Peasants in fagaras 3


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Peasants in fagaras 3

  1. 1. . “PEASANTS OF FAGARAS” Stefan Constantinescu, artwork
  2. 2. Free Peasants  They are residents of villages, communes, or small towns whose households survive by working individual plots or gardens and who, consequently, have a peasant lifestyle based on economic self-sufficiency.
  3. 3. BADEA CARTAN 24 January 1849 – 7 August 1911  a self-taught ethnic Romanian who fought for the independence of the Romanians of Transylvania (then under Hungarian rule inside Austria-Hungary)
  4. 4. “Cartan- a National Hero  He first crossed the mountains into the Romanian Old Kingdom with his sheep at the age of 18. Then, in 1877 he enrolled as a volunteer in the Romanian War of Independence, serving until 1881.  He was arrested because he asked the Emperor-King Franz Joseph at Vienna for Tranylvania's self-determination, and later because he asked the authorities for permission to sell Romanian books.
  5. 5. BADEA’S JOURNEY TO ROME  He made a journey on foot to Rome. He arrived at the city's edge after 45 days and said, "Bine te-am găsit, maica Roma" ("Pleased to meet you, mother Rome"). He wished to see Trajan's Column with his own eyes, as well as other evidences of the Latin origin of the Romanian people.  After pouring Romanian soil and wheat at the column's base, he wrapped himself in a peasant's coat (cojoc) and fell asleep at the column's base.  The next day he was awakened by a policeman who shouted in amazement, "A Dacian has fallen off the column!", as Cârţan was dressed just like the Dacians carved into the column; the event was reported in Roma’s newspapers and Duiliu Zamfirescu, Romanian representative in Italy, showed him around the city and introduced him to its important personalities.
  6. 6.    Leather peasant sandals (opinci) worn with  strips of material wrapped round legs (obiele).  used to be were worn with opinci - rectangular pieces of white woollen cloth which were wrapped round the feet and legs and held in place by hemp cords. In some areas these were very thick and so became like a padded "bootleg".  .
  7. 7. Peasant Footwear Knitted Woollen socks - Chiorapi  Decorated leg wraps (ghetre ) worn over shoes or boots ( bocanci) by căluşer dancers in southern Transylvania.  They are made of woollen or knitted wool and decorated with coloured embroidery and rows of bells.
  8. 8. 1937 Folk Costume Romanian Peasant Man, Fagaras
  9. 9. .  A Picture in a Chronicle preserved by the National Museum of History in Budapest, Hungary Romanian woman in the 17th century
  10. 10. Farmers or “Peasants under Siege”?  Productive agriculture is an aspiration for farmers-in-the-making, the majority of whom are agronomists by training.  Most peasants are happy just to produce enough to keep their livestock, but even this is no simple affair, although they entrusted the management of the association to the same people who formerly ran the state cooperatives, “because they had experience in the area and know about land.”
  11. 11. Villages - moving towards urbanization or extinction ?  one thing is common to both these tendencies: the decline in the influence of traditional sources of authority (like the village teacher or the priest), due to 50 years of atheism plus 20 years of repeated exposure to experiences which have shown that evil can be rewarded or at least victorious on a large scale...