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Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers


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Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers

  1. 1. Anwar Shahzad · Shiwali Sharma Saeed A. Siddiqui Editors Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers
  2. 2. Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers
  3. 3. Anwar Shahzad • Shiwali Sharma Saeed A. Siddiqui Editors Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers
  4. 4. ISBN 978-3-319-19287-1 ISBN 978-3-319-19288-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-19288-8 Library of Congress Control Number: 2015959029 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www. Editors Anwar Shahzad Plant Biotechnology Section Department of Botany Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, UP, India Saeed A. Siddiqui Plant Biotechnology Section Department of Botany Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, UP, India Shiwali Sharma Plant Biotechnology Section Department of Botany Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, UP, India
  5. 5. Plants become climbers, in order, it may be presumed, to reach the light, and to expose a large surface of leaves to its action and to that of the free air. This is affected by climbers with wonderfully little expenditure of organized matter, in comparison with trees, which have to support a load of heavy branches by a massive trunk. – Darwin (1865)
  6. 6. vii Preface Climbers (lianas and vines) are one of the most interesting, but much-neglected, groups of plants. They occur in all woody ecosystems of the world. High climbers play an important ecological role in forest ecosystem dynamics and functioning, exhibiting a wonderful example of economy of nature. It allows a plant to attain maximum exposure to sunlight, water, and nutrients with minimum expense in veg- etation support. Phylogenetically, climbers are found in over 125 families of flower- ing plants as well as among several fern groups and even in one significant gymnosperm genus, Gentum. Though a climber is a straggling plant, it plays vital roles in horticulture, medi- cine, and agriculture. Some climbing species are grown for ornamental purpose also. The most commonly used medicinal climbers, viz., Abrus precatorious, Aristolochia indica, Cissus quadriangulairs, Coccinia inidca, Gloriosa superba, Gymnema sylvestre, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cordifolia, Tylophora indica, and Decalepis hamiltonii, play an important role to cure ailments related to skin, cough, fever, headache, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, dysentery, and poison bites. Bougainvillea spp., Gloriosa superba, Ceropegia spp., Allamanda, Passiflora spp., etc. are some common ornamental climbers. This book has been written in the vicinity of the books on climbing plant species. As there is no recent book on climbers, the aim of this book is to gather up-to-date information on recent trends of biotechnology and research in light of the surge in the demand for climber-based medicine. The chapters are focused on eight different themes. The book begins with a discussion on the evolution of a climbing habit and their diversification in angiosperms, the second theme highlights the use of some important climbers as medicine, while the rest of the themes (third to eighth) describe biotechnological interventions for conservation and the qualitative and quantitative improvement of climbers (both medicinal and ornamental). Authors have tried to collect the protocols for in vitro propagation and synthetic seed pro- duction of most of the studied climbers, including threatened and rare species. During the past few decades, the development and use of molecular markers for the detection and exploitation of DNA polymorphism is one of the most significant
  7. 7. viii progresses in the field of plant biotechnology and their genetic studies. This book has a separate theme on “Molecular marker approaches: quality assessment and authentication for medicinal value.” Chapters in this theme provide a general account on various molecular markers and their applications in quality assessments and improvement of medicinal and ornamental climbers. During preparation of this book, we made our sincere efforts to provide good scientific information on climbers. We hope the book will be useful for researchers in academia, industry, and agriculture planning. We also hope that our earnest endeavor will have a great reception by graduate students and teachers. As editors, we would like to thank all the authors and coauthors for their timely submissions and cooperation during the compilation of the book. We also gratefully acknowledge permission from many authors and journals to include previously pub- lished data. The editors deeply appreciate the time-to-time assistance provided by the Springer book editorial team, especially by Mariska van der Stigchel, whose enthusiastic guidance throughout the period of compilation helped us to complete the task smoothly. The task of completing this book could not have been accomplished without the patience and understanding of our family members, dear friends, postdocs, and research scientists. Finally, we sincerely acknowledge the blessings from the Almighty God, who provided us the boost for completing this energetic task. Aligarh, India Anwar Shahzad 6 April 2015 Shiwali Sharma Saeed A. Siddiqui Preface
  8. 8. ix Contents Part I Origin, Evolution and Diversification of Climbers 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm .................... 3 Shiwali Sharma and Anwar Shahzad Part II Climbers as Medicine and Conservation Challenges 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present Scenario, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies...... 23 Shiwali Sharma and Rekha Arya 3 Medicinal Importance of Climbers Used in Unani System of Medicine ................................................................................. 65 M.A. Kalam and Ghufran Ahmad 4 Climber Plants: Medicinal Importance and Conservation Strategies.................................................................................................. 101 Muzamil Ali, Tasiu Isah, Dipti, and A. Mujib Part III Plant Tissue Culture: A Rapid and Most Reliable Approach for Plant Diversity Conservation 5 Plant Tissue Culture: Profile of Pioneers.............................................. 141 Anwar Shahzad, Vikas Yadav, and Zishan Ahmad 6 Micropropagation: A Boon for Conservation of Valuable Vines and Lianas ................................................................. 163 Shiwali Sharma, Anwar Shahzad, Rakhshanda Akhtar, and Anamica Upadhyay 7 Somatic Embryogenesis: A Valuable Strategy for Phyto-Climbing Diversity Conservation......................................... 195 Anwar Shahzad, Shiwali Sharma, and Saeed A. Siddiqui
