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Kingdom Animalia,
Food Chain Consumers
Phylum Arthropoda,
exoskeleton, segmented, jointed
appendages
Class Insecta
Order H...
History of Beekeeping
So, Who were the first to exploit bees
for their Honey and Wax?
Early Humans relied on Hunting wild animals and
gathering vegetables and fruits, and in the course of
their hunter-gathere...
Bees provided our ancestors with perhaps their first
condiment – honey. This complex concoction was
alluring, and the desi...
Their stories are documented in art, and cave
drawings from the Late Stone Age show a deeply
rooted association between hu...
8000]1[
[1] Traynor, Kirsten. "Ancient Cave Painting Man of Bicorp".
MD Bee. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
Honey seeker depicted o...
The Earliest Known human-constructed beehive,
believed to be some three thousand years old, was
discovered in Palestine – ...
An archaeologist indicates the opening
of one of the ancient beehives found in
excavations in Rehov in Palestine.
3000
Arc...
Beekeeping Through
History
“When the Sun weeps a second time, and lets fall water
from his eyes, it is changed into working bees; they work
in the fl...
The first official mention recognizing the importance of honey dates from the first
dynasty, when the title of "Sealer of ...
Sedge and bee,
symbolizing respectively
Upper and Lower Egypt
© Kenneth J. Stein
©
The main centre of bee-keeping was Lower Egypt with its
extensive irrigated lands full of flowering plants, where the bee
...
The Egyptians had a steady honey supply from their domesticated bees,
but they seem to have valued wild honey even more. H...
The Hives In Ancient
Egypt
In a 4th century BCE papyrus containing the Myth of the Eye of Re the hives
are described as follows:
“One does not build ...
Harvesting In Ancient
Egypt
Harvesting generally takes place twice a
year, in spring and in late autumn. The
combs are gathered in a cow skin, then th...
Tomb of Pabasa (25th dynasty)
Photo courtesy Kenneth Stein.
25(
The standing bee-keeper produces smoke,
while the one kneeling removes the combs
from the back of the clay hive after
brea...
Honey In Ancient
Egypt
Honey was used for sweetening, as sugar was unknown
in antiquity. It was part of the diet of the well-to-do, one
of one's ...
“I was supplied from the table of the king with bread of oblations
for the king, beer likewise, meat, fat-meat, vegetables...
Honey was too expensive for peasants and
servants, yet underlings found opportunities to
enjoy it as well, even if the con...
Egypt, 1450 BC
1450.
Egypt, 2400 BC
2400.
Beekeeping In
Mesopotamia
There was a documented attempt to introduce
bees to dry areas of Mesopotamia in the 8th
century BCE by Shamash-resh-u ur, ...
I am Shamash-resh-u ur , the governor of Suhu and the land of Mari. Bees thatș
collect honey, which none of my ancestors h...
Stele showing Shamash-resh-
u ur praying to the godsș Adad
and Ishtar with an inscription in
Babylonian cuneiform
Beekeeping In Greece
The native Honey bee in Greece is Apis
mellifera cecropia in the south and Apis
mellifera macedonica in the north.
Honey and wax mentioned in Greeks
legends and stories could have come from
either natural nests or hives.
In Ancient Greece the introduction of beekeeping was attributed to
Aristaeus, a minor Greek deity of various rustic pursui...
C. Boulotis searched Linear B tables found at Mycenean sites
(1400 – 1200 B.C) and found no reference to hives or beekeepi...
What may be the first mention of the Hives in
Greek writings occurs in a passage written about
700 B.C. in which Hesiod ca...
In 594/593 B.C, beekeeping around Athens was
on such a scale that Solon passed a law about it:
“He who sets up hives of be...
In 415 B.C, hives were among the property listed
on inscriptions in Attica as confiscated by rich
and noble Athenians who ...
Aristotle &
Beekeeping
Aristotle spent much of his life in Athens, and for
years he was Plato’s pupil and colleague.
Historia animalium was proba...
