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Inductive Research
by Mariam Bedraoui
Master Student
Moroccan American Studies
Hassan II University
Casablanca
Induction: A Research Reasoning Method
 Inductive Research provides an
alternative approach to theory.
 Theory does not ...
Inductive Research: A Theoretical Framework
Inductive
Research
Qualitative
Approach
An
Interpretive
perspective
Explorator...
Implementing induction
 Generating theory from
specific observations is
a studious process of
data collection, analysis
a...
Implementing Induction

Tasks Tools and
Strategies
Outcomes
Collecting
data
Participant
observation
In- depth interview...
Implementing Induction

 Tasks: the researcher has to
• organise data in an invented but systemic
way
• identify major c...
Implementing Induction

The ultimate goal of the researcher is to identify regularities, singularities and
variations in ...
Inductive Research: Limitations
Inductive studies may generate
interesting and illuminating
findings. Single inductive
stu...
Inductive Research: Strengths
Theory is generated from the
empirical data, which helps
reaching a ‘closeness of fit’
betwe...
Inductive Research Methods: A case Study
Conclusion
 Inductive reasoning in science is sometimes
contrasted with deduction or, more properly, the
hypothetic- dedu...
References
 Bowen, G. (2008). Naturalistic inquiry and the saturation concept: a research note. Qualitative
Research. 8 (...
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Inductive research

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This presentation provides novice researchers with basic distinctions on research methodology and on the theoretical frameworks that are available for conducting sound and grounded research.

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Inductive research

  1. 1. Inductive Research by Mariam Bedraoui Master Student Moroccan American Studies Hassan II University Casablanca
  2. 2. Induction: A Research Reasoning Method  Inductive Research provides an alternative approach to theory.  Theory does not guide and influence the collection of data, but rather it is derived from the analysis of the collected data.  Inductive reasoning generates broad generalizations from specific observations. Collecting Data Spotting Patterns Developing Theories
  3. 3. Inductive Research: A Theoretical Framework Inductive Research Qualitative Approach An Interpretive perspective Exploratory motives A Flexible Design  Focus on natural settings  In-depth understandings of variations and relationships among social phenomena presented in the form of soft data.  Interpret phenomena “in terms of the meaning people bring to them.” (Denzin 1989) :  No prior knowledge about a phenomenon.  A need for an initial exploration of recurrent patterns and concepts in a research area.  Study design is iterative.  Data collection and research questions are adjusted to what is learned.
  4. 4. Implementing induction  Generating theory from specific observations is a studious process of data collection, analysis and conceptualization.  Research literature offers different frameworks for conducting systemic induction.  The frameworks supply the researchers with different terms for the approximately the same analytical phases Strauss and Corbin Coding Memoing sorting Ian Dey (1993) Describing Classifying connecting Peter Woods Primary analysis Category formation Concept formation
  5. 5. Implementing Induction  Tasks Tools and Strategies Outcomes Collecting data Participant observation In- depth interviews Focus groups Sampling Field notes Audio/ Video recordings Transcripts Examining data Highlight points in the text Write comments on the margin Write reflections on the data Identifying common themes Contextualise and annotate data Provide references to related literature
  6. 6. Implementing Induction   Tasks: the researcher has to • organise data in an invented but systemic way • identify major categories in the data. These categories have to be both inclusive and exclusive  Strategies: the researcher needs to • summarise the data • experiment with a number of formulations • tabulate categories on a chart • construct figures • sketch diagrams
  7. 7. Implementing Induction  The ultimate goal of the researcher is to identify regularities, singularities and variations in the analysed data. Inductive studies yield three major research accomplishments: 1- The construction of typologies and modals 2- The production of through and intensive analytic studies, what Denzin (1989) calls ‘thick descriptions’. 3- The generation of valid theories, of what Graser and Srauss (1967) term as grounded theory. Valid theories are the outcome of: 1- Rigorous analytical procedures: triangulation 2-Combination of inductive and deductive methods.
  8. 8. Inductive Research: Limitations Inductive studies may generate interesting and illuminating findings. Single inductive studies can not provide grounded theories. Theories are built through substantial successions of studies. Inductive research is highly demanding. It entails working out a mass of confusing and intricate data. When the researcher is immersed in working out generalizations out of data, he runs the risks of ‘going native’, and ‘macro-blindness’.
  9. 9. Inductive Research: Strengths Theory is generated from the empirical data, which helps reaching a ‘closeness of fit’ between data and theory. Inductive research is an alternative approach to investigate the complexity and richness of the verbal and non- verbal behaviour. Though it is criticised for not being able to produce theories in the positivist sense, inductive research produces illuminating hypotheses which need further research work to test and apply.
  10. 10. Inductive Research Methods: A case Study
  11. 11. Conclusion  Inductive reasoning in science is sometimes contrasted with deduction or, more properly, the hypothetic- deductive method. However, induction and deduction may be better considered as complementary components of scientific reasoning.  Philosophers of science have argued that the problem of induction can be overcome partly by incorporating inductive and deductive reasoning within the practice of science.
  12. 12. References  Bowen, G. (2008). Naturalistic inquiry and the saturation concept: a research note. Qualitative Research. 8 (1), 137-152  Dey, I. (1993). Qualitative data analysis: A user-friendly guide for social scientists. London: New York, NY.  Denzin, N. K. (1989). Interpretive biography. Qualitative research methods, v. 17. Newbury Park: Sage.  Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Wallace, M. (2006). Encyclopaedia of nursing research. New York: Springer Pub.  Given, L. M. (Ed.). (2008). The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.  Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2004). Research methods for sport studies. London: Routledge.  Kothari, C. R. (1990). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern.  Polit, F. Denise & Cheryl Tatano Beck. (2003). Nursing Research: Principles and Methods (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  Top of Form  Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.  http://www.fhi.org/NR/rdonlyres/etl7vogszehu5s4stpzb3tyqlpp7rojv4waq37elpbyei3tgmc4ty6dunbc cfzxtaj2rvbaubzmz4f/overview1.pdf  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php  Deductive Research Case Study: http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol38/no4/p26.htm  Inductive Research Case Study: http://rel.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/37/3/308

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