so no one would block their view. Ri Charde breaks sown visual learners into: o Visual iconic- those who prefer this form of input are more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic displays or pictures in order to solidify learning. o Visual –symbolic- those who prefer this form of input feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as mathematical formulas or the written word. Auditory Learners- they learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. They interpret the underlying meaning s of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Auditory learners also fall into two categories:  The “Listeners”- they remember things said to them and make the information their own.  The “Talkers”- they are the ones who prefer to talk and discuss. They often find themselves talking to those around them. Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners- persons benefit much from a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. Global-Analytic Continuum  Analytic – tend to forward the linear, step by step processes of learning. They are “tree seers”.  Global- learn towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than in particle elements. They are the “forest seers” o A successive processor (left brain)- prefers to learn in a step by step sequential format, beginning with details leading to a conceptual understanding of the skill. o A simultaneous processor (right brain)-prefers to learn beginning with the general concept and then going on to specifics.
  • 61. Field Study | 61 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES The theory of multiple intelligences was first described by Howard Gardner in Frames of Mind (1983). Gardner defines intelligence as ability or set of abilities that allow a person to solve problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures. Forms of Intelligences  Visual/Spatial Intelligence (Picture smart)- learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. Seeing concepts in action in order to understand them.  Verbal/Linguistic (word smart)- learning through the spoken and written word. This intelligence was always valued in the traditional classroom and in traditional assessments of intelligence and achievement.  Mathematical/Logical (number smart/ logic smart)- learning through reasoning and problem solving. Also highly valued in the traditional classroom.  Bodily/Kinesthetic (body smart)- learning through interaction with one’s environment. This intelligence is not the domain of overly active learners. It promotes understanding through concrete experience.  Musical (music smart)-learning through patterns, rhythms and music. This includes auditory learning, but the identification of patterns through all the senses.  Intrapersonal (self smart)- learning through feelings, values and attitudes. This is decidedly affective component of learning through which the students place value on what they learn and take ownership for their learning.  Interpersonal (people smart)- learning through interaction with others. Not the domain if children who are simply talkative or overly social..  Existential (spirit smart)- learning by seeing the big picture. Why are we here? What is my role in the world? – this intelligence seeks connections to real world understanding and application of new learning.
  • 62. Field Study | 62 LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES DISABILITY- is a measurable impairment or limitation that interferes with a person’s ability to walk, lift, hear or learn. It may refer to a physical, sensory or mental condition. HANDICAP- is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability or impairment. The degree of disadvantage is often dependent on the adjustment made by both the person and his environment. Specific of Exceptionalities Learning Disabilities- involves difficulties in specific cognitive processes like perception, language, memory or metacognition. Examples: Dyslexia – difficulty in reading Dyscalculia- difficulty in number operations Dysgraphia- difficulty in writing Aphasia- difficulty in language Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- is manifested in either or both of these: 1. Difficulty in focusing and maintaining attention 2. Recurrent hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Emotional /Conduct Disorders- this involves the presence of emotional states like depression and aggression over a considerable amount in time that they notably disturb learning and performance in school. Autism- is a condition manifested by different levels of impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors and limited interests. Mental retardation- refers to significant sub-average intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior. Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments Physical and health impairments- this involves physical or medical conditions (usually long-term) including one or more of these: 1. Limited energy and strength 2. Reduced mental alertness
  • 63. Field Study | 63 3. Little muscle control. Severe and Multiple Disabilities- refers to the presence of two or more different types of disability at times at a profound level. Visual Impairments- these are conditions when there is malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves that prevent normal vision even with corrective lenses. Hearing impairments- these involves malfunction of the ear or auditory nerves that hinder perception of sounds within the frequency range of normal speech. Giftedness-this involves a significantly high level of cognitive development. There is usually high ability or aptitude in one or more of these objects. THE CLASSROOM CLIMATE The classroom climate- is more a product of the interaction between and among teacher and students than that of the physical condition of the classroom. The conducive classroom is one that is business like yet non-threatening. It is a classroom where:  Expectations, rules and procedures, limits on behavior are made clear from the very first day of school;  The teacher, who is the leader, is fully aware of what is happening and is in control of the classroom proceedings and yet conveys the message that she/he is interested in the concerns of students as individuals and the class as a whole.  Students are made responsible for their own behavior.