  9. 9. x 8 A Biotechnological Perspective Towards Improvement of Decalepis hamiltonii: Potential Applications of Its Tubers and Bioactive Compounds of Nutraceuticals for Value Addition ............................... 217 Matam Pradeep, Kamireddy Kiran, and Parvatam Giridhar 9 Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill: Medicinal Uses, Propagation, and Replenishment............................... 239 Anwar Shahzad, Anamica Upadhyay, Shiwali Sharma, and Taiba Saeed 10 In Vitro Strategies for the Conservation of Some Medicinal and Horticultural Climbers................................... 259 T. Dennis Thomas and Yoichiro Hoshino Part IV Synthetic Seed: A New Horizon for Conservation and Transportation of Germplam 11 Advancement in Encapsulation Techniques for Conservation of Climbers................................................................. 293 Arjumend Shaheen and Anwar Shahzad Part V Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology for Bioactive Compounds and Their Improvement 12 Secondary Metabolite Enhancement in Medicinal Climbers Through the Intervention of Abiotic and Biotic Elicitors.................................................................................. 311 Anwar Shahzad and Rakhshanda Akhtar Part VI Genetic Transformations: A Desired Approach for Quality Improvement 13 Basic Principles Behind Genetic Transformation in Plants ................ 327 Taiba Saeed and Anwar Shahzad 14 Genetic Transformation for Quality Improvement in Ornamental Climbers......................................................................... 351 Gaurav Singh, Mrinalini Srivastava, and Pratibha Misra 15 Advances in Molecular Approaches for the Integrative Genetic Transformation of Highly Important Climbers ..................... 367 Taiba Saeed and Anwar Shahzad Part VII Molecular Marker Approaches: Quality Assessment and Authentication for Medicinal Value 16 Molecular Markers and Their Application in Plant Biotechnology............................................................................ 389 Shahina Parveen, Anwar Shahzad, and Vikas Yadav Contents
  10. 10. xi 17 Application of Molecular Markers in Medicinal Climbers................. 415 Shahina Parveen and Anwar Shahzad Part VIII Selective Protocols for In Vitro Propagation and Secondary Metabolite Production 18 Selective Protocols for In Vitro Propagation and Secondary Metabolite Production............................................................................ 429 Y.K. Bansal and A.J. Bharati 19 In Vitro Protocols for Ornamental Climbers........................................ 449 Arjumend Shaheen and Anwar Shahzad 20 Contribution of Biotechnological Tools in the Enhancement of Secondary Metabolites in Selected Medicinal Climbers................. 465 Mrinalini Srivastava, Gaurav Singh, and Pratibha Misra Index................................................................................................................. 487 Contents
  11. 11. xiii Contributors Ghufran Ahmad Department of Ilmul Advia, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligrah, UP, India Zishan Ahmad Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India RakhshandaAkhtar Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany,Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India MuzamilAli Cellular Differentiation and Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Botany, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India Rekha Arya Department of Botany, Tikaram Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Aligarh, UP, India Y.K. Bansal Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Bioscience, R.D. University, Jabalpur, MP, India A.J. Bharati Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Bioscience, R.D. University, Jabalpur, MP, India Dipti Cellular Differentiation and Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Botany, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India Parvatam Giridhar Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Mysore, India Yoichiro Hoshino Field Science Centre for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Kitaku, Sapporo, Japan Tasiu Isah Cellular Differentiation and Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Botany, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
  12. 12. xiv M.A. Kalam Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Kamireddy Kiran Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Mysore, India Pratibha Misra CSIR – National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India A. Mujib Cellular Differentiation and Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Botany, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India Shahina Parveen Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Matam Pradeep Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India Taiba Saeed Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Arjumend Shaheen Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Anwar Shahzad Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Shiwali Sharma Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Saeed A. Siddiqui Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Gaurav Singh CSIR – National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India Mrinalini Srivastava CSIR – National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India T. Dennis Thomas Post Graduate and Research Department of Botany, St. Thomas College, Kottayam, Kerala, India Anamica Upadhyay Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Vikas Yadav Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, India Contributors
  13. 13. Part I Origin, Evolution and Diversification of Climbers
  14. 14. 3© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 A. Shahzad et al. (eds.), Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-19288-8_1 Chapter 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm Shiwali Sharma and Anwar Shahzad Abstract Climbers are the perfect example of the economy of nature by using maximum utilization of sunlight, water, and nutrients in minimum expanse of veg- etation support. During food scarcity, they serve as the best food source for various animals. Climbers are also the best source of medicine, vegetable, and fruit. They cover a broad range of light through both supported (climbing) and unsupported (creeping) individuals. Due to their broad ecological niche (ranging from forest floor to the forest canopy), they provide a greater exposure to different pollinators that favor the ecological specialization. Climbers show a key innovation in angio- sperm evolution because of species richness as compared to the non-climbing sister group. Climbers are found among ancestral groups of dicotyledons (such as the Piperales and Austrobaileyales) and monocotyledons (e.g., Dioscoreaceae, Arecaceae, and Araceae). Their phylogenetic breadth from rosids to asterids strongly supports multiple origins of the climbing habit within the angiosperms. Prior to the angiosperms’ evolution, variations among climbers pose the hypothesis that climbers of the past had an important role in tropical forests, at least in the Paleozoic era. In contrast, small contribution of climbers to Mesozoic ecosystems might be due to few detailed morphological and anatomical studies capable of iden- tifying fossil lianas, as well as because of inhospitable conditions for growth and fossilization. Keywords Circumnutation • Creepers • Liana • Tendril • Vine S. Sharma (*) • A. Shahzad Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202 002, India e-mail:
