molecular genetics


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  • James Watson and Francis Crick publish a description of the double-helix structure of DNA. The paper acknowledges that the authors were "stimulated by knowledge of the unpublished experimental results of" Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, whose x-ray crystallography images of DNA suggested the structure. Franklin died in 1958; Watson, Crick and Wilkins are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. 1962 Nobel Prize Watson, J. D. and F. H. C. Crick, 1953. Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for desoxyribonucleic acid. Nature 171: 737-738. DNA Helix Turns 40, ASM News 60,1994. p
  • molecular genetics

    1. 1. Central Dogma
    2. 2. 1953: James Watson and Francis Crick presents the DNA structure Basis: Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray crystallography images of DNA Watson, Crick and Wilkins – Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962
    3. 3. Nucleic Acid Chemistry purine pyrimidine
    4. 5. Nucleotide Chain
    5. 6. Base-pairing
    6. 9. RNA Structure
    7. 11. Classes of RNA <ul><li>rRNA </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul>
    8. 12. The Central Dogma
    9. 13. DNA REPLICATION 1. Origin of DNA Replication
    10. 15. 2. Unwinding of the DNA 3. Stabilization of the Y-junction 4. Polymerization of the nucleotides
    11. 16. 5. Formation of the Leading and Lagging Strand 6. Formation of the Replisome 7. Replication of the Leading and Lagging Strand
    12. 17. Replication of the Lagging Strand <ul><li>Primer synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>- enzyme primase provide the free 3’-OH group at the site of Okazaki fragment initiation in the lagging strand </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation </li></ul><ul><li>Primer Removal and Gap Filling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exonuclease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>endonuclease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Ligation </li></ul>
    13. 18. 8. Primer Removal and Gap Filling 9. Ligation
    14. 19. Ligation- the polymerase cannot attach together the fragments, the enzyme DNA ligase completes this task by making a phosphodiester bond
    15. 20. DNA TRANSCRIPTION (Prokaryotic) <ul><li>1. Initiation of Transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TATAAT known as Pribnow box </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Polymerization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It begins 6 to 8 nucleotides down from the Pribnow box. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the DNA coding strand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA polymerase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First base to be transcribed is noted as +1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Termination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terminator sequence or stop signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stem-loop structure is formed which causes the RNA polymerase to pause which may then allow termination to occur under two different circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rho dependent termination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rho independent termination </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 21. 1. Initiation of Transcription 2. Polymerization
    17. 22. Bacterial Promoter <ul><li>The lactose operon promoter and its consensus sequences. The start point for RNA synthesis is labeled 1. The region around 35 is the site at which the RNA polymerase first attaches to the promoter. RNA polymerase binds and begins to unwind the DNA helix at the Pribnow box or RNA polymerase binding site, which is located in the 10 region. </li></ul>Pribnow box
    18. 23. 3. Termination
    20. 28. Reading Frames and Their Importance <ul><li>The place at which DNA sequence reading begins determines the way nucleotides are grouped together in clusters of three (outlined with brackets), and this specifies the mRNA codons and the peptide product. In the example, a change in the reading frame by one nucleotide yields a quite different mRNA and final peptide. </li></ul>PROTEIN TRANSLATION
    21. 30. Protein Translation <ul><li>takes place in the ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>ribosome is composed of a small sub-unit and large sub-unit </li></ul><ul><li>uses the genetic code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a series of codons that contain the triplets of bases in the DNA and mRNA. Several mRNA codons may code for a single amino acid (degeneracy of code). </li></ul></ul>
    22. 31. Three Stages of Protein Biosynthesis <ul><li>When does translation start? </li></ul><ul><li>1. INITIATION </li></ul><ul><li>Components of translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosome with its small sub-unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formyl methionine (fMEt-tRNA f Met ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiation factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>initiation codons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prokaryotes- GUG, AUG and UUG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eukaryotes-AUG and CUG </li></ul></ul>
    23. 32. 1. INITIATION
    24. 33. 2. ELONGATION
    25. 34. <ul><li>Stop Codons: UAG, UAA, UGA </li></ul>3. TERMINATION