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  1. 1. ABDOMEN<br />
  2. 2. abdomen<br /><ul><li> cylindrical chambers
  3. 3. boundaries:
  4. 4. inferior margin of the thorax
  5. 5. superior margin of the pelvis and lower limb</li></li></ul><li>Abdominal viscera <br /><ul><li>major elements of the GIT system
  6. 6. caudal end of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas and gallbladder
  7. 7. spleen
  8. 8. components of the urinary system
  9. 9. kidney and ureters
  10. 10. suprarenal glands
  11. 11. major neurovascular structures</li></li></ul><li>Function of abdomen<br />Houses and protects major viscera<br />Assist in breathing<br />Changes in intra-abdominal pressure<br />
  12. 12. COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />A. ABDOMINAL WALL<br /><ul><li>partly made up of bone but mostly of muscle
  13. 13. skeletal elements are:
  14. 14. L1-L5 vertebrae and IV discs
  15. 15. Superior expanded parts of the pelvic bones
  16. 16. bony components of the inferior thoracic wall</li></ul>(costal margin, 12th rib, end of 11th rib, xiphoid process<br />
  17. 17. COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />ABDOMINAL WALL<br /><ul><li>Muscular elements are
  18. 18. quadratuslumborum, psoas major, iliacus muscle
  19. 19. Transverse abdominis, internal oblique, exyternal oblique
  20. 20. Rectus abdominis</li></li></ul><li>COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />B. ABDOMINAL CAVITY<br /><ul><li>Suspended by mesenteries, from its posterior to anterior abdominal wall
  21. 21. ventral mesentery
  22. 22. dorsal mesentery
  23. 23. Lined by peritoneum
  24. 24. parietal peritoneum – lines the abdominal wall
  25. 25. visceral peritoneum – covers the suspended organs</li></li></ul><li>COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />ABDOMINAL CAVITY<br />1. Intraperitoneal structures<br /><ul><li>Are the elements of the GI system
  26. 26. suspended from the abdominal wall by mesenteries</li></ul>2. Retroperitoneal structures<br /><ul><li>Renal system: kidneys and ureters
  27. 27. Not suspended from the abdominal wall by mesenteries
  28. 28. Lies b/w parietal peritoneum and abdominal wall</li></li></ul><li>COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />C. INFERIOR THORACIC APERTURE<br /><ul><li>is the superior aperture of the abdomen and closed by the diaphragm</li></li></ul><li>COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />D. DIAPHRAGM<br /><ul><li>separates the abdomen from the thorax
  29. 29. anchored by CRUS (muscular extension) anterolaterally as far as L3 on the RIGHT and L2 on the LEFT
  30. 30. Anchored by arcuate ligament posteriorly</li></ul>a. Medial and lateral arcuatelig. – cross the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall<br />b. Median arcuate ligament – crosses the aorta and continous with the CRUS on each side<br />
  31. 31. COMPONENT PARTS OF ABDOMEN<br />E. PELVIC INLET<br /><ul><li>the circular margin is formed entirely by bone
  32. 32. posteriorly – sacrum
  33. 33. Anteriorly – pubic symphisis
  34. 34. Laterally – bony rim of the pelvic bone</li></li></ul><li>PRiMITIVE gut tube<br />A. Foregut <br /><ul><li>Gives rise to the distal end of the esophagus, the stomach and proximal part of the doudenum
  35. 35. Gives rise to the liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen</li></li></ul><li>PRiMITIVE gut tube<br />B. MIDGUT<br /><ul><li>Gives rise to the distal part of the doudenum, the jejunum, ileum, ascending colon,proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon and cecum</li></ul>C. HINDGUT<br /><ul><li>Gives rise to the distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and the superior part of the rectum</li></li></ul><li>Skin and muscles innervation<br /><ul><li>MYOTOME</li></ul>Intercostal Nerves T7-T11 and subcostal nerve T12 ---supply the skin and muscles of the abdominal wall<br />T5-T6 --- supply upper parts of the EOM<br />L1 --- supply the skin and muscle in the inguinal and suprapubic regions<br />
  36. 36. Skin and muscles innervation<br /><ul><li>Dermatome</li></ul>T6 --- skin over the infrasternal angle<br />T10---skin around the umbilicus<br />L1 --- skin in the inguinal and suprapubic regions<br />
  37. 37. Arteries of the gi system<br />1. Celiac Artery<br /><ul><li>Supplies the foregut</li></ul>2. Superior mesenteric artery<br /><ul><li>Supplies the midgut</li></ul>3. Inferior mesenteric artery<br /><ul><li> supplies the hindgut</li></li></ul><li>Veins of the gi system<br />Left renal vein<br /><ul><li> drains the kidney, suprarenal gland and gonad on the same side</li></ul>Left common iliac vein<br /><ul><li> drains the lower limbs, pelvis, perineum and parts of the abdominal wall</li></ul>Left lumbar veins<br /><ul><li> drain the back and posterior abdominal wall on the left side</li></li></ul><li>Abdominal wall<br />Boundaries:<br />Superiorly – xiphoid process and costal margin<br />Inferiorly – upper parts of the pelvic bone<br />Posteriorly – vertebral column<br />
