Linear perspective to show depth and realism in your drawingsONE POINT PERSPECTIVE Marsha Devine 2008
LINEAR PERSPECTIVE We see parallel lines as converging in the distance, although in reality they do not. The lines of buildings and other objects in a picture are slanted inward making them appear to extend back into space. If lengthened these lines will meet at a point along an imaginary horizontal line representing the eye level. Each such imaginary line is called an orthogonal. The point at which such lines meet is called a vanishing point. Renaissance artists achieved through careful observation of nature, including studies of anatomical dissections, a means to recreate the 3- dimensional physical reality of the human form on 2-dimensional surfaces. The first to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective was the Florentine architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi in the early 1400s.
TERMS USED IN LINEAR PERSPECTIVE Horizon line: An imaginary horizontal line, sometimes referred to as eye level, which divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Objects below this line are below your eye level, and objects above this line are above your eye level. Artists draw horizon lines to accurately establish perspective in their drawings. Orthogonal lines: Straight lines, drawn at an angle from the edges of objects, back into perceived distant space, until they finally converge at a point on the horizon line. These lines establish guidelines for drawing objects in proper perspective. Vanishing point: The point on the horizon line where the angular perspective lines of an object visually continue past its edges and eventually converge. Objects become smaller and smaller the closer they are to the vanishing point and, at this point, seem to completely disappear (or vanish). Some objects can even have more than one vanishing point. Image from the University of Hertfordshire
1 PT PERSPECTIVE STEPS Locate & draw the Horizon Line Locate the Vanishing Point Draw Orthogonal Lines (perspective lines) from the front edge of the object to the Vanishing PointHorizon Line Horizon Line with Vanishing Point object Orthogonal Lines
LOCATING THE HORIZON LINE Looking at your subject, decide where your eye level would be. Remember -- it will change depending on your position. Draw this line on your paper and then locate the vanishing points.
LOCATING THE VANISHING POINT The following steps explain how you can find a vanishing point in a photograph or sketch. These basic principles also apply to locating a vanishing point in observational drawing.Find an image that includes a level, man-made object with horizontal lines, such as a railing, deck, or wharf, or the roof, horizontal siding, or steps of a building. Then follow these steps:1. Find an object in the image that you know is level and has more than one horizontal line.In image at right, the horizontal lines on the edge of the railing and the wooden planks in the deck are level.2. Tape a piece of tracing paper over the entire image.3. With a pencil and a ruler, outline the upper and lower horizontal edges of this object, as well Adapted from http://www.dummies.com as any other lines that you know to be parallel, such as railings, decks, or the upper and lower edges of doors and windows.
VANISHING POINT (P.2)4. Tape your traced drawing to a larger sheet ofdrawing paper, leaving room to extend thehorizontal lines of the object.Refer to the lines on your tracing and take note ofthe direction in which they point. You can visuallyidentify which lines are going to eventuallyconverge.Tape only the outer edges so that the tape doesnttear the center area of your drawing paper whenyou remove it.5. Use your ruler and a pencil to extend all of thehorizontal lines until they meet.Keep your lines light, so you can erase them later.Note the point where most lines converge. This isyour vanishing point, which is located on thehorizon line. Adapted from http://www.dummies.comWhen an object has only one vanishing point, itsperspective is referred to as one-point perspective.6. Draw a straight line (the horizon line) through thevanishing point, horizontal to the top and bottom ofyour drawing paper.
ANALYZING A 1 PT DRAWING Estimating that the far wall is 8 feet tall, I will approximate the width of the wall at 11 feet. Then I can divide the wall to insure that the cabinets, stove, and other items are the correct size.
1PT PERSPECTIVESee how the horizon lineis at eye level?See how all parallel linesconverge at the vanishingpoint?Note how the tiles on the floorappear to be smaller as theyget closer to the horizon line –actually they are allthe same size.
LAS MENINAS VELASQUEZ 1656 Here the orthogonal lines converge at the mirror reflecting the king and queen, creating a focal point.
VOCABULARY REVIEW Horizon Line -- The apparent intersection of the earth and sky as seen by an observer Vanishing Point -- The point in linear perspective at which all imaginary lines of perspective converge. The point at which parallel lines receding from an observer seem to converge. The point at which a thing disappears or ceases to exist. Convergence or Orthogonal Lines -- The lines that make up the sides of an object in a perspective drawing that relate directly back to the vanishing point. Horizontal -- Parallel to or in the plane of the horizon. Vertical -- Being or situated at right angles to the horizon; upright
LYDIA CROCHETING IN THE GARDEN AT MARLY.CASSATT 1880.
OTHER REFERENCES http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/painting/principl-tech/art- studio/interior/circles.htm http://psych.hanover.edu/krantz/art/linear.html http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.geometry/unit11/unit11.html http://www.myamericanartist.com/2006/12/linear_perspect.html Behind the Scenes with David Hockney - "Hosted by famous illusionists Penn and Teller, this segment in a PBS art primer series for children offers insight into "how depth is created on a flat surface." Using multiple animated and live-action examples, Penn and Teller cattily and chattily illustrate principles of perspective, vanishing point, and composition." amazon.com review "Perspective is the rein and rudder of painting" Leonardo da Vinci Marsha Devine 2008