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Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch.

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La pensée computationnelle (PC) est une nouvelle littéracie de conceptualisation et abstraction à des niveaux multiples qui permet de résoudre des problèmes dans différentes disciplines (Qin, 2009). La PC est une composante clé des compétences du 21e siècle qui va au-delà de l’alphabétisation numérique (niveau 1, Compétence TIC, UNESCO, 2011) pour permettre d’atteindre les niveaux d’approfondissement et de création de connaissances (niveaux 2 et 3, UNESCO) nécessaires pour participer au monde numérique. Un nombre croissant de pays ont introduit la PC dans l’enseignement primaire et la formation des enseignants (Estonie, 2011; ÉUA, 2013; Royaume Uni, 2014). Au Québec, les initiatives d’intégration de la programmation à l’école sont peu nombreuses et le développement de la compétence professionnelle d’intégration des TIC (Compétence 8, MELS) s’est centré sur les compétences informationnelles mais les initiatives d’introduction à la programmation à l’enseignement primaire sont peu nombreuses (Kids Code Jeunesse). Dans le but de permettre aux futurs enseignants du primaire de développer leur PC par le biais de la programmation, nous avons réalisé un atelier de création de Séquences d’Apprentissage et Évaluation (SAÉ) avec la plateforme de programmation Scratch (MIT). Chacune des équipes de futurs enseignants a réussi à créer une SAÉ engageant les élevés dans des activités de programmation Scratch et répondant à plusieurs compétences disciplinaires du PFÉQ.

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Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch.

  1. 1. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch 7ème édition des Journées du E-Learning Margarida ROMERO Professeure en Technologie Éducative Université Laval (Québec). Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch @margaridaromero M a r ga r i d a . Ro m e r o @ f s e . u l a va l . c a
  2. 2. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch 2
  3. 3. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Matin: Conférences Après-midi: Création intergénérationnelle d’un jeu numérique
  4. 4. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch
  5. 5. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Alphabétisation digitale et usages participatifs dans des réseaux sociaux. Approfondissement et création de nouvelles connaissances (individuellement et en collaboration), approche critique des TIC, pensée computationnelle.
  6. 6. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch • Besoin d’une éducation orientée aux compétences du 21e siècle : communication, collaboration, créativité et pensée critique (Dede, 2010). • Les usages des TIC doivent permettre développer les compétences du 21e siècle et développer la création de connaissances (UNESCO, 2011). UNESCO (2011)
  7. 7. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Nous analysons trois modalités d’intégration des jeux (sérieux) en classe. • Jeux conçus pour donner support à des apprentissages de manière explicite • Existence de taxonomies et catalogues de JS Utilisation de jeux sérieux existants • Implication des apprenants dans la sélection • Existence de nombreuses ressources pouvant s’adapter aux critères de sélection (collaboration, langue, coûts, technologies..) Détournement pédagogique de jeux vidéo • Création de jeux par l’enseignant OU par les apprenants (programmation) • Univers de possibilités élargi • Plateformes de création de jeux (Scratch, GameSalad, Unity…) Création de jeux
  8. 8. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Les café des Mathadores (TFO). Jeux Sérieux en Mathématiques 1. Utilisation de jeux sérieux existants
  9. 9. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Angry Birds pour des apprentissages en Mathématiques 2. Détournement pédagogique de jeux vidéos
  10. 10. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch • La création de jeux numériques – est une activité d’apprentissage qui mobilise es compétences du 21e siècle (Romero, Usart & Ott, 2015); – présente un potentiel interdisciplinaire important; – présente un potentiel d’apprentissage intergénérationnel Scratch pour la création d’une histoire (langue), dans un milieu spécifique (géographie et histoire), selon un algorithme (mathématiques). 3. Création de jeux (sérieux)
  11. 11. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Univers du vivant: Le positionnement de la terre en relation au soleil: https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/29178800/#editor Usages pédagogiques de Scratch (I)
  12. 12. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch « Des TIC dans les jambes »: Contrer le sédentarisme et développer le sens du rythme, la créativité et la collaboration https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/29177604/ Usages pédagogiques de Scratch (II) Pizza chef (usage de la webcam): https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/10015802/
  13. 13. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch « Dans l’œsophage de l’Université Laval »: Usage de variables et nombres aléatoires: https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/44259990/ Usages pédagogiques de Scratch (III)
  14. 14. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Romero, M. (2015). Apprentissage par le jeu : de la ludification des apprentissages aux jeux sérieux. Dans Santos-Ferreira, B. et al. (Eds.). Gamificação. Debatendo aplicações na escola. Romero, M., & Barma, S. (2015). Teaching Pre-Service Teachers to Integrate Serious Games in the Primary Education Curriculum. International Journal of Serious Games, 2(1). Romero, M., Usart, M., & Ott, M. (2014). Can Serious Games Contribute to Developing and Sustaining 21st Century Skills?. Games and Culture. doi:10.1177/1555412014548919 Romero, M., Usart, M., Popescu, M., & Boyle, E. (2012). Interdisciplinary and International Adaption and Personalization of the MetaVals Serious Games. In M. Ma, M. Oliveira, J. Hauge, H. Duin, & K.-D. Thoben (Eds.), Serious Games Development and Applications (Vol. 7528, pp. 59–73). Berlin / Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
  15. 15. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Margarida ROMERO Professeure Adjointe en Technologie Éducative Université Laval (Québec). @ m a r ga r i d a r o m e r o M a r ga r i d a . Ro m e r o @ f s e . u l a va l . c a
  16. 16. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Méthodologie pour la création de jeux (II) Purpose / (Educational) objectives Learning objectives Gaming experience Positive (learning) experience Game mechanics & rules Purpose / (Educational) objectives Learning assessment & feedback Game modalities Purpose / (Educational) objectives Learner-centered need analysis { Serious (educational) Games Game universe / Immersion (cognitive & visual level) / Gameplay (Educational) Gamification Real life contexts/Non-game Secondary task Educationalization of Games Repurposing entertainment games for educational purposes SG Creation Game Creation
  17. 17. Margarida.Romero @fse.ulaval.ca Introduction à la pensée computationnelle des futurs enseignants de l’enseignement primaire par le biais de l’usage de Scratch Jeux sérieux, apprentissage par le jeu et ludification des apprentissages Contextualisation. Cours

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