  38. 38. LAYER<br />Skinsuperficial fascia-fatty layer (Camper’s fascia)  superficial fascia-membranous layer (Scarpa’s Fascia) external obliqueinternalobliquetransversusabdominisytransversalisfasciaextraperitonealfasciaparietal peritoneum<br />
  39. 39. Anterolateral muscles<br />3 flat muscles: EOM; IOM; TAM<br />2 vertical muscles: RAM; Pyramidalis<br />Functions:<br />Forms firm but flexible wall that keeps the abdominal viscera within the abdominal cavity<br />Protects the viscera from injury<br />Helps maintain the position of the viscera in the erect posture against the action of gravity<br />Contraction of these muscles assist in both quiet and forced expiration, coughing and vomitting<br />Increase intra-abdominal pressure during parturition (childbirth), micturation and defecation<br />
  40. 40. 3 flat muscles<br />External Oblique Muscles<br /><ul><li>Most superficial, immediately under the Scarpa’s fascia
  41. 41. From lateral to midline aponeurosis forms the linea alba-seen from the xiphoid process down to the pubic symphisis
  42. 42. Derives from the aponeurosis of EOM:
  43. 43. Inguinal ligament, lacunar ligament and pectineal (Cooper’s) ligament</li></li></ul><li>3 flat muscles<br />Internal Oblique Muscle<br /><ul><li>Smaller and thinner than EOM
  44. 44. Blends with linea alba
  45. 45. Muscle fibers passing in a superomedial direction</li></ul>Transversusabdominis muscle<br /><ul><li>Muscle fibers passing in a horizontal direction
  46. 46. Blends with linea alba</li></li></ul><li>3 vertical muscles<br />Rectus abdominis muscle<br /><ul><li>Long and flat muscles and extends the length of the anterior abdominal wall</li></ul>Pyramidalis<br /><ul><li>Small, triangular-shaped muscle which maybe absent
  47. 47. Anterior to the rectus abdominis
  48. 48. Base on the pubis and apex is attached to the linea alba</li></li></ul><li>A. Abdominal esophagus<br />B. Stomach<br />Cardia-surrounds the opening of the esophagus into the stomach<br />Fundus of stomach-area above the level of the cardial orifice<br />Body of stomach-largest region of the stomach<br />Pyloric part – antrum and canal; distal end of the stomach<br />ORGANS<br />
  49. 49. Other features:<br />Greater curvature –point of attachment for the gastrosplenic ligament and the greater omentum<br />Lesser curvature – point of attachment for the lesser omentum<br />Cardial notch- the superior angle created when the esophagus enters the stomach<br />Angular incisure- bend on the lesser curvature<br />
  50. 50. organs<br />Large Intestine<br />Parts: <br />Cecum<br />Colon (ascending, transverse, descending & Sigmoid)<br />Rectum<br />Anus<br />FXN:  Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body<br />Small Intestine<br />Parts:<br /> duodenum<br /> jejunum<br /> ileum<br />Fxn: - where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place<br /> - absorption of nutrients and minerals found in food<br />
  51. 51. Organs<br />Liver<br /><ul><li>largest visceral organ in the body
  52. 52. this organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis,hormone production, and detoxification
  53. 53. surfaces :
  54. 54. diaphragmatic surface (anterior, superior, posterior directions
  55. 55. visceral surface (inferior direction)</li></ul>Functions:<br />Formation of Bile<br />Major organ for Fat Metabolism<br />Biotransformation of Drugs<br />
  56. 56. organs<br />Gall Bladder<br /><ul><li>a pear-shaped sac lying on the visceral surface of the right lobe of the liver
  57. 57. a small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver
  58. 58. Parts: Fundus, body and neck
  59. 59. Fxn: receives, concentrates and stores bile from the liver</li></li></ul><li>organs<br />Pancreas<br /><ul><li> lies mostly posterior to the stomach
  60. 60. Parts: head, uncinate process, neck and tail of pancreas
  61. 61. a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates
  62. 62. is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as well as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorbtion of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.</li></li></ul><li>
  63. 63. 1: Head of pancreas2: Uncinate process of pancreas3: Pancreatic notch4: Body of pancreas5: Anterior surface of pancreas6: Inferior surface of pancreas7: Superior margin of pancreas8: Anterior margin of pancreas9: Inferior margin of pancreas10: Omental tuber11: Tail of pancreas12: Duodenum<br />
  64. 64. organs<br />Spleen<br /><ul><li> lies against the diaphragm, in the area of rib IX to rib X
  65. 65. Lies in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen
  66. 66. Fxn: It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock while also recycling iron</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!!!<br />