Communicative language teaching


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  • Microskills of listening: recognize keywords, recognize the topic, the attude and mood of speakers- follow speech at different rates of speed, identify key information
  • Another classification by littlewood,: structural activities, quasi communicative, comunicative (functional and social interaction A
  • Communicative language teaching

    1. 1. CFI, Rabat Module: Didactics ELT Approaches and Methods: Communicative Language TeachingTrainee: M. Bedraoui Trainer: Dr.M. Akkouch1
    2. 2. Objectives1. To understand the historical factors that triggered the emergence of Communicative Language Teaching.2. To identify the principles and assumptions underlying CLT.3. To select the methodological practices compatible with CLT.4. To distinguish between different versions of CLT. 2
    3. 3. OutlineA. A Historical Background 1. The Rise of Cognitive Linguistics, Pragmatics and Sociolinguistics 2. The Establishment of the European Common MarketB. Communicative Language Teaching: Theoretical Assumptions 1. Assumptions about Language 2. Assumptions about LearningC. CLT: Methodologies 1. Syllabuses 2. Activities 3. Instructional materials 4. Learner and teacher roles 5. AssessmentD. CLT: Different Versions 1. Process- oriented methods • Content-based instruction • Task-based instruction 2. Product-oriented methods  Text-based instruction  Competency-based instruction 3
    4. 4. An Attempt to define CLT…Communicative language teaching is anoverarching approach that theoretically andpractically informs a range of language teachingmethods and practices with a central focus onthe communicative aspect of language. CLTemphasises communication both as a desiredgoal and an effective process of learning.4
    5. 5. Task One Based on what you know about Communicative Language Teaching, try to do the multiple questions task.5
    6. 6. A- A Historical Background6
    7. 7. A- A Historical Background Richards (2006) classifies trends in language teaching into three main phases: Phase 1 Phase II Phase III• Traditional • Classic • Current approaches communicative language (up to the late language teaching (from 60s) teaching (from the 90s to the the 70s to the present) 90s) 7
    8. 8. 1- The Rise of Cognitive Linguistics Noam Chomsky criticized the structuralist view of language and discarded it on the basis that it did not account for the uniqueness and creative nature of individual sentences. He advanced a theory on language production which considered the human mind as the source of innate cognitive linguistic abilities. 8
    9. 9. The Cognitive View of Language Acquisition Chomsky labeled whatever the human child will the relevant capacity theA human child and a kitten always acquire the ability are exposed to the same human has that the cat to understand and produce linguistic data. lacks the "language language acquisition device" LAD is a postulated It enables the child to It is an instinctive mental "organ" of the brain that isproduce an infinite number capacity which enables an of sentences which are supposed to function as infant to acquire and novel and creative a congenital device in produce language. throughout his/her life. language acquisition. 9
    10. 10. Any Implications for Second Language Acquisition? If humans have an innate mechanism to learn language, does the same theory should apply for second language learning? What does a second language learner need in addition to the linguistic input to activate his/her LAD?10
    11. 11. Developments in Pragmatics John Austin (1911- 1960) He is best known for the speech acts theory. He pointed out that we use language to do things as well as to assert things. John Searle (1932) "In indirect speech acts the speaker communicates to the hearer more than he actually says by way of relying on their mutually shared background information, both linguistic and nonlinguistic, together with the general powers of rationality and inference on the part of the hearer." Paul Grice (1913- 1988) The first language philosopher who made a distinction between semantics (the sentence meaning) and pragmatics (the speaker meaning).11
    12. 12. Develpoments in Sociolinguistics William Labov (1927) • The first linguist to study language varieties and dialects. Dell Hymes (1927- 2009) • He proposed the concept of „Communicative Competence‟ to make up for Chomesky‟s concept of „linguistic competence‟. Henry Widdowson (1935) • He was one of a British A group of British applied linguists who emphasized the communicative aspect of language that was inadequately addressed in Chomsky‟s linguistic theory.12
    13. 13. 2- The Establishment of the European CommonMarketThe emergence of the EuropeanCommon Market The need for a multilingual workforce The need for alternative methods of language teaching The Council of Europe was founded13
    14. 14. 3- The First CLT Syllabus He suggested a list of In 1972, a British applied functional meanings thatlinguist, D.A. Wilkins, drafted were necessary for ana document about the needs effective communicative of a language learner. language use. In 1976, Wilkins revised this document and expanded it He described two types of into a book called Notional meanings: functions and Syllabuses which had a notions. significant impact on the development of CLT both in Europe and beyond.14