  15. 15. 4 1.1 Introduction Darwin (1865) might be the first who documented his observation toward the move- ments of tendrils and stems of some cucurbitaceous climbers in an essay. Later on, he studied such movements in other climbers also. Although climbers are one of the important plant groups, unfortunately they are the least studied among all the plant forms till now. These neglected climbers contribute largely to the charms of our landscapes by the manner in which they climb over trees, hedgerows, or rocks. Early morphologists like Dutta (1689) referred the climbers as “weak stemmed plants.” Climbers germinate on the soil then grow upward by anchoring or adhering to other plants or any neighboring object by means of some special organs of attach- ment (Jongkind and Hawthorne 2005; Swaine et al. 2005). Climbers are found among one third of the plant families (Gentry 1991). They play a significant role in functioning and balancing of forest ecosystem. Evolution of climbers has boosted plant diversification by affecting forest trees in their demog- raphy and ecophysiology (Stevens 1987; Perez-Salicrup and Barker 2000; Gianoli 2004). They have a very high canopy-stem ratio that results in a higher biomass production as compared to most of the woody plants (Schnitzer and Bongers 2002). 1.2 Climbing Habitat Due to rapid growth but suppressed lateral growth and elongated axes, climbers pos- sess very weak and flexible stem; they need rocks or any other man-made structure for support. They have considerable tensile strength that indicate their evolution to resist pulling and twisting. Darwin termed such movement of climbers as “circum- nutation.” Climbers show a great diversity in their climbing mechanism depending on which they are classified by Adrian Bell (an Australian morphologist) as root climbers, hook climbers, tendril climbers, leaf or stem climbers, or twiners. 1.3 Climbing and Attachment Mechanisms Climbing plants achieve their objective of climbing on and attaching themselves to host plants by means of different active or passive mechanisms. Some species have active mechanisms for both tasks, while others are passive in one or both of them. Twining plants, as well as those that have tendrils or sensitive stems, possess active mechanisms that permit them to achieve both objectives. Climbers with recurved spines or adventitious roots do not have active climbing mechanisms, but these structures represent an active mechanism for the task of attaching them to the host plant. S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  16. 16. 5 Darwin (1865) has categorized the climbing mechanism into the following classes: 1.3.1 Twining Plants In this mechanism, climbing plants are winding around a support by forming large arcs. Darwin (1865) named this movement as “circumnutation.” for example, Dioscorea spp. (Dioscoreaceae) and Ipomoea spp. (Convolvulaceae). 1.3.2 Leaf Climbers This type of climbing mechanism is found in leaf bearers. These plants climb on their support with the help of a sensitive petiole that bends and grasps the support after contact, for example Clematis spp. (Ranunculaceae) and Bauhinia spp. (Caesalpiniaceae). 1.3.3 Tendril Bearers Tendril bearers differ from twining plant in having their faster and irregular ellipsoi- dal movement. Such climbers have few long, slender, filiform, sensitive structures known as tendrils for the attachment to the support. Their length may vary from 3.8 cm in Bignonia unguis (Bignoniaceae) to 40 cm in Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) (Jaffe and Galston 1968). Tendrils are developed from various structures of the plant body and are discussed under the following categories. • Axillary tendrils: These are homologous to short axillary branches; examples are found in the Cucurbitaceae and Passifloraceae. In the genus Gouania (Rhamnaceae), they may develop at the end of a short axillary branch, which sometimes produces a single leaf. • Tendrils opposite the leaves: This type of tendril is probably homologous to the distal end of the main stem of the plant; consequently, the branches form a sym- podial system. Examples of this type are found in the Vitaceae. • Tendrils in the inflorescence: In the climbing Sapindaceae, the tendrils are homologous to the basal lateral branches of the inflorescences. They are present in pairs in the basal flowering portion of the inflorescence. Examples of this type are found in the genera Paullinia and Serjania. • Foliar tendrils: In many climbing genera of Bignoniaceae, the tendrils are found to replace the terminal leaflet of the leaves. They are simple, trifurcate, or 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  17. 17. 6 sometimes are found to be modified into a Harpidium or small claw or into small adventitious disks. • Tendrils derived from the leaf sheath: In the Smilacaceae, the tendrils represent a prolongation of the leaf sheath. 1.3.4 Root Climbers Root climbers are also known as “clinging climbers.” These climbers attach to tree trunk with the help of glandular secretion or by growing the irregularities in the host bark (e.g., Hedera helix, Araliaceae, and Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Vitaceae). 1.3.5 Hook Climbers Such climbers climb on their support with the help of curved spines, hooks, or thorns (e.g., Uncaria spp., Rubiaceae; Calamus spp., Arecaceae). 1.4 Types of Climbers Broadly, climbers are of two types (Table 1.1): 1.4.1 Vine (Herbaceous Climber) A “vine” is a herbaceous form of climber having a relatively weak and thin stem that grows either in disturbed colony or in high-light habitats. Vines have limited sec- ondary growth. Most of the herbaceous vines are found in family Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) and Cucurbitaceae (gourd family). Some of the vines have parasitic behavior due to their non-chlorophyllous nature. They depend on their host plant for nutrition as well as for support (e.g., Cassytha spp. and Cuscuta spp.). However, some of the vines show fleshy and succulent nature (e.g., Australian milk- weed Sarcostemma australe). 