Romero et al 2012 serious games-cooperationcompetition

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Romero, M., Usart, M., Ott, M., Earp, J., de Freitas, S., & Arnab, S. (2012). Learning through playing for or against each other? Promoting collaborative learning in digital game based learning. 20th European Conference on Information Systems, June 10-13, ESADE, Barcelona.

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  • Session Before K1 (Green) Collaborative Database of Serious Games Damien Djaouti (2) djaouti@irit.fr This talk will first present our research project "Serious Game Classification", an online collaborative database referencing more than 2,200 Serious Game. The classification model will be discussed, and efficient use of the actual database will be tackled. Finally, the talk will provide the frame for a discussion about designing database extensions to tackle extending SG descriptions profitable to support Gala research works.
  • Our main goal is to promote collaborative learning through the use of Serious Games. Considering the advantages of Serious Games for learning, we aim to understand the collaborative learning process through the use of multi player serious games. We introduce now agenda of this presentation fo
  • Peterson, NL (1988): " Learning Alone Together: The Social Relations of an Adult Basic Education Class -room", Illinois University Eastmond, d. (1995). Alone but together: Adult distance education though computer conferencing. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press
  • Icons: http://www.iconarchive.com/show/scrap-icons-by-deleket.2.html
  • Icons: http://www.iconarchive.com/show/scrap-icons-by-deleket.2.html
  • Icons: http://www.iconarchive.com/show/scrap-icons-by-deleket.2.html
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  • Soccer.... Not Serious, but a clear exemple of team-based competition...
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960. http://web.cs.wpi.edu/Research/aidg/KE-Rpt98.html
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Engelmann, T., Dehler, J., Bodemer, D., & Buder, J.  (2009). Knowledge awareness in CSCL: a psychological perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (4), 949-960.
  • Our main goal is to promote collaborative learning through the use of Serious Games. Considering the advantages of Serious Games for learning, we aim to understand the collaborative learning process through the use of multi player serious games. We introduce now agenda of this presentation fo
  • Session Before K1 (Green) Collaborative Database of Serious Games Damien Djaouti (2) djaouti@irit.fr This talk will first present our research project "Serious Game Classification", an online collaborative database referencing more than 2,200 Serious Game. The classification model will be discussed, and efficient use of the actual database will be tackled. Finally, the talk will provide the frame for a discussion about designing database extensions to tackle extending SG descriptions profitable to support Gala research works.
  • Romero et al 2012 serious games-cooperationcompetition

    1. 1. Romero, M., Usart, M., Ott, M., Earp, J., de Freitas, S., & Arnab, S. (2012).Learning through playing for or against each other? Promoting collaborativelearning in digital game based learning. 20th ECIS, June 10-13, ESADE,Barcelona.Learning through playing for oragainst each other?Promoting collaborative learning in digital game based learning @margaridaromero Margarida ROMERO, Ph.D. Associate Director of E-learning. ESADE Business School. Margarida.Romero@Esade.edu11/06/2012 1
    2. 2. Presentation by Margarida Romero (@margaridaromero)In collaboration with and grateful to... Games and Learning Alliance (GaLA) STELLAR Games Enhanced Learning (GEL) Theme Michela Ott, Jeffrey Earp (ITD) Sarah de Freitas, Sylvester Arnab (Serious Games Institute) ESADE Law & Business School Direction of Educational Innovation and Academic Quality (DIPQA) ESADE members related to the project : Mireia Usart Jonathan Wareham Ariadna Padrós Ricard Serlavós Laura Castellucci Joan Massons Esteve Almirall Susana Mas
    3. 3. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group AwarenessResearch questionCan we supportcollaborative learningthrough the use ofSerious Games ?
    4. 4. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group AwarenessINDEX1. Serious Games (SG) for collaborative learning2. Group Awareness in Serious Games3. Knowledge and metacognitive judgements of learning elicitation4. Objectives, hypothesis and first results5. Prospective studiesHow to supportcooperation and competition dynamicsin multiplayer (Serious) Games ? 4
    5. 5. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group AwarenessINDEX1. Serious Games (SG) for collaborative learning2. Group Awareness in Serious Games3. Knowledge and metacognitive judgements of learning elicitation4. Objectives, hypothesis and first results5. Prospective studies 5
    6. 6. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness1. Serious Games forCollaborative Learning 6
    7. 7. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.1. Serious Games for Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness Collaborative Learning Collaborative Serious Games  Learning Game Based Learning (GBL) through Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Collaborative LearningSerious Games Computer- Game Based CollaborativeSupported Gamesfor Learning Learning (GBL) GBL Computer Computer Computer Supported CSCL GBL / Supported GBL. Collaborative SG Supported Learning Serious Games (SG) Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
    8. 8. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.1. Serious Games for Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness Collaborative LearningCollaborative Serious Games  Game Based Learning (GBL)through Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)Collaborative SG considers games allows learners to constructknowledge by interacting with information, tools, andmaterials as well as by collaborating with other learnerswithin the game. In Collaborative Serious Games, are students • “learning alone, together” (Eastmond, 1995) ? • collaborating towards a common goal ? • competing with or against other students or groups ?