Book V contained much about the life and activities of bee (see
chapter 52), but almost nothing about beekeeping. He refer...
Beekeeping was dealt with in book IX (IX 40 . 624b) where a
passage show that a beekeeper got a fairly substantial
honey y...
Ephesus, fifth century. BC
silver coin
Ø 15 mm
3.17 g
- Left: obverse, with bee and Greek
letters E and F
- Right: with in...
Ephesus, second century. BC
silver tetradrachm
Ø 18 mm
3.96 g
- Left: obverse, with bee and Greek 
letters E and F
- Right...
Beekeeping In Rome
In Greece we can handle with excavated hives that were used before, during
and after Aristotle’s time, and we can still se...
Ancient Rome left an important beekeeping legacy,
based largely on passages in certain surviving Latin
texts on agricultur...
Beekeeping In India
Beekeeping in India has been mentioned in ancient Vedas and 
Buddhist scriptures. Rock paintings of Mesolithic era found i...
Species 
There are around 25,000 known species of bee
worldwide (about 4000 species in the US, and over 250
species in Britain).......
Super-family: Apoidea
(Note: This family also includes 'Sphecoid Wasps', not detailed here(
Family Notes
Apidae Includes: ...
Melittidae
A small family of bees in Africa, with around 60 species belonging
to 4 genera.
Meganomiidae Small bee family o...
The sugarbag
bee,
Tetragonula carbonaria
Melittosphex burmensis,
a fossil bee preserved in
amber from the
Early Cretaceous...
The lapping
mouthparts of a
honeybee,
showing labium
and maxillae
Head-on view of a
carpenter bee, showing
antennae, three...
Willing to die for their sisters: worker honey
bees killed defending their hive against
wasps, along with a dead wasp. Suc...
A honey bee swarm
A bumblebee carrying pollen in
its pollen baskets (corbiculae)
A leafcutting
bee,
Megachile rotundata
cutting circles
from acacia
leaves
The mason bee Osmia
cornifronsnests in a hole in...
A solitary
bee, Anthidium
florentinum (family Me
gachilidae),
visiting Lantana
Nest of the common
carderbumblebee. The
wax...
Karl von Frisch (1953)
discovered that honey bee
workers can navigate,
indicating the range and
direction to food to other...
The bee-fly Bombylius
major, a Batesian
mimic of bees, taking
nectar and pollinating
a flower.
Bee orchid lures male
bees ...
Distribution Map
Apis Mellifera Nest
A. Florea Nest
A. Dorsada Nests
1500 -1600 AD
• In 1586, Luis Méndez de Torres first
described the queen bee as a female that
laid eggs.
• 1609 Charles Bu...
Francis Huber
• Fully movable frame, Leaf, hive 1789
• Observations on Bees
• Queen mating practices and role of Drones
Johann Dzierzon
• Discovery of
parthenogenesis in
Queen bees 1835.
• Discovery of Royal
Jelly and its role in
Queen
develo...
Royal Jelly in a Queen Cell
Movable Top Bar Hive
Top Bar Comb
Compartments!
Rev. Lorenzo
Lorraine
Langstroth
(1810 – 1895)
“Father of American Beekeeping”
Andover, MA
1836 - 1847
Eureka! 1851Lorenzo Langstroth
clarifies bee space, the
3/8 inch needed between
frames for bees to build
comb.
The Langstr...
Honeybees around America
• Langstroth Movable Frame Hive - 1851
• Honeybees to California 1860’s
• 2 Million lbs of honey ...
Inventions Fast and Furious
• Inventions fed off each other
– Pre-formed wax foundation: 1857
– Extractor: 1865 Francesco ...
1900’s
• Breeding Honeybees:
– Brother Adam
– Africanized Bees in the Americas 1950’s
• Brazil breeding station
• OOPS!
• ...
Essex County Beekeepers
Est. 1923
Brother Adam 1898 - 1996
1925 – Brother Adam
Breeding Honeybees for certain traits:
the Buckfast Bee
• Good Temper
• Disease-Resistance
• Prolific
...
