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  1. 1. CRIMES / OFFENSES• Arson - malicious burning to destroy property• Assassination - murder of a public figure by surprise attack; an attack intended to ruin someones reputation• Assault – a threatened or attempted physical attack by someone who appears to be able to cause bodily harm if not stopped; close fighting during the culmination of a military attack; thoroughbred that won the triple crown in 1946; the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will; verb: attack someone physically or emotionally ("The mugger assaulted the woman"); force (someone) to have sex against their will; attack in speech or writing• Bigamy – the offense of marrying someone while you have a living spouse from whom no valid divorce has occurred; having two spouses at the same time• Blackmail – extortion of money by threats to divulge discrediting information• Bribery - the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage• Burglary - entering a building unlawfully with intent to commit a felony or to steal valuable property• Child abuse – the physical or emotional or sexual mistreatment of children• Domestic violence – violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women• Drug trafficking - traffic in illegal drugs• Embezzlement – the fraudulent appropriation of funds or property entrusted to your care but actually owned by someone else --> desfalco• Espionage – the systematic use of spies to get military or political secrets• Forgery – criminal falsification by making or altering an instrument with intent to defraud; a copy that is represented as the original --> falsificación• Fraud – something intended to deceive; deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage; intentional deception resulting in injury to another person; a person who makes deceitful pretenses• Genocide – systematic killing of a racial or cultural group• Hijacking – robbery of a traveler or vehicle in transit or seizing control of a vehicle by the use of force• Homicide – the killing of a human being by another human being• Hooliganism – willful wanton and malicious destruction of the property of others• Kidnapping – (law) the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person against their will and holding them in false imprisonment• Manslaughter – homicide without malice aforethought• Mugging – assault with intent to rob• Murder – unlawful premeditated killing of a human being by a human being ▸ verb: kill intentionally and with premeditation• Rape – the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will; the act of despoiling a country in warfare; Eurasian plant cultivated for its seed and as a forage crop ▸ verb: force (someone) to have sex against their will ("The woman was raped on her way home at night"); destroy and strip of its possession• Robbery – larceny by threat of violence; plundering during riots or in wartime• Shoplifting – the act of stealing goods that are on display in a store• Slander – words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another; an abusive attack on a persons character or good name ▸ verb: charge falsely or with malicious intent; attack the good name and reputation of someone --> calumnia, difamación• Smuggling – secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which duty is due• Vandalism – willful wanton and malicious destruction of the property of others CRIMINALS / LAW BREAKERS1. Assassin 9. Forger 17. Poacher2. Arsonist 10. Fraud 18. Robber3. Blackmailer 11. Hijacker 19. Smuggler4. Briber 12. Hooligan 20. Spy5. Burglar 13. Kidnapper 21. Terrorist6. Deserter 14. Mugger 22. Thief7. Embezzler 15. Murderer 23. Vandal8. Shoplifter 16. Pickpocket 1
  2. 2. PARTICIPANTS OF THE LEGAL PROCEDUREAttorney for the plaintiff / for defense – a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or giveslegal adviceCourt reporter – a stenographer who records and transcribes a verbatim report of all proceedings in a court of lawDefendant – a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued oraccusedJudge – a public official authorized to decide questions bought before a court of justice; an authority who is able toestimate worth or qualityJury – body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law; acommittee appointed to judge a competitionOffender – a person who transgresses moral or civil lawPlaintiff – person who brings an action in a court of lawProsecutor – a government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the stateWitness – someone who sees an event and reports what happened; (law) a person who attests to the genuinenessof a document or signature by adding their own signature; (law) a person who testifies under oath in a court of law TYPES OF PUNISHMENTA prison sentence – a period of time in jailA suspended sentence – sentence that need not be served: a sentence imposed on somebody found guilty of a crimethat need not be served as long as the individual commits no other crime during the term of the sentenceCapital punishment – putting a condemned person to deathCommunity service – an unpaid service for the benefit of the public that is performed by lawbreakers as part (or all)of their sentence; a service that is performed for the benefit of the public or its institutionsEviction – the expulsion of someone (such as a tenant) from the possession of land by process of law; action by alandlord that compels a tenant to leave the premises (as by rendering the premises unfit for occupancy); no physicalexpulsion or legal process is involved --> desalojo, desahucioFine – money extracted as a penaltyInternment – confinement during wartime; the act of confining someone in a prison (or as if in a prison); placingprivate property in the custody of an officer of the lawHouse arrest – confinement to your own homeLicense suspension – sometimes a penalty for Driving Under the Influence of alcohol convictions.Life imprisonment – a sentence of imprisonment until deathProbation – (law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them; a defendant found guilty of a crime isreleased by the court without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court ("Probation is part of thesentencing process"); a trial period during which an offender has time to redeem himself or herself; a trial periodduring which your character and abilities are tested to see whether you are suitable for work or for membership -->libertad condicionalSolitary confinement – confinement of a prisoner in isolation from other prisoners (the act of restraining of apersons liberty by confining them) LEGAL PROCEDURETo file a complaint – / To answer a complaint – The presentation by the plaintiff in a civil action, setting forth theclaim on which relief is sought. A formal charge, made under oath, of the commission of a crime or other suchoffense.To issue somebody a summon – bring out a written order to somebody to appear in court to answer a complaintTo issue a warrant of arrest – bring out a judges order to law enforcement officers to arrest and bring to jail aperson charged with a crime. The warrant is issued upon a sworn declaration by the district attorney, a police officeror an alleged victim that the accused person committed a crime.To indict sb. for – accuse formally of a crimeTo bring the case to court –To go before the court -The prosecution – he institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for criminal behavior; thelawyers acting for the state to put the case against the defendant; the continuance of something begun with a viewto its completionThe defense – the defendant and his legal advisors collectively 2
  3. 3. To examine a witness – question closely a person in a law court who states what they know about a legal case or aparticular personDirect examination / cross examination – the first examination of a witness by the party calling the witness / theexamination of a witness who has already testified in order to check or discredit the witnesss testimony, knowledge,or credibilityTo present evidence – provide all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated atjudicial trial is established or disprovedTo detain a person – deprive of freedom; take into confinementDetention – a punishment in which a student must stay at school after others have gone home PENALTIES AND SENTENCES • To bring in a verdict of guilty / not guilty – • To be found guilty / not guilty – • To acquit – pronounce not guilty of criminal charges • To convict – find or declare guilty • To be sentenced to – • Bail – the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial) ("He is out on bail"); (criminal law) money that must be forfeited by the bondsman if an accused person fails to appear in court for trial • To release sb. on bail – release after a security has been paid (property or goods that you promise to give to someone if you cannot pay them what you owe them: She used her shares in the company as security against a £23 million bank loan. The hotel held onto our baggage as security while we went to the bank to get money to pay the bill.) • To grant probation/parole – conceder la libertad condicional • To release sb. on parole – dejar en libertad condicional 3