  • 64. Field Study | 64 ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT- is basically the processes of gathering information about the student’s learning; then analyzing and interpreting them for the purpose of making decisions. Purposes of Assessment  Diagnosis- is used to determine any special learning need that a learner may have.  Placement- the learner can be placed in the best learning environment where he can better learn and develop.  Effectiveness of the progress- can also provide data about how a particular curriculum or program is effective in meeting the goals.  Student Feedback- to have objective information that can be used to communicate to the learner his current level of performance.  Research- assessment results can also be used as a source of very useful data in a wide range topic in the field of educational research. Research –based Principles of Assessment for Learning  Assessment for learning should be part of effective planning and learning.  Assessment for learning should focus on how students learn.  Assessment of learning should be considered central to classroom practice.  Assessment of learning should be considered as a key professional skill for teachers.  Assessment for learning must be sensitive and constructive because it has an emotional impact  Assessment of learning should be consider the importance of learners motivation.  Assessment of learning should promote commitment to learning goals and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are assessed.  Assessment of learning should include constructive guidance on how learners can improve.  Assessment of learning develops learner’s skills on self- assessment.  Assessment of learning should recognize the full range of achievements of all learners
  • 65. Field Study | 65 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Some guiding principles in classroom management and their implications to teaching.  Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom management. Inside the classroom, we could always expect some disciplinary problems, but some teacher could immediately handle the said problems. Instead of formulating immediate medicine for the behavioral problems, the teacher should focus on how to prevent these predicaments to occur. As much as possible, lets avoid these dilemmas because it’s too pathetic for us to cry over spilled milk.  Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs. To avoid turmoil inside the classroom, the teacher must ascertain routines from the start of the class, up to the class dismissal. This could also help a lot in saving much time and effort because their work is already routinized.  Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day. As much as possible, the teacher must avoid dull moments inside the classroom to motivate the students to always pay attention to the speakers. The teacher must scheme smooth transitions of activities inside and outside the classroom through the day.  Strike a balance variety and challenge in students’ activities in the classroom. There should be a variation of activities inside the classroom to avoid the students and even the teacher from being bored.  As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom
  • 66. Field Study | 66 Even if the teacher is not around, she is still responsible for the students. That is why she must know the things that are happening inside the classroom and what her students are up to.  Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they became major disruptions. Disruptions seem to be part in every classroom and in every lesson. No matter how big or small the hitch is, it could still give so much distraction not only to the teacher, but foremost to the students. That is why, if the disruption is still controllable, the teacher must try to stop it before it becomes too late for her to control the situation, and worse, it could spoil the whole transition of the lesson inside the classroom.  Reinforce positive behavior To motivate the students to always do the good and right thing, the teacher should always pay even the simplest compliment in her students’ actions especially to the appreciating ones.  Treat minor disturbances calmly If a simple rising of the voice could control the simple problem, then do it. There’s no need for you to be hysterical and over-react on something that’s just under control.  Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process. Some teachers change seating arrangement quarterly. This is to enhance interactions between the teacher and students.  Make good use every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional time. The teacher must use time in order to attain all activities planned and therefore, can meet the objectives of the class.