2000’s
• Increased public awareness of the critical
role that Honeybees play in the ecosystem
and their role in pollinatio...
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
Histor beekeeping
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Histor beekeeping

Early Humans relied on Hunting wild animals and gathering vegetables and fruits, and in the course of their hunter-gatherer lifestyle they would have come across honey in bees’ nests high in the trees.

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Histor beekeeping

  1. 1. Kingdom Animalia, Food Chain Consumers Phylum Arthropoda, exoskeleton, segmented, jointed appendages Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera, membranous wings, 2 sets, hooked Family Apiidae, Bees (20,000), Wasps, Ants Genus Apis, Honeybees, (7) Species Mellifera 2 7(
  2. 2. History of Beekeeping
  3. 3. So, Who were the first to exploit bees for their Honey and Wax?
  4. 4. Early Humans relied on Hunting wild animals and gathering vegetables and fruits, and in the course of their hunter-gatherer lifestyle they would have come across honey in bees’ nests high in the trees.
  5. 5. Bees provided our ancestors with perhaps their first condiment – honey. This complex concoction was alluring, and the desire for it drove men to work in groups to capture the golden prize.
  6. 6. Their stories are documented in art, and cave drawings from the Late Stone Age show a deeply rooted association between humans and bees.
  7. 7. 8000]1[ [1] Traynor, Kirsten. "Ancient Cave Painting Man of Bicorp". MD Bee. Retrieved 2008-03-12. Honey seeker depicted on 8000-year-old cave painting near Valencia, Spain[1]
  8. 8. The Earliest Known human-constructed beehive, believed to be some three thousand years old, was discovered in Palestine – but the Ancient Egyptians were the first known beekeepers. 3000
  9. 9. An archaeologist indicates the opening of one of the ancient beehives found in excavations in Rehov in Palestine. 3000 Archaeologists digging in northern Israel have discovered evidence of a 3,000-year-old beekeeping industry, including remnants of ancient honeycombs, beeswax and what they believe are the oldest intact beehives ever found.
  10. 10. Beekeeping Through History
  11. 11. “When the Sun weeps a second time, and lets fall water from his eyes, it is changed into working bees; they work in the flowers of each kind, and honey and wax are produced instead of water.” - pSalt 825, first millennium BCE 825
  12. 12. The first official mention recognizing the importance of honey dates from the first dynasty, when the title of "Sealer of the Honey" is given ; the oldest pictures of bee- keepers in action are from the Old Kingdom: in Niuserre's sun temple bee-keepers are shown blowing smoke into hives as they are removing the honey-combs. After extracting the honey from the combs it was strained and poured into earthen jars which were then sealed. Honey treated in this manner could be kept years. From the New Kingdom on mentions of honey become more frequent [8] , but only four depictions of honey production and no actual hives have been found.
  13. 13. Sedge and bee, symbolizing respectively Upper and Lower Egypt © Kenneth J. Stein ©
  14. 14. The main centre of bee-keeping was Lower Egypt with its extensive irrigated lands full of flowering plants, where the bee was chosen as a symbol for the country. Since earliest times one of the pharaohs' titles was Bee King, and the gods also were associated with the bee. The sanctuary in which Osiris was worshipped, was the Hwt bjt , the Mansion of the Bee.
