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PROTISTS THE 1 ST  KINGDOM OF EUKARYOTES
TAXONOMY
CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>UNICELLULAR ,  EUKARYOTIC  organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Contain  nuclei  and  membrane-enclosed org...
LYNN MARGULIS’  ENDOSYMBIONT HYPOTHESIS PROTISTS ARE DESCENDED FROM PROKARYOTES THROUGH EVOLUTION
Between 1.4 and 1.6 billion years ago, the first eukaryotic cells evolved, fully adapted to an aerobic  world.
The Evidences <ul><li>A  Double membrane  suggests a prokaryote encased within another. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria res...
PROTISTS
FOUR PHYLA OF ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTS
CILIA-BEARING PROTISTS <ul><li>PHYLUM CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIATES </li></ul><ul><li>CILIA – SHORT HAIRLIKE PROJE...
CILIOPHORA  vs.  ZOOMASTIGINA <ul><li>PARAMECIUM </li></ul><ul><li>GIARDIA </li></ul>
Sexual Reproduction of Paramecia? <ul><li>During starvation and temperature stress, paramecia will engage in a sexual proc...
AMEBA <ul><li>Animallike Protist </li></ul><ul><li>A major family of Sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li>Movement by  PSEUDOPOD  (...
THREE PHYLA OF PLANTLIKE PROTISTS
EUGENAPHYTA  vs. ZOOMASTIGINA <ul><li>EUGLENA : </li></ul><ul><li>Plantlike Protist with Flagellates and Chloroplasts </li...
PYRROPHYTA: Fire Protists that cause Red Tide
SLIME MOLDS <ul><li>Acrasiomycota e.g. Cellular slime molds </li></ul><ul><li>Myxomycota e.g. Acellular slime molds </li><...
CROSSING THE BORDER <ul><li>If you were a scientist in the old days before the establishment of the kingdom Protista, how ...
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Protists biol 11

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Protists biol 11

  1. 1. PROTISTS THE 1 ST KINGDOM OF EUKARYOTES
  2. 2. TAXONOMY
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>UNICELLULAR , EUKARYOTIC organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Contain nuclei and membrane-enclosed organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse group (> 115,000 SPECIES) </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest fossils of protists are about 1.5billion years old </li></ul>
  4. 4. LYNN MARGULIS’ ENDOSYMBIONT HYPOTHESIS PROTISTS ARE DESCENDED FROM PROKARYOTES THROUGH EVOLUTION
  5. 5. Between 1.4 and 1.6 billion years ago, the first eukaryotic cells evolved, fully adapted to an aerobic world.
  6. 6. The Evidences <ul><li>A Double membrane suggests a prokaryote encased within another. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria resemble certain aerobic bacteria . </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts resemble certain photosynthetic bacteria ( blue-green bacteria ). </li></ul><ul><li>The prokaryotes encased inside took up residence within other prokaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, a long-lasting symbiosis developed. </li></ul><ul><li>evolve to become organelles </li></ul><ul><li>getting nutrients and protection from the primitive eukaryote, but losing their independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella and cilia are similar to spirochete bacteria . </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROTISTS
  8. 8. FOUR PHYLA OF ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTS
  9. 9. CILIA-BEARING PROTISTS <ul><li>PHYLUM CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIATES </li></ul><ul><li>CILIA – SHORT HAIRLIKE PROJECTIONS THAT PRODUCE MOVEMENT. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CILIOPHORA vs. ZOOMASTIGINA <ul><li>PARAMECIUM </li></ul><ul><li>GIARDIA </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sexual Reproduction of Paramecia? <ul><li>During starvation and temperature stress, paramecia will engage in a sexual process called conjugation. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugation is not truly reproduction as no new cells are produced, but, by exchanging micronuclei . The two paramecia involved will benefit from better genetic diversity which is good from an evolutionary perspective. </li></ul>
  12. 12. AMEBA <ul><li>Animallike Protist </li></ul><ul><li>A major family of Sarcodina </li></ul><ul><li>Movement by PSEUDOPOD (False foot) </li></ul><ul><li>Feed by surrounding its prey with cytoplasm and then taking it inside the cell to form a food vacuole </li></ul>
  13. 13. THREE PHYLA OF PLANTLIKE PROTISTS
  14. 14. EUGENAPHYTA vs. ZOOMASTIGINA <ul><li>EUGLENA : </li></ul><ul><li>Plantlike Protist with Flagellates and Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>GIARDIA: Animallike Protist with Flagellates. </li></ul>
  15. 15. PYRROPHYTA: Fire Protists that cause Red Tide
  16. 16. SLIME MOLDS <ul><li>Acrasiomycota e.g. Cellular slime molds </li></ul><ul><li>Myxomycota e.g. Acellular slime molds </li></ul><ul><li>Ameba-like at first, usually singular, but then become colonial when required. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as protists for now because they are single-celled and eukaryotic, but have at times been classified as amebas (Sarcodina) and as fungi (Kingdom Fungi) </li></ul>
  17. 17. CROSSING THE BORDER <ul><li>If you were a scientist in the old days before the establishment of the kingdom Protista, how would you classify these different unicellular eukaryotic organisms? </li></ul>

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