    9. 9. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.1. Serious Games for Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness Collaborative LearningCL requires sharing and negociating knowledge among learners. Despitecompetition rises challenge and motivation (Mawdesley, Long, Al-Jibouri & Scott,2010), competition does not promote knowledge elicitation and sharing with thecompetitors...Multiplayer Serious Games situations does not promote CL if individualsare only competing against each other Group Level (Intergroup) Small Group Level (Intragroup) Other Small Groups Individual learner / player Games are defined as competitive activities (against the computer, another playr, or oneself) (Lindsey, 2004) Then, how could we combine competition and knowledge sharing for collaborative learning ?
    10. 10. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group AwarenessINDEX1. Serious Games (SG) for collaborative learning2. Group Awareness in Serious Games3. Knowledge and metacognitive judgements of learning elicitation4. Objectives, hypothesis and first results5. Prospective studies2. Competition and cooperationdynamics in multiplayer (Serious) Games 10
    11. 11. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.2. Competition and cooperation Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness dynamics in SGCollaboration (Cooperation) dynamics• Cooperative learning situations, compared with competitive and individual situations, promote higher levels of self-esteem and healthier processes for deriving conclusions about one’s self-worth. (Johnson, et al., 1983, p. 35)• The truth is that the vast majority of human interaction … is not competitive but cooperative interaction. (Johnson & Johnson, 1974, pp. 213)• Cooperative Learning (CL) is not just a set of teaching techniques. It reflects an ethical orientation to life and involves a completely different approach to learning. (Clark, 1991, p. 3)
    12. 12. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. 2. is cooperation Competition and cooperation Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness dynamics in SG… however,engaging enough ? Game. Situation I: Interindividual competitition Multiplayer Serious Individuals playing AGAINST other individuals in a multiplayer SG. Could we consider this game as a Collaborative Learning game ? Individuals competing AGAINST each other Collaborative share of Knowledge is conterproductive Individual Individual learner #1 learner #2
    13. 13. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.2. Competition and cooperation Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness dynamics in SGMultiplayer Serious Game. Situation I: Interindividual competititionIndividuals playing AGAINST other individuals in a multiplayer SG.Could we consider this game as a Collaborative Learning game ? Individuals competing AGAINST each other Collaborative share of Knowledge is conterproductive Individual Individual learner #1 learner #2
    14. 14. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.2. Competition and cooperation Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness dynamics in SGMultiplayer Serious Game. Situation II: Intergroup competitition Small groups playing TOGETHER, AGAINST other small groups in a collaborative SG Small groups competing AGAINST other groups Integroups sharing Knowledge is conterproductive Small group #1 Small group #2 Individual Individual Individual Individual learner #1 learner #2 learner #3 learner #4 Individual learners collaborating TOGETHER, AGAINST the other small groups Intragroup sharing Knowledge is a productive strategy Positive interdependence through Learners’ (previous) knowledge common performance interest elicitation for facilitating the (intragroup cooperation and awareness of the MKO intergroup competition)
    15. 15. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness3. Promoting (meta)knowledgeelicitation through GroupAwareness Widgets 15
    16. 16. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.3. Knowledge Group Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness Awareness Group Awareness needs in the context of intragroup Knowledge sharing. Is my team-mate more knowledgeable Learners’ need to be aware of their than me (MKO)? teammates’ knowledge.Does he have previous knowledge andexperience on the task ? Small group #1 What were his individual answers to the collaborative task ? In a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) or work situation, Group Awareness (GA) is an understanding of the state and activities of others which provides a context for your own activity (Dourish and Belloti, 1992) How to share Knowledge between the members of a distributed team working in a CSCL task ?
