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L'astrolabe : Joyau mathématique

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Conférence de Philippe Dutarte sur l'Astrolabe et les instruments de navigation anciens à l'occasion du festival annuel de la médiathèque de l'Astrolabe à Melun, consacré à l'astronomie, le 2 juin 2007.

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L'astrolabe : Joyau mathématique

  1. 1. L’ASTROLABE, JOYAU MATH É MATIQUE Médiathèque Astrolabe MELUN Philippe Dutarte 2 juin 2007
  2. 2. Trésors des musées d’Ile-de-France
  3. 3. Institut du monde arabe
  4. 4. Musée des arts et métiers
  5. 6. Musée du Louvre
  6. 7. Musée de la Renaissance (Écouen)
  7. 8. Observatoire de Paris
  8. 10. Bibliothèque nationale de France
  9. 11. LA SPH ÈRE ARMILLAIRE
  10. 12. Étoile polaire Méridien Écliptique Horizon Équateur
  11. 13. Un instrument antique, symbole de science et de pouvoir
  12. 15. Instrument pédagogique
  13. 17. « les problèmes que l'on peut résoudre par le moyen d'un globe ou d'une sphère, ne sont pas de simples exercices d'amusement » Jérôme Lalande
  14. 18. Latitude du lieu et hauteur du pôle nord céleste H N E O Z Hauteur de la polaire Latitude ?
  15. 19. Instrument d’observation et de mesure « En nous servant donc encore du même instrument, dont les cercles tournent autour des pôles de l'oblique, nous avons observé autant d'étoiles qu'il nous a été possible d'en apercevoir, jusqu'à celles de sixième grandeur. » Ptolémée - Almageste
  16. 22. L’ASTROLABE PLANISPH ÉRIQUE
  17. 23. Comprendre l’astrolabe…
  18. 24. … un jeu d’enfant
  19. 25. … de 7 à 97 ans.
  20. 27. Les pièces d’un astrolabe Araignée Ecrou Tympan Matrice Règle Alidade
  21. 28. L’astrolabe comme instrument de mesure : « preneur d’astres » « Astrolabe » est un mot d’origine grecque, qui se traduit, littéralement, par « preneur d’astre » : en grec, astron signifie astre et labê dérive du verbe lambanein qui signifie prendre.
  22. 29. Angle de hauteur de l’astre Vers l’astre Astrolabe tenu verticalement Visée à travers les pinnules de l’alidade Vers l’horizon
  23. 30. Cercles de hauteur (al-muquantarat)
  24. 31. L’astrolabe comme instrument de représentation et de calcul : projection d’une sphère armillaire
  25. 32. Sphère locale fixe et sphère céleste en rotation
  26. 33. Sphère céleste et sphère locale Sphère locale fixe Sphère céleste mobile
  27. 34. Projection stéréographique de pôle Sud sur le plan de l’équateur A’ A
  28. 35. Projection des tropiques
  29. 36. SPHERE CELESTE MOBILE ARAIGNEE TYMPAN LOCAL ASTROLABE PROJECTION STEREOGRAPHIQUE
  30. 37. Appolonius de Perge (vers – 200) étude géométrique de la projection stéréographique
  31. 38. Hipparque de Nicée (vers –150) Utilisation astronomique de la projection stéréographique
  32. 39. Ptolémée (vers + 150) : le « Planisphaerium »
  33. 40. Histoire de l’astrolabe Alexandrie IVe s Tolède XIe s Catalogne Xe-XIe s Louvain XVIe s Italie XVIe s Lisbonne XVe s Bagdad IXe s L’astrolabe : un patrimoine commun
  34. 41. L’apport des savants arabes
  35. 42. Orientation et azimuts
  36. 43. <ul><li>Al-Biruni (973–1050) : </li></ul><ul><li>Ligne du crépuscule . </li></ul><ul><li>Lignes des heures des prières musulmanes . </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Khwarizmi (IXe siècle) : </li></ul><ul><li>Lignes d’azimut. </li></ul><ul><li>Le cadran des sinus. </li></ul><ul><li>Le carré des ombres. </li></ul>
  37. 44. Quadrant des sinus
  38. 45. Astrolabe universel <ul><li>XI e siècle, à Tolède : </li></ul><ul><li>Ali Ibn Khalaf . </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn al-Zarqali (1029-1087) . </li></ul>
  39. 47. Le Moyen Age occidental
  40. 48. Astrolabe acquis par Regiomontanus Xe siècle : Gerbert d’Aurillac
  41. 49. Renaissance : Mercator et Arsenius
  42. 50. Georg Hartmann (1489-1564)
  43. 51. Quelques utilisations de l’astrolabe
  44. 52. Le tympan Étoile polaire Zénith Cercle de hauteur 40° Horizon
  45. 53. L’araignée Altaïr Étoile polaire Soleil début juin
  46. 54. Détermination de l’heure (jour) : on « pèse » le Soleil…
  47. 56. Détermination de l’heure (nuit) Astrolabe tympan Paris
  48. 57. Mesure d’une tour (on remarquera que l’horloge tourne dans le sens direct). Dominique Jacquinot – L’usage de l’un et autre Astrolabe particulier et universel – 1625. Détermination de distances inaccessibles 2  a a 6 12 12 6
  49. 58. Astrolabe.SLDASM
  50. 59. « Carré des ombres »   ombre droite gnomon (virtuel)
  51. 61. L’ASTROLABE NAUTIQUE Au service de la navigation
  52. 62. LES INSTRUMENTS DE L’ASTRONOMIE ANCIENNE de l’Antiquité à la Renaissance éditions Vuibert . [email_address]

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