    15. 15. B- Communicative Language Teaching: Theoretical Assumptions 1- Assumptions about language15
    16. 16. Criticism of Chomsky’s linguistic theory In an influential article, Dell Hymes (1971:  Chomsky‟s 62) revises Chomsky‟s linguistic theory model is model: inadequate.  It does not account for the It remains that the present vision of sociocultural generative grammar extends only a little dimensions of way into the realm of the use of language. language use. To grasp the intuitions and data pertinent to underlying competence for use requires a sociocultural standpoint. To develop that  Chomsky‟s standpoint adequately, one must transcend dichotomy the formulation of the dichotomy leaves out the competence:performance and the communicative associated formulation of the judgments intuitions of a and abilities of the users of a language as language user. well. 16
    17. 17. 1- An Alternative Model: CommunicativeCompetence Dell Hymes (1971: 62) proposes an alternative model: Social/ discursive knowledg We have then to account for the fact e that a natural child acquire knowledge of sentences, not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to who to speak, when not, and as what to talk about with whom, where and in what manner. In short, a child becomes able to accomplish a repertoire of Linguistic speech acts, to take part in speech knowledge events, and to evaluate their accomplishment by others.17
    18. 18. Communicative CompetenceCommunicative Competence:a knowledge of the social and discursive norms, which when coupledwith a linguistic knowledge, results in successful communication. Hymes (1971: ) further explains: Communicative Social experience experience The acquisition of such a competency is of course fed by social experience, needs, and motives, and issues in action that Social Communicative is itself a renewed source of experience competence motives, needs, and experience. 18
    19. 19. 1- Assumptions about Language Halliday further elaborates Hymes‟ concept of „communicative competence‟ and breaks it down into seven basic functions: The The The regulatory The personalinstrumental interactional function function function function The The heuristic The imaginative representational function function function19
    20. 20. 1- Assumptions about Language Canale and Swain (1980) identified four dimensions of communicative competence:Grammatical Sociolinguistic Discourse Strategiccompetence competence competence competence20
    21. 21. Communicative Competence Grammatical competence is concerned with the mastery of the linguistic code which includes vocabulary knowledge as well as knowledge of morphological, syntactic, semantic, phonetic and orthographic rules. This competence enables the speaker to use knowledge and skills needed for understanding and expressing the literal meaning. (Bagaric: 2007, 97)
    22. 22. Communicative Competence Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of rules and conventions which underlie the appropriate comprehension and language use in different sociolinguistic and sociocultural context. (Bagaric: 2007, 97)
    23. 23. Communicative Competence: Discursive competence is the mastery of rule which determine ways in which forms and meaning are combined to achieve a meaningful unity of spoken or written text. The unity of a text is enabled by cohesion in form and coherence in meaning. (Bagaric: 2007, 97)
    24. 24. Communicative Competence: Strategic competence is composed of verbal and non-verbal strategies that are recalled to make up for breakdowns in communication due to insufficient competence in one or more components of communicative competence. These strategies include paraphrase, circumlocution, repetition, reluctance, avoidance of words, structures or themes, guessing, changes of register and style, modifications of messages, etc. (Bagaric: 2007, 97)
    25. 25. Assumptions about Learning25
    26. 26. 2- Assumptions about Learning Johnson and Littlewood (1984) developed a learning theory which they considered as compatible with CLT tenets. They called it a skill- learning model. Skill-learning model • The acquisition of communicative competence in language is an example of skill development. It involves both a cognitive and behavioural aspect. 26
    27. 27. 2- Assumptions about Learning A Skill- learning model The behavioural stage The cognitive stage involves the automation Converting cognitiveinvolves internalisation of these plans so that plans into behaviours of plans creating they can be converted occurs mainly throughappropriate behaviour. into fluent performance practice in real world.27
    28. 28. 2- Assumptions about Learning Richards (2006: 23) proposed what he called „ten core assumptions‟ underlying the different practices of CLT 1. Interaction and meaningful communication activate learning. 2. Meaningful communication results from students processing content that is relevant, purposeful, interesting, and engaging. 3. Communication is a holistic process that often calls upon the use of several language skills or modalities. 4. Communicative tasks provide opportunities for students to use the language. 5. Language learning is facilitated both by activities that involve inductive or discovery learning of underlying rules of language use and organization, as well as by those 28 involving language analysis and reflection.
