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Accounting Valuation Uploaded Updated


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An introduction to accounting valuation

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Accounting Valuation Uploaded Updated

  1. 1. ACCOUNTING VALUATION University Lecturer MARIA N COVLE A PhD Candidate in Financial Management May 14, 2007
  2. 2. Kind Requests! <ul><li>It will not be easy, so please pay your full attention to the presentation ! </li></ul><ul><li>Please turn your cell phones on Silent or Mute mode </li></ul><ul><li>You can ask anything, anytime! </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you in advance! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Kind Advice! <ul><li>You can d ivide your sheets of note-paper </li></ul><ul><li>into two vertical halves (columns): </li></ul><ul><li>The left column for slide contents </li></ul><ul><li>The right column for ad d itional comments, explanations, examples, synon y ms, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be attentive rather than writing word - by - word , these slides are available for free at: </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS VALUATION? (1) <ul><li>Valuation is a highly educated mental process aiming to (having as purpose): </li></ul><ul><li>Setting a value (or a monetary level) on a certain element (asset, liability, equity, company, business) </li></ul><ul><li>The act of appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>The estimation or acknowledgement of the worth of something </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS VALUATION? (2) <ul><li>Valuation is the process of estimating the market value of a financial asset or liability. Valuations can be done on assets (for example, investments in marketable securities such as stocks, options, business enterprises, or intangible assets such as patents , trademarks , know-how, software, databases, and goodwill ) or on liabilities (e.g., bonds issued by a company). Valuations are required in many contexts including investment analysis, capital budgeting, merger and acquisition transactions, financial reporting, taxable events to determine the proper tax liability, and in litigation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT IS VALUATION? (3) <ul><li>Valuation is a technique of the </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Accounting Method </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>is preceeded by: </li></ul><ul><li>(Business) Analysis and Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>of the element to be valued </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Value? (1) Value in Economy <ul><li>Here are some meanings of Value in Economy: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative worth or importance </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary or material worth, as in commerce </li></ul><ul><li>The worth of something in terms of some medium of exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent worth in money, material or service </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated or assigned worth </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Value? (2) Value in Accounting <ul><li>Value is a complex notion, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Value: </li></ul><ul><li>reflects the objective, hard, visible, tangible, concrete, verifiable part of an asset, a liability, a business or a company . </li></ul><ul><li>inspires and generates patrimonial valuation methods, based on costs of incorporated factors (labour, energy, materials and information) in the element to be valued. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Value? (3) Value in Accounting <ul><li>Utility Value: </li></ul><ul><li>represents the extension of user’s want/need fulfil l ment and satisfaction, it is highly subjective . </li></ul><ul><li>reflects the subjective, soft, invisible, hardly verifiable or provable part of an asset, a liability, a business or a company . </li></ul><ul><li>generates non-patrimonial valuation methods, such as Discounted Cash Flow . </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Value? (4) <ul><li>The Market Value (as a form of Fair Value) reconciles the two types of value </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION: </li></ul><ul><li>Value and Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>are core subjects and major concerns in Accounting </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is “ Valuable ” ? <ul><li>Having considerable monetary worth </li></ul><ul><li>Of considerable use or importance </li></ul><ul><li>Having qualities worthy of esteem </li></ul>
  12. 12. Scopes (Purposes) of Valuation <ul><li>Accounting evidence and reporting (“A True and Fair View on Patrimony”) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation of Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers and Acquisitions of companies </li></ul><ul><li>Sale/Purchase of a Business or parts of it </li></ul><ul><li>Association / Partnership Contracts (Deeds) </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Exchange Listing and Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Litigations </li></ul>
