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Ondas luz y sondio enet - bell ville

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Ondas luz y sondio enet - bell ville

  1. 1. I.P.E.M. Nº 267 Antonio Graziano Bell Ville, Córdoba, Argentina. Integrantes: Saluzzo, Paula – Pérez, Ana Paula – Moreira, Candela
  2. 2. Ondas Luz y Sonido <ul><li>Las ondas son perturbaciones que se producen en un determinado punto de un medio material (o incluso del vacío) y se propagan por él. </li></ul><ul><li>Una onda es una forma de transmitir energía sin que halla trasporte de materia </li></ul><ul><li>La existencia de un medio material para la propagación de una onda no es estrictamente necesaria; las ondas electromagnéticas son capaces de viajar en el vacío. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1- Amplitud 2- Longitud 3- Período 4- Frecuencia
  4. 4. Amplitud y Longitud <ul><li>Amplitud de onda: es la distancia que separa la posición de equilibrio o reposo de la cresta o del valle de la onda. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitud de onda: es la distancia que separa dos crestas o dos valles sucesivos de una onda. </li></ul><ul><li>Estas son magnitudes que caracterizan a una onda, la zonas que se encuentran por encima de la posición de reposo del agua se denominan crestas y las zonas que se encuentran por debajo de la posición de reposo del agua se denominan valles. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ondas <ul><li>Magnitudes que caracterizan una onda: (Frecuencia) La frecuencia de un suceso o un fenómeno es la cantidad de veces que ocurre ese suceso en un cierto intervalo de tiempo. Si el tiempo se mide en segundos la unidad de frecuencia es : 1/5 y se la denomina Hertz ( hz) </li></ul><ul><li>Frecuencia de ondas: Es el numero de oscilaciones completas que se producen en un cierto intervalo de tiempo </li></ul>
  6. 6. Clasificación <ul><li>Las ondas se clasifican, teniendo en cuenta si necesitan o no de un medio material para propagarse, en: </li></ul><ul><li>Mecánicas y Electromagnéticas </li></ul><ul><li>Mecánicas: estas necesitan un medio material para propagarse, es decir, no se pueden propagar en el vacío. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnéticas: estas ondas no necesitan un medio material para propagarse. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sonido <ul><li>El sonido es un tipo de onda mecánica que se propaga únicamente en presencia de un medio material. </li></ul><ul><li>Un cuerpo al vibrar imprime un movimiento de vaivén (oscilación) a las moléculas de aire que lo rodean, haciendo que la presión del aire se eleve y descienda alternativamente. Estos cambios de presión se trasmiten por colisión entre las moléculas de aire y la onda sonora es capaz de desplazarse hasta nuestros oídos. Las partes de la onda en que la presión aumenta (las moléculas se juntan) se llaman compresiones y aquellas en que la presión disminuye (las moléculas se alejan) se llaman enrarecimientos. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Luz <ul><li>La luz es una onda electromagnética , lo mismo que las que usa tu microondas o tu televisor , solo que la luz tiene una frecuencia mucho mas alta. Las ondas electromagnéticas no necesitan ningún medio para transmitirse. La luz no tiene una velocidad constante , la que normalmente se usa como referencia es la velocidad en el vacío, pero al atravesar , por ejemplo, un cristal la luz viaja mas lentamente. Es mas cada color tiene una velocidad distinta al atravesar un cristal, eso es lo que hace que se separen los colores en un prisma o que exista el arco iris. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Luz ¿onda o corpúsculo? <ul><li>Para Newton la luz eran partículas muy semejantes a las que entendió Einstein y Planck. </li></ul><ul><li>La teoría de Newton de la luz como corpúsculo se abandono rápidamente en cuanto se estudiaron los fenómenos de refracción interferencia y difracción de allí cobro fuerza la teoría ondulatoria que duro hasta principios del siglo XX cuando Planck y Einstein reflotaron la teoría corpuscular. </li></ul><ul><li>La luz se toma como corpúsculo. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Luz y Sonido <ul><li>Luz: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmite ondas lumínicas. </li></ul><ul><li>velocidad de 300.000 Km./s en el vacío. </li></ul><ul><li>Se propaga en el vacío </li></ul><ul><li>el efecto doppler hace que esta cambie de color (azul cuando se acerca, rojo cuando se aleja). </li></ul><ul><li>Sonido: </li></ul><ul><li>Transmite ondas sonoras. </li></ul><ul><li>velocidad próxima a 1.200 Km./h. </li></ul><ul><li>No se propaga en el vacío. </li></ul><ul><li>El efecto doppler: que hace que el sonido se vuelva más agudo cuando la onda de sonido se acerca y se vuelva más grave cuando se aleja. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Efecto Doppler <ul><li>El efecto Doppler , llamado así por el austríaco Christian Andreas Doppler , es el aparente cambio de frecuencia de una onda producido por el movimiento relativo entre la fuente, el emisor y/o el medio </li></ul><ul><li>Si una ambulancia viaja a cierta velocidad haciendo sonar las sirenas el sonido que se escucha es un terreno de trabajo </li></ul><ul><li>Esto se debe a que las ondas sonoras en la parte delantera del vehiculo están siendo aplastadas entre si por la ambulancia en movimiento.Esto hace que mas vibraciones lleguen al oído por segundo .Mas vibraciones por segundo resultan un sonido mas agudo </li></ul><ul><li>Cuando la ambulancia pasa, el sonido se vuelve mas bajo. Detrás de la ambulancia hay menos vibraciones por segundo y se escucha un sonido mas bajo. Esto se llama efecto Doppler. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuando un vehiculo viaja mas rápido que la velocidad del sonido , alrededor de unos 330 m/s una explosión sonora no se puede oír. Cuando el vehiculo supera su propio sonido las ondas sonoras van hacia atrás de una onda de choque provocando un estampido sonoro </li></ul>

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