    17. 17. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.3. Knowledge Group Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness AwarenessGroup Awareness could be focused on specific collaboration aspects. Based on Carroll andcolleagues (2003) and Engelmann, Dehler, Boemer and Buder (2009) and Collazos et al (2002)we consider 4 types of awareness:Social awareness: consciousness of thepresence and state of the team-matesAction awareness: information about theactions which are currently being carried outby the group and its members (primarilyimportant in the context of synchronouscollaboration)Activity awareness: consciousness of theactivity of the team-mates (that has beenperformed, or to be performed to achievethe task)(Shared) Knowledge (Group) Awareness:consciousness of the team-mates knowledgeand the group knowledge constructionprocess. Brennan and Williams (1995) usedthe term Feeling of Anothers Knowing(FOAK) to refer to the KGA.
    18. 18. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.3. Knowledge Group Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness AwarenessGroup Awareness Widgets (GAw) are software tools or functionnalitiesproviding the learners with social information promoting group awareness(Kreijns & Kirschner, 2002; Jermann et al., 2001)For promoting Knowledge Group Awareness (KGA), the GAw requiresKnowledge Explicitation (KE) by the learners.We consider 3 types of KE: 1. Previous knowledge elicitation 2. Knowledge (Elicited through the task) 3. Judgement of Learning (JoL)We expect the collective display (GAw) of this 3 types of KE to increase theknowledge group awareness and enhance the collaborative learningprocess.
    19. 19. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.3. Knowledge Group Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness Awareness3 types of KE in the MetaVals Serious Game(Romero, Usart, & Almirall, 2011; Usart,Romero, & Padrós, 2011 ) : 1. Previous knowledge elicitation 2. Knowledge (Elicited through the task) 3. Judgement of Learning (JoL) defined as “an awareness of not knowing or understanding everything read” (Azevedo et al., 2005). We expect the collective display (GAw) of this 3 types of KE to increase the knowledge group awareness and enhance the collaborative learning process.
    20. 20. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.3. Knowledge Group Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness AwarenessJOL refers to the feelings a student has regarding his/her knowledge for a specific subject(Hart, 1965), it is defined by the student using a Confidence Level.Research Hypothesis: We expect the JOL elicitation and collective display to improve theCL process, by increasing the Knowledge Group Awareness (KGA). Cyril Judgement of Learning is Margarida Judgement of low … Margarida could be Learning is high … that could aware that his not sure about helps Cyril to accept her advice his answer (and explain him de as the More Knowledgeable right answer ...) Other (MKO) ;-)
    21. 21. Margarida Romero, Ph. D. Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness4. First results andprospectives 21
    22. 22. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.4. First results and Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness prospectives Research Hypothesis: We expect the JOL elicitation and collective display toimprove the CL process, by increasing the Knowledge Group Awareness (KGA), butalso promote a higher number of interactions. Without JOL (IV) With JOL (IV) Control Group Experimental Group Collaborative Learning Normal Higher performance performance Interactions Normal level of Higher number of interactions interactions
    23. 23. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.4. First results and Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness prospectivesParticipants : 16 adults enroled in an introductory course to finance, distributedinto two independent groups (JOL and Control group) Without JOL (IV) With JOL (IV) Control Group Experimental Group Collaborative Learning M=5.25, SD=.886 M=5.50, SD=.535 t(14) =.683, p=.586 Interactions M=0.75, SD=.463 M=1.75, SD=1.669 t(14) =.683, p=.03
    24. 24. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.4. First results and Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness prospectivesDespite the reduced number of students of the first study, weobserve better results (even if not statiscally significative) in groupsusing the knowledge Elicitation tool and a statistally significativeincrease of interaction.3 new studies have been carry out after this first study involving morethan 50 students.… and you are invited to come to the demo of the eFinance Gamethis evening (20h).
    25. 25. Margarida Romero, Ph. D.4. First results and Collaborative GBL & Group Awareness prospectives 3 recommendations for SGCan we support support of CLcollaborative learning Create Intragroup CL against intergroupthrough the use of CompetitionSerious Games ? Support CL process through GAw for supporting the Knowledge and metacognitive beliefs elicitation (JOL) Provide communication tools
    26. 26. Romero, M., Usart, M., Ott, M., Earp, J., de Freitas, S., & Arnab, S. (2012).Learning through playing for or against each other? Promoting collaborativelearning in digital game based learning. 20th ECIS, June 10-13, ESADE,Barcelona.Thank you for your attention Wednesday 11 am Serious Games and Simulations Track Michela OTT & Margarida Romero 26

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