1.4.2 Liana (Woody Climber) A “liana” is a woody form of climber having relatively woody or hard stem as com- pared to vines due to significant secondary growth. Their roots grow in woodland or forest floor and leaves grow in full sun, covering the canopies of trees.As far as their S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  18. 18. 7 occurrence is concerned, lianas are frequently found in wet tropical forests. They assume various forms of growth like tangled, braided, and looping cables. However, both vines and lianas are commonly found in seasonally dry short-tree tropical for- ests. Nonetheless, in temperate deciduous forests of North America, several lianas are found such as grapes (Vitis), poison ivy, poison oak (Toxicodendron) and green- briers (Smilax). Shrubs are distinguished from vines by having rigid stems capable of maintain- ing themselves erect. Nevertheless, this distinction is not always easy to make, because there are intermediate forms between lianas and shrubs that have a ten- dency to climb or support themselves on nearby objects. These intermediate forms are known as “clambering,” “scrambling,” or “scandent plants.” They spread their branches on the other plants for getting support, for example, raspberries (Rubus). Few climbers are secondary hemiepiphytes. Such climbers initially rooted in the soil then grow as a vine and finally grow as an epiphyte with no attachment with the soil. Climbing plants occur in numerous ecosystems, but are more abundant in low- elevation tropical forests than in any other habitat. Lianas have about 25 % of spe- cies diversity (Gentry and Dodson 1987; Schnitzer and Bongers 2002) and 10–45 % of woody stem density (Gentry 1991). According to Gentry (1991), climbing plants in temperate forests represent an average 7 % of the local flora, while in tropical forests this number reaches to 20 %. Lianas are characteristic of tropical forests, where at least 50 % of the trees contain lianas. These can constitute a significant portion of the biomass of the forest, since their crowns can be as large as that of the tree that supports them. In some moist forests or rain forests in continental tropical Table 1.1 List of some medicinal climbers (vines and lianas) Botanical name Family Common name Type Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Sapindaceae Balloon vine Vine Tinospora cordifolia Willd. Menispermaceae Giloy Liana Clitoria ternatea L. Fabaceae Aparajita Vine Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Gurmar Liana Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) Stapf Asclepiadaceae Akad bel Liana Mucuna pruriens L. Fabaceae Kaunch Liana Clematis heynei Roxb. Ranunculaceae Murhar Liana Gloriosa superba L. Liliaceae Flame lily Vine Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Fabaceae Kudzu Liana Aristolochia tagala Champ. Aristolochiaceae Hooka bel Vine Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Celastraceae Mal-kangani Liana Holostemma annulare (Roxb.) K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae Jivanti Vine Naravelia zeylanica (L.) DC. Ranunculaceae Vatanasini Liana Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey Cucurbitaceae Shivlingi Vine Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond. Cucurbitaceae Musmusa Vine Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Black pepper Liana Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae Ratti Liana Cissus quadrangularis L. Vitaceae Hadjod Vine 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  19. 19. 8 areas, lianas can represent up to 40 % of the plant species present in the ecosystem (Jacobs 1988), so that some of these forests are known locally as liana forests. Abiotic factors like elevation, rainfall and seasonality, and soil fertility have a significant effect on the abundance and distribution of different forms of climbers (vines and lianas). According to Uhl et al. (1997), availability of support has more pronounced effect on their abundance than nutrients or light availability. But Laurance et al. (2001) and DeWalt and Chave (2004) suggested that vine density and basal area may also be more in fertile soils. In contrast, liana density is more in dry season and low in annual rainfall area (Parthasarathy et al. 2004). Deep root system and efficient vascular system provide a competitive advantage to the lianas over other life-form for successful resistance in seasonally dry areas (Schnitzer 2005). As far as the species richness is concerned, steady rise in species richness is found with annual rainfall increase, while steady decrease is noticed as the average length of dry season increased (Clinebell et al. 1995). Similar to the trees, diversity of vine species is maintained in the tropical forests by edaphic specialization (Wright 2002). Ghosh et al. (1975) reported a preliminary checklist of phanerogamic climbers of the Indian Botanic Garden, Calcutta. The Indian Botanic Garden with its 273 acres of land abounds with 15,000 plants distributed in 2,500 species. They have recorded 102 genera of the flowering climbers spread over 151 species. Out of 151 recorded species, 76.1 % are exclusively cultivated taxa, 11.9 % taxa grew in wild state, and 12.5 % taxa are both cultivated and wild. In this garden, only 13 species of mono- cotyledonous climbers are grown of which only one is an orchidaceous climber, known as Vanilla planifolia. 1.5 General Taxonomy of Climbing Plants More than 110 vascular plant families are comprised of vines and lianas. Among the dicotyledons, family Cucurbitaceae and Convolvulaceae have numerous herba- ceous climbing genera and species. However, woody lianas are also found in these families, while Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Menispermaceae, and Vitaceae have more lianas than vines. Family Apocynaceae has more lianas (e.g., Mandevilla) whereas family Asclepiadaceae has both vines and lianas (e.g., Ceropegia, Sarcostemma, Araujia, Cynanchum, Matelea, Decalepis spp., Tylophora). However, the legume families exceptionally have many common vines and lianas. In legume families, climbers have evolved repeatedly. As far as the monocot families are concerned, only a few climbers are found, for example, Vanilla (family Orchidaceae); many aroids (family Araceae); yams, Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae), climbing palms (family Arecaceae); Smilax (family Smilacaceae); Gloriosa (family Colchicaceae); Semele androgyna (family Ruscaceae); certain species of the genus Asparagus (family Asparagaceae); certain grasses, e.g., the climbing bamboo in the genus Chusquea (family Poaceae); some S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  20. 20. 