Pp xv reun de jong 2011

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Pp xv reun de jong 2011

  1. 1. TEACHING FOR PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING:HOW TO GUIDE PRACTICAL WORK Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden Utrecht University, The Netherlands O.dejong@uu.nl Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  2. 2. Overview of the presentation* What is problem-based learning?* What is open practical work?* Students’ difficulties* Teaching guidelines Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  3. 3. Dominant views before the 1980s From behaviorism:* Teaching = transmission of information* Learning = passive receiving of knowledge* Lab work = ‘cookbook’ experiments* Teacher guiding = prescribing lab activities Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  4. 4. Coming up views after the 1980s From social Constructivism:* Teaching = facilitating conceptual changes* Learning = constructing of own meanings* Lab work = ‘investigation’ experiments* Teacher guiding = coaching lab activities Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  5. 5. Problem-based learning (Ram, 1999) Focus:* Society demands: critical thinking, communication skills, tackling open problems* Learning: autonomous learning (self-directed) as well as cooperative learning (team work)* Learning tool: open practical work Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  6. 6. Open practical work Problem-solving experimentsProblem Open experiment SolutionMain aim = learning new investigation skills Problem-posing experiments Experiment Open problem Solution(Problem to Solution: extra info from textbook) Main aim = learning new knowledge Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  7. 7. Formats of problem-solving experimentsResearch steps Performed by teacher (T) or students (S)Research question T T T T T SDesign of plan T T T T S SExecution of plan T T T S S SData collection/analysis T T S S S SResults en conclusions T S S S S SReport S S S S S S Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  8. 8. 1st Example of a problem-solving experiment Teacher only gives the research questionTeacher: when heating NaHCO3 in the school lab, which equation represents the decomposition:a) 2 NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2Ob) 2 NaHCO3 -> Na2O + 2 CO2 + H2OStudent tasks: Design their own plan, collect and analyze own data, write own report Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  9. 9. 2nd Example of a problem-solving experiment Teacher only presents a topic for investigationTeacher: Topic of investigation is ‘Water quality’Student tasks: *Design their own research question and plan *Collect and analyze own data *Write own research report Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  10. 10. Students’ diffulties with a problem-solving experimentOnno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  11. 11. Students’ difficulties with problem-solving experiments ??What are specific students’ difficulties when they:a) Design their research question and planb) Execute their planc) Collect & analyze their datad) Report about their researchDiscuss your answers with your neighbour Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  12. 12. Students’ difficulties with problem-solving experiments !!* Research question: unclear or too general* Research plan: not systematic or not realistic* Execution of plan: weak time management* Data collection: low validity and reliability* Data analyses: not very precise or inconsistent* Research report: too short or too long Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  13. 13. Research Questionand Plan? Sorry, don’t know !TEACHER STUDENT Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  14. 14. Guidelines for teaching how to develop a research question and plan (Van Der Valk & De Jong, 2009) Create 4 phases of guiding:1. Initial phase of ‘uncertainty’ for students when developing a research question and plan2. Phase of supervised classroom discussion3. Phase of ‘hints’ through an orientation task4. Final phase of supervised classroom discussion Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  15. 15. More guidelines for teaching with problem-solving experiments* Indicate the max. available amount of time* Check regularly the phase of student activities* Decide regularly about go/no-go for students* Show an example of a weak and a good report Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  16. 16. From an experiment to a problem . . . Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  17. 17. Formats of problem-posing experimentsResearch steps Performed by teacher (T) or students (S)Introducing experiment T T T TDoing the experiment T T T SResults pose (explanation) problem T T S SSolving the problem T S S SWriting the report S S S S Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  18. 18. 1st Example of a problem-posing experiment (Baral, Fernandez & Otero, 1992) Posing a simple explanation problem Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 Cu wire Zn Cu Zn Cu H2SO4 H2SO4 (1M) (1M) Problem = Explanation of phenomena at exp. 3 Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  19. 19. Students try to explain Experiment 3 [ Zn(s) -> Zn2+ + 2e- ; 2H+ + 2e- -> H2(g) ] (Teacher = T; Student = S)*T: What do you see at experiment 3?*S: Bubbles, bubbles, also at the copper*T: How is that possible?*S: Zinc gives electrons away, they go to the copper*T: How?*S: Electrons go through the acid solution*T: No, that is wrong, no*S: Uh, . . . they will go through the wire*T: Yes, indeed Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  20. 20. 2nd Example of a problem-posing experiment (Stolk, De Jong, Bulte & Pilot, 2010) Posing a complex explanation problem*Add water to a nappy (pañal) for babies till it does not absorb water anymore* Fill in: Max. amount of water is . . . . ml Problem = Explanation of this absorption Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  21. 21. Students’ difficulties with problem-posing experiments* Introductory experiment: does not motivate* Doing the experiment: too hard to carry out* Posing a problem: exp. results are too unclear* Solving the problem: relevant info cannot be found or cannot be understand* Research report: too short or too long Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden
  22. 22. Guidelines for teaching with problem-posing experiments* Introduce experiments that are interesting* Select sources of info (textbook, internet) that are relevant and understandable* Organize supervised classroom discussions about student groups’ results* Guiding means coaching Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  23. 23. COACHING OPEN PRACTICAL WORK Give Give students students more more space direction Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands
  24. 24. REFERENCES* Barral, F., Fernandez, E., & Otero, J. (1992). Secondary students’ interpretations of the process occuring in an electrochemical cell. J. of Chem. Ed., 69, 655-657.* Ram, P. (1999). Problem based learning in undergraduate education. J. of Chem. Ed., 76, 22-26.* Stolk, M., De Jong, O., Bulte, A., & Pilot, A. (2010). Exploring a framework for professional development in curriculum innovations. Res. in Sc. Ed. DOI: 10.1007/s11165-010-9170-9* Van Der Valk, A. & De Jong, O. (2009). Scaffolding science teachers in open-inquiry teaching. Int. J. of Sc. Ed., 31, 829-850. Onno De Jong Karlstad University, Sweden/ Utrecht University, The Netherlands

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