  15. 15. The Egyptians had a steady honey supply from their domesticated bees, but they seem to have valued wild honey even more. Honey hunters, often protected by royal archers, would scour the wild wadis for bee colonies. “I appointed for thee archers and collectors of honey, bearing incense to deliver their yearly impost into thy august treasury.” Papyrus Harris, donation to the temple of Re at Heliopolis, New Kingdom
  16. 16. The Hives In Ancient Egypt
  17. 17. In a 4th century BCE papyrus containing the Myth of the Eye of Re the hives are described as follows: “One does not build a royal palace for the honey bee. A hive of dung is better than a hive of stone [like a barn]...The house of the bee is effectively an arrangement of combs, a place suitable for storing honey...It is more pleasant for the bees beneath the honey combs.” Myth of the Eye of Re, Leiden Cat, I 384 ” 384
  18. 18. Harvesting In Ancient Egypt
  19. 19. Harvesting generally takes place twice a year, in spring and in late autumn. The combs are gathered in a cow skin, then they are crushed by treading on them and the honey let flow out through a small hole in the skin into containers. What was left in the skin was put into a bowl and the remaining honey washed out with a small amount of water, passed through a sieve made of blades of grass thus removing impurities. The wax is rendered by heating, nowadays done in a water bath to prevent it from catching fire. Impurities floating on the surface of the liquid wax can be scooped off, then it is possibly strained and put into a bag press. It has been estimated that for every kilo of honey somewhat more than sixty grammes of wax can be won.
  20. 20. Tomb of Pabasa (25th dynasty) Photo courtesy Kenneth Stein. 25(
  21. 21. The standing bee-keeper produces smoke, while the one kneeling removes the combs from the back of the clay hive after breaking the mud sealing. (Picture in the tomb of Rekhmire, 18th dynasty After a photograph from Abd el Wahab, The apiculture in Egypt, 2008) 182008.(
  22. 22. Honey In Ancient Egypt
  23. 23. Honey was used for sweetening, as sugar was unknown in antiquity. It was part of the diet of the well-to-do, one of one's - using the words of the courtier Ineni - necessities:
  24. 24. “I was supplied from the table of the king with bread of oblations for the king, beer likewise, meat, fat-meat, vegetables, various fruit, honey, cakes, wine, oil. My necessities were apportioned in life and health, as his majesty himself said, for love of me.” Tomb of Ineni, reign of Thutmose II 2.
  25. 25. Honey was too expensive for peasants and servants, yet underlings found opportunities to enjoy it as well, even if the consequence was that the back would have to pay for the pleasures of the belly.
  26. 26. Egypt, 1450 BC 1450.
  27. 27. Egypt, 2400 BC 2400.
  28. 28. Beekeeping In Mesopotamia
  29. 29. There was a documented attempt to introduce bees to dry areas of Mesopotamia in the 8th century BCE by Shamash-resh-u ur, theș governor of Mari and Suhu. His plans were detailed in a stele of 760 BCE 760
  30. 30. I am Shamash-resh-u ur , the governor of Suhu and the land of Mari. Bees thatș collect honey, which none of my ancestors had ever seen or brought into the land of Suhu, I brought down from the mountain of the men of Habha, and made them settle in the orchards of the town 'Gabbari-built-it'. They collect honey and wax, and I know how to melt the honey and wax – and the gardeners know too. Whoever comes in the future, may he ask the old men of the town, (who will say) thus: "They are the buildings of Shamash-resh-u ur,ș the governor of Suhu, who introduced honey bees into the land of Suhu."
  31. 31. Stele showing Shamash-resh- u ur praying to the godsș Adad and Ishtar with an inscription in Babylonian cuneiform
  32. 32. Beekeeping In Greece
  33. 33. The native Honey bee in Greece is Apis mellifera cecropia in the south and Apis mellifera macedonica in the north.
  34. 34. Honey and wax mentioned in Greeks legends and stories could have come from either natural nests or hives.
  35. 35. In Ancient Greece the introduction of beekeeping was attributed to Aristaeus, a minor Greek deity of various rustic pursuits. From his nurses and tutors, or from the Muses he learned the arts of healing, prophecy and hunting, and especially the agricultural pursuits of beekeeping, olive growing and cheese making.