9 liliaceous bulbs, e.g., Bowiea volubilis (family Hyacinthaceae); and Dichelostemma volubile (family Alliaceae). Among living gymnosperms, few species of Gnetum and Ephedra are woody climbers. While in ferns and fern allies, several genera have vine species such as Hymenophyllum, Lygodium, Dicranopteris, and Selaginella. Table 1.2 shows a list of some climbers with their respective families. 1.6 Some General Properties of Climbing Plants The following are the features that have evolved repeatedly for the climbing life- form to be successful: • Rapid shoot growth and long internode. • Circumnutation and thigmotropism movements are the characteristic of climbers. • Development and expansion of leaf remain slow until circumnutation. • Climbers have the least stem and leaf area ratio as compared to the erect plants. • As far as the histology of stem is concerned, soft and hard tissues are alternate to each other. • They possess very wide vessesls to carry more water up the stem. – Table 1.3 shows some useful characters used to diagnose climbing habit. 1.7 Role of Climbers in Ecosystem The role of climbers in extant ecosystems outstrips our knowledge of their biologi- cal characteristics, their distributions, or even their biological diversity. Recent reviews of the role of climbers in forest ecosystems (Putz and Mooney 1991; Schnitzer and Bongers 2002; Wright et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2005) have high- lighted the abundance, competitive abilities, and contribution to disturbance regimes. Today, climbing plants typically contribute 2–15 % of the leaf biomass and about 5 % of the wood biomass to forests (Fearnside et al. 1999; Gerwing and Farias 2000; Clark et al. 2008). In climber-rich areas, they can contribute as much as 40 % of the estimated total biomass (Hegarty and Caballé 1991; Perez-Salicrup et al. 2001). Climbers represent a perfect example of economy of nature by using maximum utilization of sunlight, water, and nutrients in minimum expense of vegetation sup- port. Climbers (woody lianas and herbaceous vines) accomplish this balancing act, high vegetative biomass perched atop low woody biomass, through structural dependence on other upright organisms or structures. Through their structural para- sitism, they are able to invest large amounts of photosynthetic products into vegeta- 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  21. 21. 10 Table 1.2 List of some climbers with their respective families S. No. Families/plants 1 Annonaceae Desmos viridiflora (Bedd.) Safford Uvaria narum (Dunal) Wall. ex Wight & Arn. 2 Apocynaceae Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G. Don var. cymosa Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G. Don var. elegans Hook. f. Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G. Don var. lanceolata Hook. f. Anodendron paniculatum A. DC. Carissa carandas L Carissa gangetica Stapf Carissa paucinervia A. DC. Carissa salicina Lam. Carissa spinarum L. Ellertonia rheedii Wight Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. Ichnocarpus ovatifolius A. DC. 3 Araceae Rhaphidophora laciniata (Burm.f.) Merr. 4 Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia indica L. Aristolochia tagala Cham. 5 Asclepiadaceae Cosmostigma racemosum (Roxb.) Wight Cryptolepis buchanani Roemer & Schultes Cynanchum callialatum Buch.-Ham. ex Wight & Arn. Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. Gymnema hirsutum Wight & Arn. Gymnema montanum (Roxb.) Hook. f. var. beddomei Hook. f. Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br.ex Roemer & Schultes Gymnema tingens (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. indicus Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. var. pubescens (Wight & Arn.) Hook. f. Marsdenia brunoniana Wt. & Arn. Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Moon Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt Secamone emetica (Roxb.) R. Br. ex Schultes Tylophora capparidifolia Wight & Arn. Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) T. Cooke (continued) S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  22. 22. 11 Table 1.2 (continued) S. No. Families/plants 6 Basellaceae Basella alba L. 7 Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpinia crista L. Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb. Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth) Sant. & Wagh 8 Capparaceae Capparis brevispina DC. Capparis divaricata Lam. Capparis sepiaria L. var. sepiaria Capparis sepiaria L. var. retusella Thwaites Capparis shevaroyensis Sund.-Ragh. Capparis zeylanica L. Maerua oblongifolia (Forsk.) A. Rich. 9 Celastraceae Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Loeseneriella obtusifolia (Roxb.) A.C. Smith Maytenus heyneana (Roth) Raju & Babu Maytenus royleanus (Wallich ex M. Lawson) M.A. Rau Reissantia indica (Willd.) Halle Salacia chinensis L. Salacia oblonga Wall. ex Wight & Arn. 10 Combretaceae Combretum acuminatum Lam. Combretum albidum G. Don 11 Convolvulaceae Argyreia cuneata (Willd.) Ker Argyreia elliptica (Roth) Choisy Argyreia involucrata Clarke Argyreia kleiniana (Roem. & Schultes) Raizada Argyreia pilosa Arn. Argyreia sericea Dalz. Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schultes Ipomoea campanulata L. Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Br. Ipomoea quamoclit L. Ipomoea staphylina Roem & Schultes Merremia vitifolia (Burm. f.) Hall. f. Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy 12 Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt Gymnopetalum cochinchinense Kurz (continued) 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  23. 23. 12 Table 1.2 (continued) S. No. Families/plants Kedrostis courtallensis (Arn.) Jeffrey Trichosanthes anaimalaiensis Bedd. 13 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Dioscorea pentaphylla L. Dioscorea tomentosa J. Koenig ex Sprengel 14 Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus indica Servettaz 15 Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir Tragia involucrata L. Tragia plukenetii R. Smith 16 Gnetaceae Gnetum ula Brongn. 17 Liliaceae Asparagus racemosus Willd. 18 Linaceae Hugonia mystax L. 19 Malpighiaceae Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz 20 Menispermaceae Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight & Arn. Cissampelos pareira L. var. hirsuta (DC.) Forman Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels Cocculus pendulus (Forst.) Diels Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thoms. Diploclisia glaucescens (Blume) Diels Pachygone ovata (Poir.) Miers ex Hook. Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.f. & Thoms. 21 Mimosaceae Acacia caesia (L.) Willd. Acacia canescens Grah. Acacia intsia Willd. var. intsia Acacia pennata (L.) Willd Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. Acacia torta (Roxb.) Craib Entada pursaetha DC. Mimosa intsia L. 22 Moraceae Plecospermum spinosum Trecul. (continued) S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  24. 24. 