is for Akhenaten
Akhenaten was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh.
He was shunned from his family when he was young,
possibly because of his odd features. He had an
elongated face and very long fingers and toes. After
his father died, his mother chose him over her other
son to become pharaoh at age 18. Akhenaten was an
awfully unusual pharaoh, for he took away all of the
Egyptians’ many gods and replaced them all with his
god, the Auten- the sun god. As well as this unusual
move, Akhenaten moved the capital of Thebes to
Armana, starting a whole new city. Akhenaten also
changed the art style, by making it truthful and as
people really were. An example of this is that
Akhenaten had statues built of himself and they even
showed his odd features. Ahenaten married Nefertiti
an had 2 sons. He impacted art as well as changed
Bis for Bes. Bes was an ancient spirit,
known to ward and protect people of evil.
He contributed the “sa” which is an ancient
symbol of protection. He resembled a
dwarf, with great big facial hair. Bes would
be at most birthing ceremonies, booming
instruments together to keep evil far away.
Also he was featured on the disc-shaped
plate, found on mummies’ masks.
is for Canopic jars. Canopic jars were used during the
mummification process. They were the holders of the internal organs
of the dead and readied to be mummified people. On top of the jars were
lids made as the Four Sons of Horus. Imseti- the human-headed god,
was where the liver was put. Hapy- the baboon-headed god, was where the
Egyptians stored the lungs. Duamutef- jackal – headed god, in which the stomach
was stored. Last, there was Qebehusenuef- the falcon-headed god, where the
intestines were stored.
DIs for Duamutef. Duamutef was
the jackal-headed featured on
a canopic jar. He was a son of
Horus along with, Imsety,
Hapy, and Qebehsenuef. He
held the lungs. He was given
his duty as a person or god
present during the mummifying
process by Anubis.
Is for Egypt. Egypt lived from 3,000 to 1,000
B.C.E. Egypt was full of Gods and Goddesses:
Isis, Osiris, Nut, Geb, Ra ,and Horus. Egyptians
populated the civilization. Pharaohs were the
rulers. Inside Egypt there were pyramids, rivers,
(Nile River) and more. Egypt was one of the
most successful civilization ever.
Is for Flail. The flail was a symbol of power, seen with
the Pharaohs. It was seen with the crook on statues
and monuments of Pharaohs. The crook was the
symbol showing the Pharaoh’s nice side, where the
flail was symbolized as “I am nice but sometimes I
have to be mean”. You will see important mummies
baring the Crook and Flail. They are placed in the
mummies hands and crossed across their chest.
G is for Geb. Geb was the Egyptian’s
Earth god. Geb fell in love with Nut,
the Sky goddess. Their only problem
was that Nut was married to Ra the
son god, and god of all gods.
Geb and Nut had Osiris, Isis, Set, and
Nepthys. Geb is seen laying under
Nut. He is the Earth and she is the
is for Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut was an ancient pharaoh and the
first women pharaoh. She was made pharaoh when her husband died and
her step-son was expected to become pharaoh, but he was too young, so
Hatshepsut became pharaoh. She ruled from about 1,473 to 1,458 B.C.E.
During Hatshepsut’s reign art and architecture flourished. Also she
promoted trade to a far extent, trading with far countries, such as African
Kingdom of Punt which was their biggest journey to trade. The African
kingdom of Punt was at the southern edge of the Red Sea. On this
expedition they took 5 ships along with them, holding gifts and trading
supplies. Hatshepsut left behind an ancient monument, the temple at Dayr
al-Bahari. Mainly the temple was built into a major cliff above the Nile. The
entrance was guarded by 200 sphinx. Parts of Hatshepsut’s Reign were
presented on walls.
Is for Isis. Isis was the goddess of motherhood, women,
and the protector of children. She was the wife of Osiris
and the daughter of Geb and Nut. Isis and Osiris were the
parents of Horus. Isis was the one who found Osiris
when Set locked him in a coffin and threw him down the
Nile River also when Set chopped Osiris up and spread
him through the 14 counties of Egypt. Isis is found with
many different head-dresses, as in the sun, showing her
power as a goddess. Isis was a noble goddess.
Is for jewelry. Jewelry in ancient Egypt reached the height from
then to now. The Middle Kingdom was especially great. Most royal
people would wear jewelry of every sort. Princesses wore many
headbands and head dresses. Gods and Goddesses also wore
them as a symbol of power.
is for Khufu.
Khufu was an ancient pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled from
about 2,551 to 2,528 B.C.E , (23 years ). Khufu is mainly known
for constructing the Giza Pyramid which is now one of the
seven wonders of the ancient world. Khufu was around in the
Old Kingdom era, which was a strong age and was known for
their pyramids. Khufu was a good pharaoh not only to his
people but to himself, so much that he called himself a god.
Is for The Libyan Desert. The Libyan Desert was
helpful for the Egyptians by supplying many
resources. It supplied protection by being
impassable. This helped the Egyptians by not
having to guard and protect for themselves. Also it
supplied them with many jewels and stones. Some
examples are Amethyst, Turquoise, Copper,
Limestone, Sandstone, and Granite. Most
importantly was GOLD.
Is for the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom was around
from about 2,000 to 1,800 B.C.E. It was called the
Reunification era because Egypt at that time was reunited
and power was ablaze. Senusret was a pharaoh during this
era. He built many monuments including the White Chapel.
