There are “Three lines of Defense” that all contribute to the Immune System ,each animportant part in the destruction of Pathogens(Pathogens are any foreign substance found in the body that causes anImmune Response)
Thick walls of Mucus line your Nose, Throat , and Stomach. Mucus acts as a kind of glue that traps any Pathogens that happen to be going by . The Cilia (little hairs) then move the Pathogen filled Mucus out of the body
Innate Immune ResponseThere are four important non-specific (Innate) defenses that comeinto action once a pathogen hasentered the body.Inflammatory ResponseTemperature ResponseProteinsWhite Blood Cells
The Inflammatory ResponseA series of events thatrepress infection and speedhealing through dilation ofblood vessels.
Histamines dilate blood vessels and bring whiteblood cells to the area of infection thus causing Inflammation
Swelling ,Redness, and Puss may also occur (Puss—A build up of millions of dead white blood cells )
Temperature ResponseTo fight pathogens the body will raise its temperature a coupledegrees above normal to try and kill them.
Fever helps to combat bacteriadue to the fact that Pathogens cannot survive high temperatures.
Proteins A variety of proteins provide a non-specificdefense from Pathogens
Interferon is a protein releaseby cells infected with a virus. (Its causes nearby cells to create an enzyme that prevents Viruses from making proteins and RNA)
White Blood Cells (Phagocytes)Neutrophils , macrophages and natural killer cells wait within tissue for pathogens to annihilate.
Neutrophils overwhelm anddestroy pathogens by sacrificingthemselves for wellbeing of the rest of the body
Macrophages consume and kill pathogens as well asclear the body of dead cells and debris.
Natural killer cells puncture the cell membranes ofpathogens, allowing liquid to rush in and make the cell burst
Acquired Immune Response The 3rd line of defense is Called “TheAcquired Immune Response” is a specific Immune response unlike the first andsecond line of defense. Its is an Immuneresponse that you gain by being infectedwith pathogens or virus’ and combating them.
Helper T-Cells activateboth cytotoxic T cells and B cells
The helper T Cells recognize Virus’s that would otherwise go un-noticed. It then alerts the B-Cells. The B cells first analyze the virus thenthey construct a antibodythat is specifically for that one virus.
After the Virus is smothered in antibodies and cannot infect anything other cellsthe killer t cells are called to the seen to dispose of the incapacitated virus and kill the infected cells.