13 Table 1.2 (continued) S. No. Families/plants 23 Myrsinaceae Embelia basaal (Roem. ex Schultes) A. DC. Embelia ribes Burm.f. 24 Nyctaginaceae Pisonia aculeata L. 25 Oleaceae Jasminum auriculatum Vahl Jasminum azoricum L. var. azoricum Jasminum cuspidatum Rottl. Jasminum malabaricum Wight Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andr. Jasminum sessiliflorum Vahl Jasminum trichotomum Heyne ex Roth Jasminum angustifolium (L.) Willd. Table 1.3 Characters used to diagnose climbing habit and supporting exemplar literature (Taken from Burnham (2009) with permission) Characters in climber Example and/or rationale reference Long internodes Ray (1986), Galtier (1988), Dubuisson et al. (2003), Dunn et al. (2006), DiMichele et al. (2006) Small stem diameter to length ratio. Dunn et al. (2006), Harris et al. (2007), Ichihashi et al. (2009) Small stem diameter relative to supported foliage Galtier (1988), Selaya and Anten (2008) Delayed apical foliage expansion and/or dense glandular trichomes Baxter (1949), Hegarty (1991), Putz and Holbrook (1991), Krings et al. (2003), Ichihashi et al. (2009) Adventitious roots Gentry (1991), Hegarty (1991), Speck (1994) Large petiole bases relative to stem diameter Tomescu et al. (2001), Dunn et al. (2006) Hooks, spines, or grappling structures Menninger (1970), Hegarty (1991), Teramura et al.(1991) Heterophylly Batenburg (1981), Lee and Richards (1991), Krings and Kerp (2000), Krings et al. (2001, 2003) Anomalous wood anatomy: successive cambia; excessive parenchyma; multiple vascular tissue cycles Taylor and Millay (1981), Carlquist (1991), Ewers et al. (1991), Caballé (1993), Mosbrugger and Roth (1996) Structural anatomy inconsistent with self-support Li and Taylor (1998), Li et al. (1994), Speck (1994) Taxonomic affinities to other climber taxa. Gianoli (2004) Direct observation of climber wrapped on larger individuals in “snapshot” deposits Opluštil et al. (2007, 2009) 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  25. 25. 14 tive growth, reproductive propagules, and continuously meristematic tissues. Compared to other upright growth habits, like trees and shrubs, climbers invest large amounts of photosynthetic products in woody structural tissues. For climbers, the potential for vegetative proliferation is thus high, leading to large and potentially isolated populations that may contribute to speciation if broad geographic distribu- tions are dissected. They contribute sustainability to canopy closure after tree fall and help to stabilize the microclimate underneath. Lianas in particular add consider- ably to forest plant diversity and provide valuably habitat and connections among tree canopies that enable arboreal animals to traverse the treetops. Climbers consti- tute a large and important sector of ornamental horticulture. Some play a vital role in medicine and agriculture. Many climbers combinedly serve both the purposes. In spite of numerous roles climbers play in ecosystem, as medicines, in horticulture, and agriculture, little attention has been paid to them; they are scanty treated in lit- erature. Only a few studies are carried out on climbers. 1.8 Climber Evolution Angiosperms, with approximately 300,000 species, appear to be the most success- ful and dominant group of land plants and have undergone an outstanding diversifi- cation compared to other plant groups (Stebbins 1981; Crane et al. 1995; Magallón and Castillo 2009). The evolutionary success of certain lineages within angiosperms has been related to a number of plant features, including life history traits, growth habits, specialized organs, and physiological pathways (Quezada and Gianoli 2011). Although taxa diversification cannot be evaluated in ecological timescale, it is con- sidered that genetic differentiation among populations may be a surrogate for spe- ciation (Grant 1981; Avise 2000; Levin 2000). Hunter (1998) suggested that the proliferation of species (key innovation) can be used for evolutionary success of a particular taxonomic group than other related groups. Key innovation hypothesis involve as traits that allow a clade to exploit a previously unused or underutilized resource (Simpson 1953). This hypothesis is used for the comparison of species richness in two sister groups (i.e., related groups of equivalent age) having or lacking the particular trait (Barraclough et al. 1998). Climbers exhibit in a broad range of ecological niche that attracts more pollina- tors for their diverse specialization (Gentry 1991). Gianoli (2004) studied the phy- logenetic relationships, growth habit, and species richness of 48 pairs of sister groups that belong to 45 angiospermic plant families and found that in 38 pairs, the climbing taxa were more diverse than their non-climbing sister groups. Similar to the climbers, epiphytic genera (orchid and non-orchids) have more species diversity than terrestrial genera. Climbers are found among ancestral groups of angiosperms such as the Piperales and Austrobaileyales and among monocotyledons (e.g., Dioscoreaceae, Arecaceae, and Araceae) and are commonly represented in both major groups of rosids and S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
  26. 26. 15 asterids. This phylogenetic breadth strongly supports multiple origins of the climb- ing habit within angiosperms and supports the idea that a significant advantage is conferred on plants that are able to transition from self-supporting to assisted sup- port. Within flowering plants alone, Caballé (1993) estimated that between 5,000 and 10,000 species of climbers exist today. In spite of this angiosperm-centered view of climbers, substantial evidence has accumulated, in isolated reports on the fossil record, of diverse climbers prior to the Cretaceous radiation of angiosperms. According to the report of Burnham (2009), the Fossil Record of Climbers (FRC) indicates more than 1,100 climbing plants from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary. Prior to the angiosperms’ evolution, variations among climbers pose the hypothesis that the climbers of the past had a similarly important role in tropical forests, at least in the Paleozoic. The extinct Paleozoic pteridosperms, in particular, appear to have employed a range of morphologies and strategies as diverse as those of angiosperms today. The apparently small contribution of climbers to Mesozoic ecosystems, in contrast, may be a result of relatively few detailed morphological and anatomical studies capable of identifying fossil lianas, as well as unusually inhospitable condi- tions for growth and fossilization. The importance of climbers in ancient ecosys- tems is underlined to encourage greater recognition of life-form diversity in the past. Burnham (2009) located a total of 1,175 individual climbing plants from the fos- sil record and reported an overview of fossil records. This number is substantially lower than