Modal Forms
Modal Forms
Modal Forms
Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that
indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation
     ...
Modal Forms
  Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that
  indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation
 ...
Modal Forms
  Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that
  indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation
 ...
Modal Forms
  Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that
  indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation
 ...
Modal Forms
  Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that
  indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation
 ...
Function of modals
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
4) Obligation...
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
4) Obligation...
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
4) Obligation...
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
4) Obligation...
Function of modals
1) Ability (can)
2) Polite requests (may, would,
could, can)
3) Advice (should, ought to)
             ...
1. Ability (can)


Example       Past form
1. Ability (can)


       Example               Past form


She can speak English very
           well.
1. Ability (can)


        Example                   Past form

                           I could speak English much
She ...
2. Polite requests (may,
    would,could,can)
 Example        Past form
2. Polite requests (may,
       would,could,can)
       Example             Past form
May I help you? (formal)
2. Polite requests (may,
       would,could,can)
       Example             Past form
May I help you? (formal)
Would you l...
2. Polite requests (may,
        would,could,can)
       Example               Past form
May I help you? (formal)
Would yo...
2. Polite requests (may,
        would,could,can)
       Example               Past form
May I help you? (formal)
Would yo...
3. Advice (should, ought
          to)

 Example        Past form
3. Advice (should, ought
              to)

       Example              Past form

Alan should see a lawyer.
3. Advice (should, ought
              to)

       Example              Past form

Alan should see a lawyer.
 Karen ought ...
3. Advice (should, ought
              to)

       Example                    Past form
                             He sh...
3. Advice (should, ought
              to)

       Example                    Past form
                             He sh...
4. Obligation (must,have
          to )

  Example       Past form
4. Obligation (must,have
            to )

      Example             Past form


Helen must (has to) see
 a doctor right a...
4. Obligation (must,have
            to )

      Example                   Past form

                            Helen ha...
5. Probability (must)
Example       Past form
5. Probability (must)
     Example            Past form


Kay must be home now.
5. Probability (must)
     Example                  Past form

                        She must have been very
Kay must be...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
      might, may)
 Example         Past form
6. Possibility (can ,could,
       might, may)
    Example            Past form
You can shop online.
6. Possibility (can ,could,
       might, may)
    Example            Past form
You can shop online.

Dan could help you.
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example             Past form
 You can shop online.

 Dan could help ...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example             Past form
 You can shop online.

 Dan could help ...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example                    Past form
 You can shop online.    I could...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example                    Past form
 You can shop online.    I could...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example                    Past form
 You can shop online.    I could...
6. Possibility (can ,could,
        might, may)
     Example                     Past form
 You can shop online.    I coul...
7(a). Conditional
Example      Past form
7(a). Conditional
        Example               Past form


If I had time, I would help
   her (expresses a wish)
7(a). Conditional
        Example                  Past form
                              If I had studied the
          ...
7 (b). Past habit (would)
  Example       Past form
7 (b). Past habit (would)
  Example           Past form


             As a youth, I would spend
              hours at my...
7(c). Desire (would like)
  Example       Past form
7(c). Desire (would like)
       Example              Past form


I would like some coffee.
7(c). Desire (would like)
       Example                Past form

                            I would have liked
        ...
7(d). Preference (would
        rather)
 Example       Past form
7(d). Preference (would
            rather)
        Example               Past form


I would rather be tall than
        ...
7(d). Preference (would
            rather)
        Example                    Past form