  13. 13. What do we valuate? (1) <ul><li>We valuate everything a company owns or owes , and the company as a whole: </li></ul><ul><li>Assets (tangible and intangible, fixed and current, investments, rights, receivables) </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities (debts, payables, obligations, loans) </li></ul><ul><li>Equity (owners’ shares or capital) </li></ul><ul><li>Income (revenue, gains/profits/benefits) </li></ul>
  14. 14. What do we valuate? (2) <ul><li>Expen s es, costs </li></ul><ul><li>Securities (stocks/shares, bonds, derivatives - options, futures) </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising campaigns, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Necessity of Accounting Valuation <ul><li>According to IAS/IFRS Framework, a financial statement element (assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses) should be recognized in the financial statements only if: </li></ul><ul><li>It is probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the entity; and: </li></ul><ul><li>The item has a cost or value that can be measured with reliability. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Valuation and Accounting Policies (1) <ul><li>Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices adopted by an entreprise in preparing and presenting financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting policies should be chosen in order to comply with IASs and IFRSs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Valuation and Accounting Policies (2) <ul><li>Accounting policies should be developed so that information provided by the financial statements is: </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant for the decision-making needs of users </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable: neutral (free from bias), prudent, complete in all material aspects, reflect the economic substance of events and transactions and not merely the ir legal form , and offer a “True and Fair View” on patrimony, financial results and financial position of the company. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Valuation and Accounting Principles (Conventions) <ul><li>Prudence: for reasons of pruden ce , between book value and present value, the least of the two will be selected </li></ul><ul><li>Adequacy: valuation methods should be adequate to (consistent with) the nature of the valuated element </li></ul>
  19. 19. BUSINESS VALUATION <ul><li>BUSINESS VALUATION (“Evaluare economico-financiara”) includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>To valuate = a evalua dpdv economic si contabil </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation (process) = (procesul de) evaluare </li></ul><ul><li>Valu e r = evaluator </li></ul>
  20. 20. Synonyms for “Valuation” (1) <ul><li>To appraise = a evalua, a determina valoarea economica, monetara, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A pparaisal = evaluare in economie </li></ul><ul><li>Appraiser = pretuitor, evaluator: </li></ul><ul><li>“ American Society of Appraisers” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Synonyms for “Valuation” (2) <ul><li>To assess = a aprecia, a estima oficial valoarea unei proprietati in scop de impozitare </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment = estimare oficiala </li></ul><ul><li>Assessor = persoana care face evaluari de proprietati in scop de impozitare: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Scottish Assessors Association” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Synonyms for “Valuation” (3) <ul><li>To estimate = a estima, a aproxima, </li></ul><ul><li>a evalua global </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation = estimare, aproximare </li></ul>
  23. 23. Synonyms for “Valuation” (4) <ul><li>To evaluate = a evalua acte, probe in justitie, situatii, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluator = evaluator de acte, probe in justitie, situatii, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ World Evaluation Service ” </li></ul><ul><li>for academic documents </li></ul>
  24. 24. Synonyms for “Valuation” (5) <ul><li>To approximate = a aproxima </li></ul><ul><li>Approximation = aproximare </li></ul>
  25. 25. Synonyms for “Valuation” (6) <ul><li>To survey = a analiza in amanunt, a inspecta, a expertiza, a evalua (o proprietate) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyor = inspector – evaluator : </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Synonyms for “Valuation” ( 7 ) <ul><li>To val o rize = to maintain the value or the price (of a commodity), especially by subsidies or the government’s pu r chase at a fixed price. </li></ul><ul><li>Valo(u)r = boldness or determination in facing danger; worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Valorous = to be worth. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Pricing is the manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or lines, and many others. Automated systems require more setup and maintenance but may prevent pricing errors. </li></ul>Synonyms for “Valuation” (8)
