Constructivism.It is a school of thought that emphasizesboth the learner’s role in constructingmeaning out of their social interactionswith the environment. 1-Cognitive Constructivism 2-Social Constructivism 1. Cognitive Constructivism:Learners must inductively discover andtransform complex information if they areto make it their own.For PIAGET:Learning is a developmental process thatinvolves change, self generation andconstruction each building on priorlearning experiences.
Piagets Key IdeasAdaptation What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation The process by which a person takes material into their mindAssimilation from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit. The difference made to ones mind or concepts by the processAccommodation of assimilation. Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you cant have one without the other. The ability to group objects together on the basis of commonClassification features. The understanding, more advanced than simple classification,Class Inclusion that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs) The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the sameConservation even when they are changed about or made to look different. The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.Decentration The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability toEgocentrism see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development. The process of working something out in your head. YoungOperation children (in the sensorimotor and pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads. The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas,Schema (or scheme) and/or actions, which go together.Stage A period in a childs development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others
Stages of Cognitive Development Stage Characterised by Differentiates self from objectsSensori-motor Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally:(Birth-2 yrs) e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise Achieves object permanence: realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and wordsPre-operational Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of(2-7 years) others Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour Can think logically about objects and eventsConcrete Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weightoperational (age 9)(7-11 years) Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypothesesFormal systematicallyoperational Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and(11 years and up) ideological problems
Piagets Developmental ThoerySuggests that a childs cognitive abilitiesprogess through four different stages: sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational 2. Social Constructivism. Emphasizes the importance of social interaction and cooperative learning in constructing both cognitive and emotional images of reality.-Constructivist research tends to focus onindividuals engaged in social practices on acollaborative group on a global community
Constructivism Lev Vygotsky.He is the champion of constructivism. Children thinking and meaning making issocially constructed and emerges out oftheir social interactions with theenvironment.
Vygotsky ZPDZone of Proximal Development.The distance between learners existingdevelopmental state and their potentialdevelopment.-a learner has not yet learned but iscapable of learning with appropriatestimuli.
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?The ZPD is the difference between whata learner can do without help and whathe or she can do with help.Vygotsky ZPD Zone of ProximalDevelopment (Unity of learning anddevelopment) contrasted with Piagettheories of learning,-stages development.-setting a precondition or readiness oflearning.-individual cognitive development.-biological timetables.(social interaction only to triggerdevelopment)
El constructivismo es una corriente de la didáctica que se basa en la teoría del conocimientoconstructivista. Postula la necesidad de entregar al alumno herramientas que le permitan crear suspropios procedimientos para resolver una situación problemática, lo cual implica que sus ideas semodifiquen y siga aprendiendo.El constructivismo en el ámbito educativo propone un paradigma en donde el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje se percibe y se lleva a cabo como proceso dinámico, participativo e interactivo del sujeto, demodo que el conocimiento sea una auténtica construcción operada por la persona que aprende (por el«sujeto cognoscente»).Se considera al alumno como poseedor de conocimientos que le pertenecen, en base a los cuales habráde construir nuevos saberes. No pone la base genética y hereditaria en una posición superior o porencima de los saberes. Es decir, a partir de las conocimientos previos de los educandos, el docente guíapara que los estudiantes logren construir conocimientos nuevos y significativos, siendo ellos los actoresprincipales de su propio aprendizaje. Un sistema educativo que adopta el constructivismo como líneapsicopedagógica se orienta a llevar a cabo un cambio educativo en todos los niveles.