Managing the modern cps department


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  • (a) how and how much discretion police officers are exercising, and (b) what supervisors and managers are doing to direct, constrain, or guide that discretion. Ericson and Haggerty (1997) argue that information gathering and recording protocols, built into the hand-written and computerized forms officers complete, structure how officers conduct much of their work. The proliferation of these forms and systems for monitoring their completion, they argue, means an increase in hierarchical influence on street-level practice. This is an interesting, but not rigorously tested proposition that is amenable to experimental design evaluations. The second indirect way to structure discretion is through training, at least some of which is intended to invest officers with the skill and judgment to use their discretion wisely in circumstances where simple bureaucratic rules will not be very useful in producing the desired results (Muir 1977:ch. 12) – disputes, for example.
  • Charge backs or embedded funds for special events and other “out of the routine” charges is an important issue to resolve because it could determine how, why, and how many officers a particular event gets – that is a decision that should be based on risk reduction and not how it will be funded.
  • If budget request states they need additional funding to support neighborhood patrols, ensure that it’s being spent in that manner.
  • Managing the modern cps department

    1. 1. Managing the ModernCampus Public Safety Organization Steven J. Healy MHA Managing Partner
    2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • The Issues • How to Address Them • Discussion/Q&A© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 2
    3. 3. Introduction/About MHA Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC is a professional services firm that specializes in a wide range of campus safety and security consulting services for institutions of higher education throughout the United States and Canada. • public safety management reviews; • safety and security program assessments; • organizational culture assessments; • security master plan development; • emergency operations response training and policy development; • compliance audits and related training; • litigation consultation; • interim leadership placement and executive search© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 3
    4. 4. Introduction/About MHA • Clients represent large, medium and small public and private institutions • Near even split between sworn and non-sworn agencies • Managing partners have led both sworn and non- sworn department, and managed hybrid forces© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 4
    5. 5. How we know what we know • Managing Partners and associates have combined 100 of years in law enforcement and CPS  Led every possible type of agency • Clients number well over 85 and represent all favors of CPS departments • We’ve seen every conceivable issue, from the aftermath of critical incidents, to labor aggression to total mismanagement© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 5
    6. 6. The Issues • Physical Security• Organizational Design/Structure • Emergency Management/Critical• Strategy/Community Incident Response Policing • Special Event Security• Staffing • Dispatch is Important• Budget • Training, Training,• Thin Blue Line Training© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 6
    7. 7. Organizational Design/Structure • External  Form should follow function  What do we want? − Sworn/non-sworn/hybrid − Armed/unarmed/range of weapons  Where does it fit within your hierarchy?© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 7
    8. 8. Organizational Design/Structure• Internal  Typical para-military structure − Does it support the reality of daily operations  Does it align with the rest of the institution  Are the right people on the bus? (and in the right seats)  Are there enough command staff and administrators for the workload  Systems to direct, constrain, or guide (in support of better policing & avoiding undesirable policing)© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 8
    9. 9. Organizational Design/Structure• Decide a course by design, not by default• Don’t wait until you’re in crisis mode• Encourage a flatter structure, when and where possible• Compare structure with other service units• Conduct a skills inventory for key CPS positions• Compare management team with other departments• Examine systems intended to direct, constrain, and guide discretion© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 9
    10. 10. Operational Strategy • Has the department adopted a strategy linked to the issues the university faces? • Is that strategy aligned with institutional vision, values, goals? • Is the strategy intelligence based?  Hot-spot policing, disorder policing, COMPSTAT© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 10
    11. 11. Operational Strategy • Ensure leaders are exposed to latest research and practices in policing • Require them to develop an operational strategy that addresses institutional challenges • Ensure strategy outlines general and specific duties and responsibilities for officers • Consider geographic/neighborhood assignments • Community policing should be central tenant© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 11
    12. 12. Staffing • Enough is never enough • Staffing must align with service levels and institutional expectations • Must support the continuum of activities – routine duties; predicting and preventing crime and public disorder; reacting and responding to critical and emerging events. • It is time/place/activity dependent© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 12
    13. 13. Staffing• In general, you need 4.7 – 5.2 people per position  Level 1 (Full Service)  Level 2 (Comprehensive Stewardship)  Level 3 (Managed Care)  Level 4 (Reactive Services)  Level 5 (Crisis Response)© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 13