  28. 28. Synonyms for Valuation (8) <ul><li>Pricing is one of the four p’s of the marketing mix. The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place. It is also a key variable in microeconomic price allocation theory. Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the 4ps,the rest being cost centers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ACCOUNTING VALUATION <ul><li>Norms , Regulations and Good Practice (1): </li></ul><ul><li>International Accounting Standards (IAS), issued by International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) until April 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), issued by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) after April 2001 </li></ul>
  30. 30. ACCOUNTING VALUATION <ul><li>Norms , Regulations and Good Practice ( 2 ): </li></ul><ul><li>International Valuation Standards (IVS), including Guidelines, issued by International Valuation Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices (including Professional Ethics and Deontology) created and developed by big international consultancy companies (“Big Four”, etc.) and promoted by professional bodies as Guidelines and Codes </li></ul>
  31. 31. ACCOUNTING VALUATION <ul><li>Norms , Regulations and Good Practice ( 3 ): </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition (“Rules of Thumb”) , especially in Great Britain, United States , Germany and France </li></ul><ul><li>On this subject, an article is posted and can be downloaded for free from : </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>as “Metodele rapide de evaluare” </li></ul><ul><li>OMFP nr. 1.752/2005 (Monitorul Oficial nr. 1.080 / 30.11.2005) , completed and updated </li></ul>
  32. 32. Romanian Professional Bodies in Valuation <ul><li>Asociatia Nationala a Evaluatorilor din Romania (ANEVAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Corpul Expertilor Contabili si Contabililor Autorizati din Romania (CECCAR) </li></ul><ul><li>These professional bodies issue technical norms for valuation and promote good practices, ethics and deontology </li></ul>
  33. 33. Bases for Accounting Valuation - Types of Value (1) <ul><li>Historical cost or book value: purchase or production cost plus other expenses ( freight , installation, provision, non-deductible taxes) </li></ul><ul><li>Current (present, actual) cost: updated, nowadays historical cost less depreciation or amortization </li></ul><ul><li>Net realizable (settlement) value: sale price less sale expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Present (market) value, a variety of Fair Value </li></ul>
  34. 34. Bases for Accounting Valuation - Types of Value (2) – Fair Value <ul><li>Whenever possible, financial statement elements should be valuated at a Fair Value. Market Value is the most desirable variety of Fair Value : </li></ul><ul><li>Fair value, also called fair price, is a concept used in finance and economics, defined as a rational and unbiased estimate of the potential market price of a good, service, or asset, taking into account such factors as: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Relative scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Perceived utility (economist's term for subjective value based on personal needs) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Potential risk/return characteristics (i.e., for a tradable asset) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Replacement costs, or costs of close substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Production/distribution costs, including a cost of capital </li></ul>
  35. 35. Bases for Accounting Valuation - Types of Value ( 3 ) – Active Market <ul><li>Market Value is the most desirable variety of Fair Value. </li></ul><ul><li>Market Value is accepted only if all Active Market conditions exist: </li></ul><ul><li>The items traded in the market are homogeneous; </li></ul><ul><li>Willing buyers and sellers can normally be found at any time; and: </li></ul><ul><li>Prices are available to the public. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Bases for Accounting Valuation - Types of Value (4) – Market Value <ul><li>Market value is the estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm’s-length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgeably, prudently, and without compulsion. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Bases for Accounting Valuation - Types of Value (5) – Value Added <ul><li>Value added: difference, at each stage of production and trade , between the price of final product and the cost of all factors purchased to make the product. Value added includes: wages, amorti z ation, interest, provisions, taxes and fees, profit. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Value/Cost of Inventories as Input (1) <ul><li>Cost of inventories comprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase costs, such as the purchase price (including transportation fee) and import charges </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of conversion : direct labour and production overheads including variable overheads and fixed overheads allocated at normal production capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Other costs, such as design and borrowing costs </li></ul>