  36. 36. C. Boulotis searched Linear B tables found at Mycenean sites (1400 – 1200 B.C) and found no reference to hives or beekeeping, however, the tables refer to the offering of hundreds of large jars of honey on a single occasion, so organized honey production must have existed. 1400-1200
  37. 37. What may be the first mention of the Hives in Greek writings occurs in a passage written about 700 B.C. in which Hesiod castigated women by likening them to drones. 700
  38. 38. In 594/593 B.C, beekeeping around Athens was on such a scale that Solon passed a law about it: “He who sets up hives of bees must put them 300 feet (100 m) away from those already installed by another.” 594/593300100
  39. 39. In 415 B.C, hives were among the property listed on inscriptions in Attica as confiscated by rich and noble Athenians who were condemned as malefactors for committing sacrilege. 415
  40. 40. Aristotle & Beekeeping
  41. 41. Aristotle spent much of his life in Athens, and for years he was Plato’s pupil and colleague. Historia animalium was probably written while he was staying on Lesbos (344 – 342 B.C). 344–342
  42. 42. Book V contained much about the life and activities of bee (see chapter 52), but almost nothing about beekeeping. He referred once to the hives: “The large size of the drone explains why some bee – masters place a network in front of the hive … to keep the big drones out while it lets the little bees go in.” 52
  43. 43. Beekeeping was dealt with in book IX (IX 40 . 624b) where a passage show that a beekeeper got a fairly substantial honey yield from a hive and how he used smoke to subdue the bees. Nowhere is there any clue as to what the hives were like. 40.624
  44. 44. Ephesus, fifth century. BC silver coin Ø 15 mm 3.17 g - Left: obverse, with bee and Greek letters E and F - Right: with incuse reverses 15 .3 17
  45. 45. Ephesus, second century. BC silver tetradrachm Ø 18 mm 3.96 g - Left: obverse, with bee and Greek  letters E and F - Right: back with deer and bees, and ment ion: ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΩP [ΟΣ] (Apollodor [os]) 18 .3 96
  46. 46. Beekeeping In Rome
  47. 47. In Greece we can handle with excavated hives that were used before, during and after Aristotle’s time, and we can still see beekeeping with hives like them in some Aegean Islands. But no pictures of beekeeping are known in Ancient Rome. However, pottery hives from the Roman Period have been excavated in Spain, and the many extant Roman writings tell us more about beekeeping methods, and the authors’ ideas and attitude to bees, than hives or pictures could ever do.
  48. 48. Ancient Rome left an important beekeeping legacy, based largely on passages in certain surviving Latin texts on agriculture and natural history written between about 200 B.C. and 400 A.D. No Pictures of beekeeping in Roman times survive, and no hives excavated. 200400
  49. 49. Beekeeping In India
  50. 50. Beekeeping in India has been mentioned in ancient Vedas and  Buddhist scriptures. Rock paintings of Mesolithic era found in Madhya Pradesh  depict honey collection activities. Scientific methods of beekeeping, however,  started only in the late 19th century, although records of taming honeybees and  using in warfare are seen in early 19th century. After Indian independence,  beekeeping was promoted through various rural developmental programs. Five  species of bees that are commercially important for natural honey and beeswax  production are found in India. 19
  51. 51. Species 
  52. 52. There are around 25,000 known species of bee worldwide (about 4000 species in the US, and over 250 species in Britain)....and there are probably more to be discovered! 4000250 !
  53. 53. Super-family: Apoidea (Note: This family also includes 'Sphecoid Wasps', not detailed here( Family Notes Apidae Includes: honey bees, bumblebees and stingless bees. Megachilidae Mostly solitary bees, including leafcutter and mason bees. Andrenidae Mining bees. A large family of bees, with many species. It includes the genera 'Andrena', with other 1300 species alone. Colletidae Believed to consist of around 2,000 species, and includes plasterer and yellow-faced bees. Halictidae Often called 'sweat bees', these are smallish bees, mostly dark coloured, but some having green, yellow or red markings.
  54. 54. Melittidae A small family of bees in Africa, with around 60 species belonging to 4 genera. Meganomiidae Small bee family of about 10 species in 4 genera. Found in Africa. Dasypodaidae Originally called 'dasypodidae'. Small bee family found in Africa, with more than 100 species in 8 genera. Stenotritidae Small bee family with around 21 species in 2 genera. Found in Australia. Originally part of the 'Colletidae' family.