                                ...
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Modals keynote

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Modals keynote

  1. 1. Modal Forms
  2. 2. Modal Forms
  3. 3. Modal Forms Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation (must)
  4. 4. Modal Forms Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation (must) Remember that modals have no third-person singular form.
  5. 5. Modal Forms Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation (must) Remember that modals have no third-person singular form.
  6. 6. Modal Forms Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation (must) Jane helps people Remember that modals have no third-person singular form.
  7. 7. Modal Forms Modal auxiliaries are a special class of words that indicate things such as ability (can) and obligation (must) Jane helps people Remember that modals have no third-person singular form. Jane can help you.
  8. 8. Function of modals
  9. 9. Function of modals 1) Ability (can)
  10. 10. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can)
  11. 11. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to)
  12. 12. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to) 4) Obligation/necessity (must, have to)
  13. 13. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to) 4) Obligation/necessity (must, have to) 5)Probability (must)
  14. 14. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to) 4) Obligation/necessity (must, have to) 5)Probability (must) 6)Possibility (can, could, might, may)
  15. 15. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to) 4) Obligation/necessity (must, have to) 5)Probability (must) 6)Possibility (can, could, might, may) 7) Conditional, past habit (would), desire (would like), preference (would rather).
  16. 16. Function of modals 1) Ability (can) 2) Polite requests (may, would, could, can) 3) Advice (should, ought to) Although have to is 4) Obligation/necessity (must, not a modal have to) auxiliary, it is 5)Probability (must) included on this list because it functions 6)Possibility (can, could, might, like a modal and has may) the same meaning as 7) Conditional, past habit must. Have to (would), desire (would like), becomes has to in the third person preference (would rather).
  17. 17. 1. Ability (can) Example Past form
  18. 18. 1. Ability (can) Example Past form She can speak English very well.
  19. 19. 1. Ability (can) Example Past form I could speak English much She can speak English very better when I was in high- well. school.
  20. 20. 2. Polite requests (may, would,could,can) Example Past form
  21. 21. 2. Polite requests (may, would,could,can) Example Past form May I help you? (formal)
  22. 22. 2. Polite requests (may, would,could,can) Example Past form May I help you? (formal) Would you like some tea?
  23. 23. 2. Polite requests (may, would,could,can) Example Past form May I help you? (formal) Would you like some tea? Could you pass the butter?
  24. 24. 2. Polite requests (may, would,could,can) Example Past form May I help you? (formal) Would you like some tea? Could you pass the butter? Can I have some help? (informal)
  25. 25. 3. Advice (should, ought to) Example Past form
  26. 26. 3. Advice (should, ought to) Example Past form Alan should see a lawyer.
  27. 27. 3. Advice (should, ought to) Example Past form Alan should see a lawyer. Karen ought to do her work.
  28. 28. 3. Advice (should, ought to) Example Past form He should have seen a Alan should see a lawyer. lawyer before signing the Karen ought to do her contract. work.
  29. 29. 3. Advice (should, ought to) Example Past form He should have seen a Alan should see a lawyer. lawyer before signing the Karen ought to do her contract. work. Karen ought to have done her work sooner.
  30. 30. 4. Obligation (must,have to ) Example Past form
  31. 31. 4. Obligation (must,have to ) Example Past form Helen must (has to) see a doctor right away.
  32. 32. 4. Obligation (must,have to ) Example Past form Helen had to see a Helen must (has to) see doctor last night a doctor right away. because she was having difficulty breathing.
  33. 33. 5. Probability (must) Example Past form
  34. 34. 5. Probability (must) Example Past form Kay must be home now.
  35. 35. 5. Probability (must) Example Past form She must have been very Kay must be home now. beautiful when she was young.
  36. 36. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form
  37. 37. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online.
  38. 38. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. Dan could help you.
  39. 39. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. Dan could help you. Mary might do the job.
  40. 40. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. Dan could help you. Mary might do the job. Ann may help them.
  41. 41. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. I could shop online when I had my credit card. Dan could help you. Mary might do the job. Ann may help them.
  42. 42. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. I could shop online when I had my credit card. Dan could help you. You could have helped me but you didn’t. Mary might do the job. Ann may help them.
  43. 43. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. I could shop online when I had my credit card. Dan could help you. You could have helped me but you didn’t. Mary might do the job. Mary might have done the job. Ann may help them.
  44. 44. 6. Possibility (can ,could, might, may) Example Past form You can shop online. I could shop online when I had my credit card. Dan could help you. You could have helped me but you didn’t. Mary might do the job. Mary might have done the job. Ann may help them. Ann may have told him the secret.
  45. 45. 7(a). Conditional Example Past form
  46. 46. 7(a). Conditional Example Past form If I had time, I would help her (expresses a wish)
  47. 47. 7(a). Conditional Example Past form If I had studied the piano when I was If I had time, I would help young I would have her (expresses a wish) become a concert pianist by now.
  48. 48. 7 (b). Past habit (would) Example Past form
  49. 49. 7 (b). Past habit (would) Example Past form As a youth, I would spend hours at my best friend’s house. (expresses a habit)
  50. 50. 7(c). Desire (would like) Example Past form
  51. 51. 7(c). Desire (would like) Example Past form I would like some coffee.
  52. 52. 7(c). Desire (would like) Example Past form I would have liked some coffee but the I would like some coffee. coffee machine was broken.
  53. 53. 7(d). Preference (would rather) Example Past form
  54. 54. 7(d). Preference (would rather) Example Past form I would rather be tall than short.
  55. 55. 7(d). Preference (would rather) Example Past form I would rather have I would rather be tall than been poor and healthy short. than rich and sick when I was a child.

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