  39. 39. Value/Cost of Inventories as Input (2) <ul><li>The cost of inventories exclude: </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal amounts of wasted materials, labour and overheads </li></ul><ul><li>Storage costs, unless they are necessary prior to a further production process </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative overheads </li></ul><ul><li>Selling costs </li></ul>
  40. 40. Value/Cost of Inventories as Output (1) <ul><li>The cost of inventories that are not ordinarily interchangeable and those produced and segregated for specific projects are assigned by specific identification of their individual costs </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of other inventories is assigned by using either of the following cost formulas: </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted Average Cost </li></ul><ul><li>FIFO: First In – First Out </li></ul><ul><li>LIFO: Last In – First Out </li></ul>
  41. 41. Value/Cost of Inventories as Output (2) <ul><li>The following techniques can be used to measure the cost of inventories if the results better approximate cost: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Cost: </li></ul><ul><li>Normal levels of materials, labour and actual capacity should be taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>The standard cost should be reviewed regularly in order to ensure that it properly approximates actual costs. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Value/Cost of Inventories as Output (3) <ul><li>Retail Method: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sales value should be reduced by gross margin to calculate cost. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Average percentage should be used for each homogeneous group of items. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Marked-down prices should be taken into consideration. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Value/Cost of Inventories as Output (4) <ul><li>Net Realisation Value (NRV) is the estimated sale price less the estimated cost of completion and costs necessary to make the sale. These estimates are based on the most reliable evidence at the time the estimations are made. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Valuation of Goodwill (1) <ul><li>Post-factum = Net Acquisition Value (book value, recogni s ed by the market = Market Value ): </li></ul><ul><li>Aquisition Price of Company </li></ul><ul><li>less </li></ul><ul><li>Value of Identifiable Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Ante-factum (income capitalisation approach) = Discounted Cash Flow (DCF): used only for sale of the business or forecasting purposes , not for bookkeeping. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Valuation of Goodwill (2) <ul><li>Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method is derived from the future value formula for calculating the time value of money and compounding returns, or the capacity of a business to create over-profit: </li></ul><ul><li>FV = PV (1 + k)^n </li></ul><ul><li>FV = Future Value , after n years </li></ul><ul><li>PV = Present Value </li></ul><ul><li>n = number of years of period considered </li></ul>
  46. 46. Valuation of Goodwill (3) <ul><li>k = Discount Rate, which includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-free long-term government bond rate </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term equity risk premium </li></ul><ul><li>Small company risk premium (where applicable) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific company risk premium </li></ul><ul><li>An additional risk premium based on the appraiser’s judgement of specific company risks </li></ul>
  47. 47. Valuation of Equity <ul><li>Net Present Value (NPV): E = A – L </li></ul><ul><li>(E = Equity, A = Assets, L= Liabilities) </li></ul><ul><li>It represents the value of a company as a whole, calculated by accountants . </li></ul><ul><li>Market Value (at the Stock Exchange, for listed companies) . </li></ul>