    14. 14. Budget • Who controls (knowledge, skills, experience) • Enough is never enough • Supports operational strategy • Charge backs or imbedded© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 14
    15. 15. Budget • Director should control, unless that conflicts with institutional practice • Require department to conduct zero-base budget exercise • Examine expenditures to see how they support operational strategy • Doesn’t matter where funding comes from, just as long as it’s available, without exception • Use 1.5% as a general guideline© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 15
    16. 16. Thin Blue Line• Present, regardless of status• Passive (and sometimes active) mistrust of civilians• “You don’t know what we do cuz you’ve never done it”• Circle the wagon mentality• They don’t appreciate us© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 16
    17. 17. Thin Blue Line• Integrate senior CPS leadership into student affairs/rest of institution• Build substantive, trust-based relationship with other senior SA administrators• Spend time in the trenches (and require others to do so as well)• Circle the wagon mentality• Widely celebrate safety and security successes© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 17
    18. 18. Physical Security • It’s not just for corporations anymore… • Security technology can serve as a significant force multiplier • It can also be a black hole if not managed appropriately and aligned with overall strategy • Requires a special skill set not necessarily part of CPS executive experience© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 18
    19. 19. Physical Security • Ensure executive has requisite skill set and appropriate understanding  Or assign someone with skills • Align with institutional security goals • Form campus wide coordinating committee • Develop physical security strategic plan with applicable design and deployment standards© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 19
    20. 20. Emergency Management • Critical incidents can and do occur on all of our campuses • You have an affirmative duty to prevent harm  You own/control premises  You operate programs, on and off campus  Sometimes, you have “special relationships” with students  Now, we have Federal guidelines© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 20
    21. 21. Emergency • Management Develop a campus “concept of operations” and plan that is NIMS compliant and meets evolving standards in higher education emergency management  Provides an “All Hazards” campus wide operational plan  Provides Effective and Efficient Incident Management, from Pre-Planning & Initial Response Through Recovery  Provides Effective Communications Internal and External  System for Incident Management while Providing Critical Campus Operations© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 21
    22. 22. Special Event Security • Potential lethal mix @ many campus special events  Students and non-students  Alcohol and other drugs  Egos  Security (Lack of or ill prepared)© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 22
    23. 23. Special Event Security • Most violent incidents occur in the early morning hours • Each has a triggering event: argument, fights, anger, vengeance, jealousy, domestic related • Suspects are consistently male • Not clear if they all occur at non-school sponsored events, but they all have a link to student access to university space • Weapon of choice is a firearm© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 23
    24. 24. Special Event Security 1. Multi-disciplinary approach 2. Event Pre-planning & Coordination 3. Special Event policies 4. Training for security personnel 5. Staffing© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 24
    25. 25. Special Event Security 6. Use of students in event staffing 7. Venue Considerations 8. Off-campus events 9. After-action reviews 10.Use of NIMS & ICS framework© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 25
    26. 26. Dispatch is Important • CPS relies on two-way radio communication to receive information, request assistance, receive orders, and respond to calls for service • System must provide immediate information to public safety offices in the course of their duties • The operators within system represent the constraining or facilitating factor© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 26
    27. 27. Dispatch is Important • Need one or more staff positions per shift in a dedicated, centralized command and communications function, 24/7. • Staff should not have ancillary duties • Operators should have appropriate disposition and state-mandated training • Management of the dispatch operation should not be an after-thought© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 27
    28. 28. Training, Training, Training • Often cited as one of the most important responsibilities in any public safety agency  Basic, OJT, In-service, Specialized • Well trained officers are generally more productive and efficient • Training can foster cooperation and unity of purpose within the department and community • It also helps to fulfill your duty to prevent harm© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 28
    29. 29. Training, Training, Training • Conduct a training needs assessment, internally and externally • Develop a training plan to close gaps • Create opportunities for joint training • Appropriately fund training© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 29
    30. 30. Wrap Up • Physical Security• Organizational Structure • Emergency Management/Critical• Strategy/Community Incident Response Policing • Special Event Security• Staffing • Dispatch is Important• Budget • Training, Training,• Thin Blue Line Training© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 30
    31. 31. QUESTIONS© Margolis Healy & Associates, LLC 31