HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY By Viviana Fleitas and Mariana Claure
Introduction to technology Ts were seen as primary instructors in the Teaching Methodology The 1st vacuum tube-based computer didn’t fit their teacher/manager method Transitor-based computer dismissed 1968-Investment in technology for schools. Then this was cancelled 1970-Minicomputers were used in some schools 1975-Microcomputers (PCs) were donated (Apple 1 PC) 1983-Acceptance of Apple 2 computers 1988-Laptops were developed 1990-Multimedia PCs were developed, programs delivered on CD-ROMs. Schools provided Ss with online info 1994-Not all Ts had access to a computer for instructional preparation 1997-2007-Internet became an invaluable resource for educators. Yahoo & Google developed ways to find info in the Web. (Educational software useful-graphics & video)
Educational Technology: Use of technology in educational settings (computers, TV, electronic hardware- software ) Instructional Technology Instructional Media Instructional use of education (Process and device that teachers employ in their classrooms) Visual Education/Instruction: Three dimensional objects, photographs, silent films (for instructional use). Audiovisual education/Instruction: When sound was added to films and the popularity of audio recordings, Until 1970 Radio was the next technology to gain attention but it didn’t have impact on schools. WWII: Audio Visual Education: The experience gained from the war time was used in schools in decades to follow. 1950/60: Instructional Television: Federal Communication Commission (FCC) 242 channels for instructional purposes. 1970: the enthusiasm had been exhausted. Computers: 1950/60 earliest work with them but it had little impact until the appearance if microcomputers (1980). 40% of elementary schools and 75% of all secondary schools were using computer by then.
Instructional Technique and TechnologiesProblem based learning, project based learning and Inquiry based learning are active learning educational technologies used to facilitate learning. All three are student centred, ideally involving real-world scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. (Bloom’s Taxonomy- Instructional design)
Technology and Learning Instructional technology enhancement of Ss’ learning Richard Clark, educational technologist, concluded“There are no learning benefits to be gained for employing any specific medium to deliver instruction”“Media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement.” Technology is neutral; there is nothing inherent about the media that assures learning. (e.g. A poorly designed computer program is unlikely to advance learning and may hinder it)
Learning Theories - Technology 1st half of the 20th century,Transfer-of-learning theories→ popular →classroom Ts ↓∙ T transfers knowledge & textbook content to Ss’ mind∙ Examinations determine success of transfer by means of presentations of the content. 2nd half of the 20th century,Behaviourism →impact on the educational tech profession ↓1st computer-assisted programs (CAI). ↓evolvedILS (Individualized learning systems) software & hardware were installed in computer laboratories→ drills & exercises.Constructivism → gained over behaviourism→ psychologists ↓∙Ts’ roles is to create an environment in which Ss construct meaning & interpretation of knowledge directing their own learning.∙Some constructivists equated the use of computers with behaviourism ≠ others recognized them as an ally. ↓Result: computer-based programs promote higher-level thinking encourage collaborative learning
Easy-to-access couse materials Wide Participation Student Motivation BENEFITSImproved student writing Subjects made easier to learn Differentiated Instruction
Technology in the classroom Computer in the classroom. Class website. Class blogs and wikis. Wireless classroom microphones. Mobile devices. Interactive Whiteboards. Online Media. Digital games. Podcasts.
Criticism Lack of proper training. Limited access to sufficient qualities of technology. Time consuming. The quantity of resources is limited.
ConclusionEducational technology is the study and ethical practiceof facilitating learning and improving performance bycreating, using and managing appropriate technologicalprocesses and resources. Educational technology includessoftware, hardware, Internet applications, such as wikisblogs, etc..We should use technology as a “tool” for teachingpurposes. For e.g. Power Point Presentations or streamingaudio and video; presentation-based technology based onthe idea that people can learn through audio & visualreception.
SOURCES•History, the history of computers, and the history of computers ineducation. http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html•Roger G. Baldwin. (n.d.) Gale Encyclopedia of Education: SchoolTechnology in Education http://www.answers.com/topic/school-technology-in-education#ixzz1syEqVxoc•Educational Technology. In Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_technology