This era was filled with literature and religious monuments
Is for Nut. Nut was the sky goddess. She was married to Ra,
the sun god, but fell in love with Geb, the Earth god. Nut and
Geb had 4 kids Isis, Osiris, Set, and Nephthys. Legend says
that Ra found out about Geb and told the air god
to separate Nut and Geb. So that only at night Nut was
allowed to see him. Every night Nut would swallow the sun
and give birth to it every morning.
Is for the Old Kingdom. The Old Kingdom was around from
about 2,700 to 2,200 B.C.E. It was a very strong government
ruled by the pharaohs. The Old Kingdom was the first to came
before the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom. This era
was called the “pyramid age” because all of the pharaohs’
requests for pyramids as their tombs. Khufu and the Giza
Pyramids were constructed during this time.
Is for Pyramids. Pyramids were a main
symbol of Egypt. They were built as tombs
for Pharaohs and people of importance.
The very first pyramid was created by
Imhotep: Step Pyramid. Usually they
were made of hard rock and then
limestone covered it. A couple of
examples are, The Step Pyramid, Giza,
and the Bent Pyramid.
Is for Quebehsenuef. Quebehsenuef was an ancient
Egyptian son of Horus. He was the falcon headed god on
the canopic jars. He was said to be brothers with Imsety,
Hapy, and Duamatef. He was the head of the canopic jar
which held the intestines. It was a myth that said Anubis
gave the brothers their mummification duties. He was
protected by Senlket.
Is for Ramses II. Ramses was a very important pharaoh. He
ruled Egypt from about 1,290 till 1,224 B.C.E, more than 60
years, which is the longest time of ruling. The great pharaoh
was best known for his military, leadership, and many
monuments. Ramses became a military leader at the age of
10. He had over 100 wives and even more children. He and
the Hittites signed the very first Peace Treaty ever which
lasted until 1,190. His most famous monument was the
temple at Abu Simbel. Four statues sit on the base of a cliff
on the Nile River all of Ramses himself. The inside of the
monument is as amazing as the outside.
Is for Social classes in Egypt. Egypt had many
social classes, such as the slaves, peasants,
artisans, scribes, priests, government officials,
and highest up were pharaohs. The slaves
were given no rights, only to rule under their
master. Peasants were the largest social
class, they were the farmers. Artisans were
the craftspeople, carpenters, jewelers, leather
and metal workers, painters, potters, sculptors
and weavers. Next, were the scribes they
were the writers for the pharaohs or important
people, they also kept records. Priests’
biggest job were to communicate with the
gods. Government officials assisted the
pharaohs and helped make laws. Highest
social class were the pharaohs, they ran most
Is for Thebes. Thebes was the capital
of Egypt from 3,200 B.C.E. It was
located on the East of the Nile in Upper
Egypt. This location was the ruling spot
for many pharaohs. The capital was
changed when Akhenaten was
Pharaoh. This city has been through
many hardships, although some
monuments and temples still stand.
Is for Ushabtis. Ushabtis were mini little
people (workers). They were found in
tombs to be made into slaves. These
Ushabtis were created in Ancient Egypt
because the Egyptians believed heavily in
the afterlife and thought that slaves were
needed to help them with their next life.
Ushabtis were made of wood or limestone.
They were named Ushabtis because
Usheb means ”response”. This told the
Egyptians that they would be very
obedient. When they were put in the tomb
a poem was read teaching or telling them
to be good, hard workers. Usually there
were 401 Ushabtis per tomb.
Is for the Valley of the Kings. The Valley of the
Kings was a place where pharaohs or people of
importance and highly ranked got buried. It was
located west of the Nile and across from
Thebes. The New Kingdom people were the
people who started the valley. The Valley of the
Kings was used for about 500 years. 63 tombs
were found in the Valley of the Kings.
Is for White Chapel. The White Chapel was a
building built by Senusret. It was built during the
Middle Kingdom and made of pure alabestar.
The pillars were decorated beautifully with
scenes of Senusret wearing crowns and being
honored. In the New Kingdom it was knocked
down to use in Karnak’s temple. Now it is in the
Open Air Museum.
X is for Xerxes. Xerxes was the King of Persia.
He ruled from 486 to 465 B.C.E. He was the
son of Darius the Great and Atossa. During
Xerxes’ reign he finished his father’s battle
against Greece. Xerxes’ mother was the
daughter of Cyrus the Great.
Y is for Yuya. Yuya was an
ancient Egyptian adviser to
Amenhotep III. Yuya was married
to Tuija. Together had Tiye, who
became Amenhotep’s bride and
Queen. He was sometimes called
“ King’s Lieutenant ” and “ Master
of the Horse”. They believe he
was called the “ Father of the
God” because he was
Amenhotep’s father- in-law.
Is for Zoser. Zoser was an ancient pharaoh of Egypt. He
was born in 2,667 to 2,648 B.C.E. He was the beginning
of the Old Kingdom’s pharaoh. His reign was 29 years
long. Zoser was the very first pharaoh to be buried in a
pyramid. His pyramid was the Step Pyramid, created by
Imhotep. Imhotep was his chief officer and was very
important in Zoser’s eyes.