the number potentially available; however, the records give a first good picture of the fossil history of climbing plants. Although considerable effort was made to locate evidence from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, with less effort placed on the many records from the Cenozoic, the database still includes 44 % (516/1,175) of its records from the Cenozoic. The Cenozoic record is strongly dominated by angiosperms (90 %; 464/516) with only ferns accounting for the remainder. The Mesozoic record is astonishingly scant with only 73 records found cumulatively from the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. The large majority of the Mesozoic records are Late Cretaceous climbers (71 %), which are largely angiosperm species. The Paleozoic climbing plant record, almost equal in record number to the Cenozoic, includes several major plant groups. Six broad phylogenetic groups are recognized among climbers during the Paleozoic: Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Lyginopteridales, Mariopteridales, Medullosales, Callistophytales, and (rarely) Gigantopteridales. The seed ferns represent the largest group, encompassing the Lyginopteridales, Medullosales, Mariopteridales, and Callistophytales, all entirely extinct. However, contribution by pteridophyte climbers is also significant. Gigantopterids are included, but climbing habit in these plants is inferred from interpretations of high leaf biomass supported on thin stems, interpretations that have been made from incomplete material (Li and Taylor 1998, 1999; Wang 1999; Rees 2002); the clear demonstration of climbing hooks on some species strongly supports a habit that was not self-supporting (Halle 1929; Li and Taylor 1998; Hilton et al. 2004). 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  27. 27. 16 1.9 How Long Ago Were Climbing Plants Common in Forest Ecosystems? It is clear that climbing plants were abundant enough to be fossilized and subse- quently recovered as early as the mid-Mississippian (Visean ~335 Myr). Several genera of lyginopterid pteridosperms (Lyginopteris, Rhetinangium, Sphenopteris) include species whose first appearance is in the mid to late Mississippian. Significantly, they occur in similar-age sediments in deposits from the Czech Republic, Scotland, and Arkansas, USA. In France and Scotland, remains of pre- sumed climbing pteridophytes and pteridosperms are also found in Visean age sedi- ments (Galtier et al. 1993). So, climbers were abundant and diverse even in the early Carboniferous. Climbing plants were important in Paleozoic forests as early as the Pennsylvanian (ca. 315 Myr), and possibly even earlier, although their ecological abundance is still unclear (Galtier 1997; Dunn et al. 2006). The first climbing plants were present as soon as upright supports (trees) were present to climb upon. Climber species evolved within sphenophylls, filicaleans, and pteridosperms, and in each group, many spe- cies can be documented as climbing, indicating that ancient climbers were, in fact, quite diverse. Although quantitative data on species richness are difficult to com- pare with that from modern forested communities, it appears that following the high Carboniferous diversity, a period of scarcity existed in the climber community, in species, and in individuals. The Mesozoic low species diversity and abundance of climbers stands in stark contrast to the preceding Paleozoic and subsequent Cenozoic (Burnham 2009). Acknowledgment Dr. Shiwali Sharma is thankful to DST, for the award ofYoung Scientist under Fast Track Scheme, SERB (vide no. SB/FT/LS-364/2012), for providing research assistance. References Avise J (2000) Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, p 447 Barraclough TG, Nee S, Harvey PH (1998) Sister group analysis in identifying correlates of diver- sification. Evol Ecol 12:751–754 Batenburg LH (1981) Vegetative anatomy and ecology of Sphenophyllum zwickaviense, S. emar- ginatum, and other “compression species” of Sphenophyllum. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 32:275–313 Baxter RW (1949) Some pteridosperm stems and fructifications with particular reference to the Medullosae. Ann Mo Bot Gard 36:287–353 Burnham RJ (2009) An overview of the fossil record of climbers: bejucos, sogas, trepadoras, lia- nas, cipós, and vines. Rev Bras Paleontol 12:149–160 Caballé G (1993) Liana structure, function and selection: a comparative study of xylem cylinders of tropical rainforest species in Africa and America. Bot J Linn Soc 113:41–60 Carlquist S (1991) Anatomy of vine and liana stems: a review and synthesis. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 53–72 S. Sharma and A. Shahzad
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  30. 30. 19 Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) (1991) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 526 Quezada IM, Gianoli E (2011) Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in Bromeliaceae: an evolutionary key innovation. Biol J Linn Soc 104:480–486 Ray TS (1986) Growth correlations within the segment in the Araceae. Am J Bot 73:993–1001 Rees PM (2002) Land-plant diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 30:827–830 Schnitzer SA (2005) A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distri- bution. Am Nat 166:262–276 Schnitzer SA, Bongers A (2002) The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends Ecol Evol 17:223–230 Selaya NG, Anten NPR (2008) Differences in biomass allocation, light interception and mechani- cal stability between lianas and trees in early secondary tropical forest. Funct Ecol 22:30–39 Simpson GG (1953) The major features of evolution. Columbia University Press, New York Speck T (1994) A biomechanical method to distinguish between self-supporting and non-self sup- porting fossil plants. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 81:65–82 Stebbins GL (1981) Why are there so many species of flowering plants? Bioscience 31:573–577 Stevens GC (1987) Lianas as structural parasites: the Bursera simaruba example. Ecology 68:77–81 Swaine MD, Hawthorne WD, Bongers F, Toldedo MA (2005) Climbing plants in Ghanaian forest. In: Bongers F, Parren MPE, Trare D (eds) Forest climbing plants of WestAfrica: diversity, ecol- ogy and management. CAB Internat, Wallingford, pp 19–39 Taylor TN, Millay MA (1981) Morphologic variability of Pennsylvanian lyginopterid seed ferns. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 32:27–62 Teramura AH, Gold WG, Forseth IN (1991) Physiological ecology of mesic, temperate woody vines. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 245–285 Tomescu AMF, Rothwell GW, Mapes G (2001) Lyginopteris royalii sp. nov. from the Upper Mississippian of North America. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 116:159–173 Uhl G, Buschbacher R, deSilva GHG (1997) Tree and liana enumeration and diversity on a one- hectare plot in Papua New Guinea. Biotropica 29:250–260 Wang ZQ (1999) Gigantonoclea: an enigmatic Permian plant from north China. Palaeontology 42:329–373 Wright SJ (2002) Plant diversity in tropical forests of the far east, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, Oxford Wright SJ, Calderón O, Hernandéz A, Paton S (2004) Are lianas increasing in importance in tropi- cal forests? A 17-year record from Panama. Ecology 85:484 1 Climbers: Evolution and Diversification in Angiosperm