  • 67. Field Study | 67 Routines can be established for efficient and effective learning The routines can be established for efficient and effective learning are the following:  Beginning and ending the class day period  Transitions  Getting/distribution of material and equipment  Group work  Seatwork and teacher-led activities Techniques are effective in the maximization of instructional time Here are some research-based effective techniques to maximize the academic time for instruction:  Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions  Remain involved with the students during the entire class period allowing for no idle time  Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead time  Remain involved with the student throughout the period  Use a common place to keep materials such as scissors and other school supplies. This saves time. You won’t find it hard looking for them when you need them.  Follow a consistent schedule and maintain the procedures and routines established at the beginning of the year  Prepare materials in advance  Make clear and smooth transitions  Limit disruptions and interruptions through appropriate behavioral management technique Ways by which a teacher can prevent or solve disciplinary problems in class The following are some proven preventive measures:  The teachers can implement group-oriented methodologies such as (1) Cooperative learning approach, (2) Team learning, (3) Peer tutoring, and (4) group projects and collections. These strategies depend on the student’s abilities and interests. The strategies promote strong
  • 68. Field Study | 68 cooperation a301.nd shared group responsibility in all classroom undertakings, thus, eliminating sources of potential problems. Involving them in planning learning tasks ensure active involvement and participation rather than passive attention as in routine activities.  Teachers who are sensitive to possible misdirection of efforts and interactions are fast to switch from one technique to another as the need arises. There must be clear understanding of the objectives of the lesson and the strategies to be used. Any misstep in the procedure will then be avoided. But if the continuous flow of the activity is hampered by an uncontrolled action, then the ability of the teacher to shift an alternate activity will be necessary.  Of prime importance are the teacher’s personal attributes such as: (1) patience, (2) compassion, (3) concern and caring attitude, and (4) respect and trust for others. A calm and composed reaction in the midst of an untoward behavior can ensure an acceptable solution for all. A compassionate teacher understands and feels sympathetic towards students’ struggles are sufferings. A deep concern fro their welfare and growth is easily appreciated.  The teacher’s personalities are their “arms” that can either win or fail amidst a controllable learning situation. A warm, respectable relationship with students through sincere and straightforward communications can demonstrate trust and credibility. Unpretentious gestures and genuine nodes of receiving student’s explanations bring about much needed peace of mind. Recognize and appreciate their progress improvement. A caring attitude can be modeled and the students will feel confident, secure and upright in return.  The teacher’s teaching style will determine how the students will respond, at times, receptive, sometimes withdrawn. These points to the way they move around during the class activity, how they give others in the form of requests and how the procedures are clearly explained. Involving everyone from the flaming to the implementing of the lesson results in well coordinated investigations and discussions of findings, thus learning no one in drawing correct conclusions. The use of appropriate assessment tools and evaluation techniques will show a final achievement of learning objectives.
  • 69. Field Study | 69 How can a teacher come up with a physical environment that is supportive of learning? The physical features of the classroom are a very important factor to consider in achieving the learning objectives. A conducive physical learning environment includes:  Conveniently arranged furniture  Flexible seating arrangement  Clean, well-lighted, well-ventilated, noise free and fresh classroom. PARAMETERS OF TEACHING ATTENTION 1.0 Definition The attention parameter concerns teachers’ skills in getting and keeping student on task during classroom time that is engaging and involving students in legitimate curriculum activities. Research study supports the positive correlation of time on task with student achievement: the more time students spend seriously engaged in learning activities, the likelier they are master the material. 2.0 Repertoire of Attention Moves 2.1 Desisting – carry the message “get with it.” They tell the student that they’re doing something that they shouldn’t be doing and imply what the students should do (reengage the task). They vary in degree to which they are corrective and direct. 2.2 Alerting –these moves are meant to keep the student on their toes, minimizing distraction and keep them in anticipation. They are often targeted at a group of students as opposed to individuals.