  48. 48. Value and Price <ul><li>Value is an opinion of an expert and merely an interval, it is a base for commencement of bids, auctions and/or negotiations . </li></ul><ul><li>Price is the final and monetary expression of value and it is fix, precise, firmly determined, stipulated in an offer or in a contract as a result of bid s / auctions, negotiations, commodity exchange transactions, etc. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Other Methods of Valuation (1) <ul><li>Liquidation Value = The estimated amount of money that an asset or company could quickly be sold for, such as if it were to go out of business. If the liquidation value per share for a company is less than the current share price, then it usually means that the company should go out of business (or that the market is misvaluing the stock), although this is uncommon. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Other Methods of Valuation (2) <ul><li>Rule of Thumb = A rule of thumb is a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation. It is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. It comes from tradition, experience and local market conditions . </li></ul>
  51. 51. Other Methods of Valuation ( 3 ) <ul><li>4 applications of The Rule of Thumb method: </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food franchise = 50% of annual sales </li></ul><ul><li>Heating, ventilation & air conditioning contractors = 2 times annual cash profits </li></ul><ul><li>Mail order business = 50% of annual sales + inventory </li></ul><ul><li>M o t e l = $20,000 times number of rooms. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Moments in Accounting Valuation <ul><li>Input/ Entry in to Patrimony ( investments as owner ’s equity, p urchase, conversion/production, s ubsidy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory ( p eriodical complete factual listing / c heck of p atrimony items – assets and liabilities ) </li></ul><ul><li>End of the year, for financial reporting purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Output/Exit from Patrimony (sale, sponsorship, shareholder withdrawal, etc.) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Pricing System <ul><li>Price is the unit of measure ment for value </li></ul><ul><li>Any price includes cost and profit of seller </li></ul><ul><li>Types of prices on the chain of distribution: </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer’s price </li></ul><ul><li>Whole sale price </li></ul><ul><li>Retail price </li></ul><ul><li>Export/Import price </li></ul><ul><li>A previous price is a cost for the next link . </li></ul>
  54. 54. ACCOUNTING VALUATION <ul><li>You may ask any question! </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be shy! </li></ul>
  55. 55. ACCOUNTING VALUATION <ul><li>Thank You, </li></ul><ul><li>for Your Kind and Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Attention! </li></ul>
  56. 56. BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) <ul><li>ACCA (The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants): Preparing Financial Statements – International Stream (Paper 1.1), BPP Publishing, London – UK, 2001; </li></ul><ul><li>Bannock, Graham; Manser, William: Dicţionar internaţional de finanţe, Editura Universal Dalsi – 2000, Bucureşti, 2000; </li></ul><ul><li>Boardman, Anthony E.; Greenberg, David H.; Vining, Aidan R.; Weimer, David L.: Analiza Cost – Beneficiu: Concepte şi practică, Editura ARC, Chişinău, Republica Moldova, 2004; </li></ul><ul><li>Caplan, Suzanne: Finance & Accounting, Adams Media Publishing House, Avon – Massachussetts, USA, 2000; </li></ul><ul><li>Călin, Oprea; Ristea, Mihai: Bazele contabilităţii, Editura Naţional, Bucureşti, 2001; </li></ul><ul><li>Collin, P.H.; Jollife, Adrian: Dicţionar de contabilitate englez – român, Editura Universal Dalsi – 2000, Bucureşti, 2000; </li></ul>
  57. 57. BIBLIOGRAPHY (2) <ul><li>International Accounting Standards Board: International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards, London – UK, 2007, ; </li></ul><ul><li>International Valuation Standards Committee: International Valuation Standards, Eighth Edition, London – UK, 2007, ; </li></ul><ul><li>Low, Jonathan; Cohen Kalafut, Pam: Invisible Advantage: How Intangibles Are Driving Business Performance, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, Cambridge – Massachussetts, USA, 2002; </li></ul><ul><li>Needles Jr., Belverd E.; Anderson, Henry R.; Caldwell, James C.: Principiile de baz ă ale contabilităţii (ediţia a cincea) , Editura ARC, Chişinău, Republica Moldova, 2001; </li></ul><ul><li>Random House Webster’s College Dictionary, New York - NY, USA, 2003; </li></ul><ul><li>Siegel, Joel G.; Shim, Jae K.: Dictionary of Accounting Terms, Barron ’ s Business Guides, Hauppauge – New York, USA, 2005; </li></ul>
  58. 58. BIBLIOGRAPHY (3) <ul><li>Smith Linton, Heather: Business Valuation, Adams Media Publishing House, Avon – Massachussetts, USA, 2004; </li></ul><ul><li>Traşcă, Margareta: Evaluări contabile patrimoniale, Editura Tribuna Economică, Bucureşti, 1998; </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm: How Leaders Build Value, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken – New Jersey, USA, 2006; </li></ul><ul><li>Van Greuning, Hennie: Standardele Internaţionale de Raportare Financiară (ediţie bilingvă engleză – română) , Editura IRECSON, Bucureşti, 2005. </li></ul>
  59. 59. THE END <ul><li>From the bottom of my heart: </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION! </li></ul><ul><li>marian.covlea </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>