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  1. 1. Chapter 4
  2. 2. The Role of Climate Weather is the day-to-day Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth’s atmosphere condition of Earth’s atatmosphere at a particular time a particular time and place. and place. climate is the average, year-to- climate is the average, year-to- year conditions of temperature year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular and precipitation in a particular region. region.
  3. 3. What factors cause climate? Climate is caused • By the trapping of heat by the atmosphere, the transport of heat by winds and ocean currents, and the amount of precipitation that results. • The shape and elevation of landmasses also contribute to global climate patterns
  4. 4. The effect of Latitude on Climate Equator circles Earth halfway between the north and south poles. Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. Why does solar radiation strike different parts of Earth’s surface at an angle that varies throughout the year? Earth is a sphere that is tilted on its axis
  5. 5. The major climate Zones Polar zones areas around North and South poles. Cold areas. It is where the Sun’s rays strike the Earth at a very low angle. Temperate zones Between the polar zone and the tropics. Ranges from hot to cold, depending on the season. Tropical zones or tropics is near the equator between 23.5o North and 23.5o South latitude. Almost always warm.
  6. 6. The major climate Zones
  7. 7. Why does Earth have different climate zones? It has different climate zones as a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating.
  8. 8. Heat Transport in the Biosphere •The unequal heating of Earth’s surface drives winds and ocean currents. •Wind forms because warm air tends to rise and cool air tends to sink. •The upward movement of warm air and the downward of cool air create currents, or winds, that move heat throughout the atmosphere from regions of sinker air to regions of rising air. Warm air is less dense than cool air.
  9. 9. The Greenhouse Effect
  10. 10. The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect s the process of absorbing and radiating heat which regulated the temperature. It is the retention of heat by the layer of greenhouse gases.
  11. 11. The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect Different Latitudes 90°N North Pole Sunlight Sunlight Arctic circle 66.5°N Some heat escapes into space Sunlight Tropic of Cancer 23.5°N Equator Most direct sunlight 0° Greenhouse gases trap some heat Tropic of Capricorn 23.5°S Sunlight Atmosphere Arctic circle 66.5°S Sunlight Earth’s surface 90°S South Pole
  12. 12. The primary greenhouse gases  Many natural and human-made gases contribute to the greenhouse effect that warms the Earth's surface.  Water vapor (H2O) is the most important, followed by carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in air conditioners and many industrial processes.
  13. 13. The primary greenhouse gases  Water H20  Carbon dioxide CO2  Methane CH4  Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range.  Without the greenhouse effect the Earth would become a frozen wasteland because Earth would be 30 degrees Celsius cooler than it is today.
  14. 14. Sources of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cars and lorries make carbon dioxide which is causing climate change. How do they make the carbon dioxide?
  15. 15. How do cars make carbon dioxide? Cars, lorries and buses need fuel to make them work. They usually need petrol or diesel. They fill up at petrol stations. Where does petrol and diesel come from?
  16. 16. Making petrol and diesel Petrol and diesel are made from oil. Oil is made naturally when fossilised sea creatures become buried deep underground. Oil is called a ‘fossil fuel’. The oil rig brings the liquid oil to the surface and the tanker takes it to the refinery. Oil contains lots of carbon but it is not yet carbon dioxide.
  17. 17. Making petrol and diesel The oil refinery converts the oil into petrol, diesel and other useful materials.
  18. 18. Tankers deliver the petrol and diesel
  19. 19. Cars use the petrol and diesel Cars and lorries have engines that burn petrol or diesel. This gives the energy to move them along the road. When the petrol and diesel burns, it is convered into carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide escapes out of the exhaust pipe. Carbon contained in the oil is converted into carbon dioxide gas in the air. This adds to climate change.
  20. 20. Sources of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) So burning the petrol Think about ways to or diesel makes carbon reduce the amount of dioxide. carbon dioxide that is made by cars and lorries.
  21. 21. Activities about Climate Change End presentation End presentation Thank You! End presentation