  • 70. Field Study | 70 2.3 Acknowledging – teaching students to reenter “here and now task” by merely acknowledging out loud to students your understanding of what on their mind. 2.4 Winning – winning moves are similar to enlisting moves in that they are positive and tend to attract rather than force students’ attention to the learning experience. However, winning moves focus student on the teacher, whereas enlisting moves focus student’s attention more on the activity. 3.0 Matching with the attention parameter It is important to note that the moves used by the teacher match with the needs of the students of the group. MOMENTUM 1.0 Definition Momentum pertains to the smooth ongoing flow of events in the classroom. When momentum is not maintained, students get bored or look for things to do, potentially filling their time by daydreaming or engaging in disruptive behavior. Many other parameters relate with momentum (e.g. attention, routine, expectation, personal relationship building, space, time, and curriculum parameters). Therefore, we will narrow our definition of momentum to eight key sub-parameters whose primary purpose is to keep things moving along, and which when improperly done or ignore, break the orderly flow of events. 2.0 Sub-parameter 2.1 Provisioning – having things ready to go the space, the materials 2.2 Overlapping – the ability to manage two or more parallel events simultaneously with evidence of attention to both. “Manage” here includes two aspects of teaching performance.
  • 71. Field Study | 71  Keeping in touch with what is going on in one, more than one or areas, or activities at one. It implies knowing that nature of the activity, the appropriate pupil behavior within the activity and the current quality of the pupil’s performance  Helping pupils over blockages (what may prevent student to move on with the learning activity) Wittiness – teacher having eyes in the back of their heads, seeing the whole room and letting pupils know what’s going on- is a prerequisite for overlapping. 2.3 Fillers –engaging the students to learning activity when the teachers are caught with groups of students for short periods where nothing is planned. 2.4 Intrusions –these are disruptions during moments of instruction. Every intrusion has the potential to disrupt momentum. Intrusions take many forms and there are four basic levels of performance that describes a teacher’s ability to deal with intrusions:  Allows intrusions to fracture momentum  Deals with intrusions in uniform way  Matches response to intrusion to the characteristics of the students involved, or to the particular situation. DISCIPLINE 1.0 Definition The creation and maintenance of an orderly and favorably environment that facilitates learning of students. 2.0 Causes of discipline problems  Poor general management (attention, momentum, space, time routines, personal relationship building
  • 72. Field Study | 72  Inappropriate work that is too hard, too easy, or a glaring mismatch to students’ learning styles (objectives, learning experience)  Boring instructions (learning experiences)  Confusing instruction (clarity)  Unclear expectations and consequences (expectations)  Student sense of powerlessness  Physical cause  Ignorance of how to do the expected behavior  Value clashes  Heavy emotional baggage students bring with them 3.0 Figuring out discipline problems  Is the work too hard or too easy?  Do I build good personal relationships with students?  Do I maintain good momentum lessons?  Do I manage time and space well?  Do I make appropriate attention moves and make them promptly enough?  Is my instruction confusing to some students?  Do I vary instructional formal and materials enough to avoid students being bored?  Are the rules and consequences clear and specific enough both to me and to the students?  Do I communicate expectations in a way that is …? - Direct - Specific - Repeated - Shows positive expectancy (both “you can” and “you will”)  Are the consequences logical rather than positive?  Do I have a range of consequences rather than one rigid response for every transgression?  Do I deliver consequences in a way that is…? - Consistent and tenacious - Prompt - Matter of fact - Indicates student choice
  • 73. Field Study | 73  Do I take sufficient time and care at the beginning of the year to establish all of the above?  Do I have high enough expectations for behavior no matte what the students’ backgrounds?  Do I refuse to accept excuses?  Do I give students a real and legitimate sense of control, influence, responsibility, power in class life?  Do I recognize and reward responsible behavior effectively?  Do I explicitly build community in the class (Knowledge about appreciation of, cooperation with one another)?  Are there physical reason (hearing, vision loss, organic hyperactivity) for this behavior?  Do the students know how to do what I’m expecting of them? 4.0 Planning for Very Resistant Students  Have I gathered enough objective data on the student’s behavior?  Have I presented it to a team to get additional input and questions?  Have we come up with the best guesses as to the “psychological need?”  Have we picked a matched response model?  Have we worked out a coordinated plan for all teachers who contact this youngster?  Have we included the youngster’s family in the plan?  Have we provided for periodic review and modification of the plan? 5.0 Models of Discipline  Behavior Modification  Self-Awareness Training  Personal Influence  Logical Consequence  Reality Therapy  Teacher Effectiveness