Andrus Aaslaid - E-government v Estónsku


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prezentácia z workshopu Digitálna agenda pre Európu, ktorý sa uskutočnil 17.5.2011 v Európskom informačnom centre.

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  • The fact that Estonia is a small country has been a enabler for developing new public administration solutions more effectively than on large countries. Large countries often feel the risks too high to innovate rapidly with public administration. On Estonian case, even if mistakes are made, they are relatively cheap to fix. The negotiations between different stakeholders is also much easier task in small country. Estonia is a somewhat “model” of a country – we have all the necessary attributes, but on a small scale, what makes it easy to innovate. Small scale also enables the easier negotiations with stakeholders.
  • What is missing from the picture is the internet anking, what we practically invented back on 1995
  • Andrus Aaslaid - E-government v Estónsku

    1. 1. Estonian information society coordination, policies Andrus Aaslaid Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications [email_address]
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>Small country </li></ul><ul><li>Having all institutions and complexities as “normal” state </li></ul><ul><li>Small public sector – IT is the key for administration to survive </li></ul>
    3. 3. Some milestones <ul><li>1993 - government web page </li></ul><ul><li>1995 - first public sector database in internet </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – state portal </li></ul><ul><li>2001 – x-road </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – PKI, ID-card </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – portal </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – e-voting </li></ul>
    4. 4. Institutions (having some dedicated role to information society development) <ul><li>Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications </li></ul><ul><li>(coordinating ministry). Unit - department of state information systems (RISO) </li></ul><ul><li>Estonian Informatics Centre – implementing body under Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications </li></ul><ul><li>State Chancellery (document management rules) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Protection Inspectorate </li></ul><ul><li>Communications B oard (regulator) </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of the Interior (regional and local gov. issues) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Government County governments IT managers Local governments Representative IT councils of counties Local government associations Representative ICT work groups of counties Council representative Informatics Council Department of State Information Systems (RISO) IT manager Informatics Centre IC secretariat ICT work groups of ministries IT councils of ministries Ministries Subordinate agencies IT managers Councils directors MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS AND COMMUNICATIONS
    6. 6. Tools for coordination <ul><li>Open method of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation (if appropriate) </li></ul><ul><li>Money (if available) </li></ul><ul><li>Central solutions (if reasonable) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Some areas where common (centralized) approach has succeeded <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Basic secure infrastructure (PKI, ID-cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability framework </li></ul>
    8. 8. Adopting to realities <ul><li>IT people are not running the world </li></ul><ul><li>IT environment must enable creation of common interoperable services </li></ul><ul><li>Designers of IT environment can not count on centralized approach </li></ul>
    9. 9. Legislation <ul><ul><li>Databases Act (1997 -2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Information Act (2001, 2008 includes databases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signatures Act (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act on Intellectual Property (applicable also for state databases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of Estonian Information Policy (1998 ... ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan of Estonian Information Policy (1998, ... ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Data Protection Act (1996) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Some specific regulations to databases <ul><li>Address system </li></ul><ul><li>Classificator system </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-info system </li></ul><ul><li>Security system </li></ul><ul><li>Data interchange system </li></ul>
    11. 11. “ Information Society Development Plan 2013” <ul><li>The strategy focuses on three major dimensions (social, economic and institutional) with three main goals: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Every member of the society will have the possibility to use all benefits of the Information Society; </li></ul><ul><li>Wide use of ICT is the engine of economic growth of Estonia; </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector is citizen-centric, transparent and effectively functioning. </li></ul>
    12. 12. 3 slides from 2001
    13. 13. Complexity transformations 1.
    14. 14. Complexity transformations 2.
    15. 15. Complexity transformations 3.
    16. 16. Essential components needed for smooth electronic service provisioning <ul><li>Some common tools and principles for identification, authorisation and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Some common understanding and practices for interoperability </li></ul>
    17. 17. National chip-based Identity Card <ul><li>Issuing authority: </li></ul><ul><li>Estonian Citizenship and </li></ul><ul><li>Migration Board </li></ul><ul><li>Service contractor: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRÜB Switzerland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start of issue:January 1, 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformance with: </li></ul><ul><li>ICAO Doc. 9303 part 3 </li></ul>Inside 16 Kb RSA crypto chip are : 2 private keys; authentication certificate; digital signature certificate; personal data file
    18. 18. <ul><li>18 Dec 2001 – ID-card as a compulsory identity document </li></ul><ul><li>Today – more than 1 1 00 000 ID-cards have been issued </li></ul><ul><li>ID-card also carries also a certificate for allowing the use of digital signature and e-mail address [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Field of usage is no limited and electronic features of ID-cards are used equally in public and private sector applications </li></ul><ul><li>Basic software needed for card usage is jointly develloped by public and private sectors and made freely available to users. </li></ul>
    19. 19. For now ID card has been used for: <ul><li>signing electronic documents; </li></ul><ul><li>accessing public e-services; </li></ul><ul><li>participating in elections (e-voting); </li></ul><ul><li>internet banking; </li></ul><ul><li>service provisioning and customer contact handling by businesses; </li></ul><ul><li>gaining access to computer systems for employees; </li></ul><ul><li>as electronic ticket in public transport; </li></ul><ul><li>access to virtual communication environment between parents, teachers and pupils (e-school); </li></ul><ul><li>to open doors and to register visitors in security systems; </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
    20. 20. X-road <ul><li>In narrow sense – middleware solution for services connecting different databases and identified users. </li></ul><ul><li>In wider sense – common de facto agreement for interoperable and secure services in (but not limited to) public sector. </li></ul><ul><li>By August 2006, the X-Road had: </li></ul><ul><li>~ 64 databases providing services; </li></ul><ul><li>~ 363 institutions and companies using the services; </li></ul><ul><li>~ 921 different services. </li></ul>
    21. 21. State databases/information systems X- Road center Tools centrally developed by the State, i.e. the State Portal Banks Sertifi cation Center S S – security server AS – adapter server T X- ROAD - Internet S S AS S S AS S S AS S S AS IS of the Tax Board services Popula-tion Register services Vehicle Register services … Other IS KIT ( Citizen’s portal) Public Portal Institut ional view of the State T hematic view of the State X- Road sert ification center Main server I Main server II (Elion) Monitoring S S AS National Databases Register (IHA) HELPDESK S S AS x 5 Banks a) aut h ent i-fication b) pay-ments c) services EIT ( Business’ portal) AIT ( Civil Servant’s portal) S S AS ID- Card Sertifi cation Center Private portal ( subject and his/her rights identified )
    22. 22. X-road features: <ul><li>X-Road enables to do any common data processing operation. Proceeding from this principle, several extensions have been developed for the X-Road: writing operations to databases, transmission of huge data sets between information systems, successive search operations of data in different data sheets, possibility to provide services via web portals, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Today it takes only several days (in some cases only several hours) and limited budgets (from 1000 to 10000 EUR average) to develop new e-service in this environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This year the X-Road environment was expanded to send all kinds of electronic documents in XML-format securely over the Internet. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Role of banks in X-road environment <ul><li>e-banking systems can be used also as gateways to X-road services; </li></ul><ul><li>if e-service is charged, there is payment handling connection to banks; </li></ul><ul><li>the banks themselves are users of data and e-services from X-road. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Service example <ul><li>Applying for child benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of Ministry of Social Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented (IT) by Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on data from Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Interior </li></ul><ul><li>100% paperless e-service – same application used by self-service and desk-service </li></ul>