    29. 29. 2- Assumptions about Learning6. Language learning is a gradual process that involves creative use of language, and trial and error.7. Learners develop their own routes to language learning, progress at different rates, and have different needs and motivations for language learning.8. Successful language learning involves the use of effective learning and communication strategies.9. The role of the teacher in the language classroom is that of a facilitator, who creates a classroom climate conducive to language learning and provides opportunities for students to practise the language.10. The classroom is a community where learners learn 29 through
    30. 30. Task 2 Identify the assumptions and principles underlying the steps in the lesson sketched in the handout.30
    31. 31. C- CLT: Methodologies31
    32. 32. 1- Syllabuses Discussions about the nature of syllabus have been central to CLT applications. A number of considerations are taken into account when designing a communication-based syllabus. The target Purpose of the Setting of Role of the communicative language course learning learners events The language functions The notions The skills The variety involved in these involved involved involved events The grammatical The lexical content content 32
    33. 33. 1- Some CLT Syllabuses A Functional syllabus A content –based syllabus A skill-based syllabus• Communicative • The purpose is to teach • It focuses on the competence is viewed as specific information and integration of the four a mastery of functions content using the macroskills. needed for language that learners • The teaching of each communication across a are also learning. skills is done through its wide range of situations. component microskills.• The syllabus is organized • The course is arranged • skill-based syllabi merge according to the functions around topics related to linguistic competencies the learners should be the subject being taught. (pronunciation, able to carry out in vocabulary, grammar, and English. discourse) together into• Grammar and vocabulary generalized types of are chosen according to behaviour, such as the functions being listening to spoken taught. language for the main• This syllabus is often idea, writing well-formed used as the basis for paragraphs, delivering listening and speaking effective lectures, and so courses. forth. 33
    34. 34. 2- Activities New classifications of activities have been developed with the advent of CLT. Fluency and accuracy activities • Teachers are recommended to strike a balance between the two types of activities. Mechanical, meaningful and communicative activities • Practice sequences in CLT textbooks usually take students from mechanical to meaningful to communicative activities. 34
    35. 35. 2- Activity Types The range of activities, tasks and exercises compatible with CLT is unlimited. Any activity that can engage learners in communication and require the use of such communicative processes as information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction can be incorporated into the CLT repertoire. Littlewood (1981) distinguishes between:  Functional communication activities  social interaction activities 35
    36. 36. 2- Activity Tyes Functional Social interaction communication activities activities• Learners compare • Conversation and sets of pictures and discussion sessions note difference • Dialogues and role• Learners work out a play sequence of events • Simulations out of a set of events. • debates• Learners solve problems using shared clues.36
    37. 37. 3- Activity Types Information gap activities Jigsaw activities Information gathering activities Information transfer activities Opinion sharing activities Reasoning gap-activities37
    38. 38. Task 3Match the descriptions of the activities with their appropriate headings.38
    39. 39. 3. Instructional Materials The instructional materials CLT proponents have prepared for CLT accorded instructional classrooms vary from text- materials a special based textbooks, to task- importance. based activities, to realia content. Heightened discussions have arisen about the issue of authenticity.39
    40. 40. 3. Instructional Materials “Authentic texts (either written or spoken) are those which are designed for native speakers: they are real texts designed not for language students, but for the speakers of the language in question.” (Harmer:1983, 146) Benefits Limitations Positive effect Not teacher- on learner‟s friendly motivation Direct Packed with exposure to unnecessary language use vocabulary. Authentic No repeated cultural occurrence of information structures40
    41. 41. 4. Learner and Teacher RolesRole refers to “the part that learners and teachers are expected areexpected to play in the learning tasks as well as the social andinterpersonal relationships between the participants.” (Nunan:1986, 79) Learner Role Teacher Role  Interactor  Facilitator  Collaborator  Needs analyst  Discoverer  Counselor  Self-assessor  Provider of input  Problem-solver  Prompter  Questioner  Reflector  Learner41
    42. 42. 5. Assessment focuses on achievement involves both teacher and Assessment is not testing students is a continuous process42
    43. 43. D. Communicative Language Teaching: Different Versions43
    44. 44. CLT: A Paradigm Shift CLT has gained credibility and flourished as an effective foreign language approach across different world educational programs. Jacobs and Farrell (2003: 1) called this wholesale development a paradigm shift in second language education. “In second language education, a constellation of changes have been proposed and, to some ex tent, implemented. This constellation of interconnected changes can perhaps best be termed a paradigm shift, with this paradigm fitting under the general Communicative Language umbrella of Teaching (CLT). 44
    45. 45. CLT: A Paradigm Shift The social Learner Curricular nature of autonomy integration learning Focus on Thinking Diversity meaning skills Alternative Teachers as assessment co-learners45
    46. 46. CLT: Different models A number of different second language teaching have emerged, reflecting different responses to the issues identified as central to CLT approach. Process-oriented Product-oriented models models Content-based Text-based Competency- Task-based based46
    47. 47. Task 4 In expert groups of three, discuss the CLT model you are assigned. (5 min.) Move to discussion groups and share what you learn with the other members. (10 min) Move back to the expert groups to compare the information you got about other models with the other members of the group. 47
    48. 48. References Jacobs, G. M., & Farrell, T. S. C. (January 01, 2003). Understanding and Implementing the CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) Paradigm. Relc Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York, N.Y., USA: Oxford University Press. Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (July 01, 1991). Communicative Tasks and the Language Curriculum. Tesol Quarterly, 25, 2, 279-295. Nunan, D., & Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching: A description and analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J. C. (2006). Communicative language teaching today. New York: Cambridge University Press. 48
    49. 49.  Communication-based activities enhance learning  Tasks involve the learners in the input and activate their output.  Meaningful language and situations support the learners‟ processing of the linguistic content and build up their communicative competence.49
    50. 50. The first syllabus model is anotional syllabus which specifiesthe notional and functionalcategories perceived as needed tobe learned by language learners.But this model of syllabus wassoon criticised for being a replicateof a traditional syllabus.It was also criticised for specifyingproducts rather thancommunicative processes. 50