  55. 55. The sugarbag bee, Tetragonula carbonaria Melittosphex burmensis, a fossil bee preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous of Myanmar Long-tongued bees and long-tubed flowers coevolved, like this Amegilla cingulata (Apidae) on Acanthus ilicifolius.
  56. 56. The lapping mouthparts of a honeybee, showing labium and maxillae Head-on view of a carpenter bee, showing antennae, three ocelli, compound eyes, sensory bristles and mouthparts
  57. 57. Willing to die for their sisters: worker honey bees killed defending their hive against wasps, along with a dead wasp. Such eusocial behaviour is favoured by the haplodiploid sex determination system of bees.
  58. 58. A honey bee swarm A bumblebee carrying pollen in its pollen baskets (corbiculae)
  59. 59. A leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata cutting circles from acacia leaves The mason bee Osmia cornifronsnests in a hole in dead wood. Bee "hotels" are often sold for this purpose.
  60. 60. A solitary bee, Anthidium florentinum (family Me gachilidae), visiting Lantana Nest of the common carderbumblebee. The wax canopy has been removed to show winged workers and pup ae in irregularly placed wax cells.
  61. 61. Karl von Frisch (1953) discovered that honey bee workers can navigate, indicating the range and direction to food to other workers with a waggle dance
  62. 62. The bee-fly Bombylius major, a Batesian mimic of bees, taking nectar and pollinating a flower. Bee orchid lures male bees to attempt to mate with the flower's lip, which resembles a bee perched on a pink flower.
  63. 63. Distribution Map
  64. 64. Apis Mellifera Nest
  65. 65. A. Florea Nest
  66. 66. A. Dorsada Nests
  67. 67. 1500 -1600 AD • In 1586, Luis Méndez de Torres first described the queen bee as a female that laid eggs. • 1609 Charles Butler identified the monarch as a female queen and the drone as a male bee. • In 1637, Richard Remnant recognized that the worker bees were females.
  68. 68. Francis Huber • Fully movable frame, Leaf, hive 1789 • Observations on Bees • Queen mating practices and role of Drones
  69. 69. Johann Dzierzon • Discovery of parthenogenesis in Queen bees 1835. • Discovery of Royal Jelly and its role in Queen development 1854.
  70. 70. Royal Jelly in a Queen Cell
  71. 71. Movable Top Bar Hive
  72. 72. Top Bar Comb
  73. 73. Compartments!
  74. 74. Rev. Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth (1810 – 1895) “Father of American Beekeeping” Andover, MA 1836 - 1847
  75. 75. Eureka! 1851Lorenzo Langstroth clarifies bee space, the 3/8 inch needed between frames for bees to build comb. The Langstroth Movable Frame Hive is the first and most important invention in creating a commercial beekeeping industry.
  76. 76. Honeybees around America • Langstroth Movable Frame Hive - 1851 • Honeybees to California 1860’s • 2 Million lbs of honey in CA in 1884 • What was a scarce product became an abundant commodity by 1880!
  77. 77. Inventions Fast and Furious • Inventions fed off each other – Pre-formed wax foundation: 1857 – Extractor: 1865 Francesco De Hruschka – Smokers: 1873 Moses Quimby – Queen Excluder Improved
  78. 78. 1900’s • Breeding Honeybees: – Brother Adam – Africanized Bees in the Americas 1950’s • Brazil breeding station • OOPS! • More Hybrids • More Scientific Studies • More interest in Beekeeping
  79. 79. Essex County Beekeepers Est. 1923
  80. 80. Brother Adam 1898 - 1996
  81. 81. 1925 – Brother Adam Breeding Honeybees for certain traits: the Buckfast Bee • Good Temper • Disease-Resistance • Prolific • Propensity for hard work • Disinclination to swarm
  82. 82. 2000’s • Increased public awareness of the critical role that Honeybees play in the ecosystem and their role in pollination of food crops! • Increased literary interest in Bees and Beekeeping as evidenced by the success of ‘The Secret Life of Bees’, ‘The Beekeeper’s Apprentice’, etc.

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