  31. 31. Part II Climbers as Medicine and Conservation Challenges
  32. 32. 23© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016 A. Shahzad et al. (eds.), Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-19288-8_2 Chapter 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present Scenario, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies Shiwali Sharma and Rekha Arya Abstract Climbing plants typically contribute 2–15 % of the leaf biomass and about 5 % of the wood biomass to forests. In India, they are widely distributed from Nilgiris to Himalayas to Andaman Nicobar Islands. Phylogenetically, climbers are found in over 125 families of flowering plants as well as among several fern groups and even in one significant gymnosperm genus, Gnetum. They are largely used by all divisions of the population either directly as folk medications or indirectly in the preparation of recent pharmaceuticals. Climbers also play a vital role in horticulture and agriculture. Thus, people depend on climbers for several purposes like for med- ications, non-timber forest products, food, etc. Nowadays, plant-based pharmaceu- tical industries have been increased due to various advantages of plant-based medicine over the synthetic ones. Wild plants are the good source to provide the raw materials for such industries. Unfortunately, a huge number of medicinal climbers have been listed in Red Data Book and are on the verge of extinction due to unsus- tainable collection of plants, habitat loss, climate change, and industrialization cou- pled with urbanization. Thus, biodiversity conservation is an utmost concern globally. Various strategies are in use for biodiversity conservation such as in situ strategy, ex situ strategy, reduction of anthropogenic pressures, and rehabilitation of threatened species. Protection and preservation of germplasm within national parks, biosphere reserves, and sanctuaries are the examples of in situ conservation. However, it is not an effective means of conservation. In this regard, biotechnologi- cal approach like plant tissue culture technique proved to be fruitful. Plant tissue culture can be applied to the rapid propagation and ex situ conservation of rare, endemic, and endangered medicinal plants as explained by several authorities. Other modern biotechnological tools, including cryopreservation techniques, DNA fingerprinting, and bioreactor-mediated bio-production of phytochemicals, are S. Sharma Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202 002, India R. Arya (*) Department of Botany, Tikaram Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Aligarh 202 001, UP, India e-mail:
  33. 33. 24 mostly relevant in this context. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), in force since 1992, is the major international conservation convention. The global strategy for conservation of plants was adopted with the intention to harmonize with existing international initiatives addressing various aspects of plant conservation. Keywords Cryopreservation • In situ • IUCN • In vitro • Ex situ • Micropropagation 2.1 Biodiversity: Natural Capital of the Earth Variation is the law of nature. It occurs everywhere and every moment. The varia- tions take place at micro levels. The variations may be linear or cyclic. The variety and variability of organisms and ecosystems is referred to as biological diversity. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) constituted by the UN General Assembly published a report in 1987 which provided a boost and endorsement to the need for conserving the world’s rich biodiversity. Despite con- flicting views among nations, a broad consensus was reached after bitter negotia- tions, and 170 countries signed the Biodiversity Convention, which is now ratified by 104 countries. A variety of living organisms (flora and fauna) on the earth constitutes biodiver- sity. Biodiversity means variability among all the living organisms and interaction within species, between species, and with the surroundings.According to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), biodiversity means variability among living organ- ism from all sources. As defined by the International Council for Bird Preservation (1992), “Biodiversity is the total variety of life on earth. It includes all genes, spe- cies and ecosystem and the ecological process of which that are part.” Biodiversity is the totality of genes, species, and ecosystem in a region. The wealth of life on earth today is the product of hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history. It is estimated that about 1.75 million species (plant + animal) have been discov- ered, 20 % of which is less than those to be estimated yet. Among these identified species, only a few have been studied for their medicinal value. Moreover, most of the biodiversity is disappearing very rapidly (as many as 27,000 species are becom- ing extinct per year). This indicates that 3 species are disappearing every hour while 150 species are disappearing every day. Of the more than 3,000,000 known species of plants, the IUCN has evaluated only 12.914 species, finding that about 68 % of evaluated plant species are threatened with extinction. S. Sharma and R. Arya
  34. 34. 25 2.2 Types of Biodiversity (Diversity Indices) 2.2.1 Alpha (α) Diversity Species diversity within a community or habitat comprises two components, i.e., species richness and evenness. Sometimes the dominance of one vegetation stratum may affect the α diversity of the other strata. 2.2.2 Beta (β) Diversity β Diversity is the intercommunity diversity expressing the rate of species turnover per unit change in habitat. 2.2.3 Gamma (γ) Diversity Gamma diversity is the overall diversity at landscape level that includes both α and β diversities. The relationship is as follows: g a b= + +Q where Q=Total number of habitats or communities α=Average value of α diversities β=Average value of β diversities 2.3 Levels of Biodiversity Theoretically there are three levels of biodiversity. 2.3.1 Genetic Diversity Variation of genes within the species is referred as genetic diversity. This constitutes distinct population of the same species or genetic variation within population or varieties within a species. 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  35. 35. 26 2.3.2 Species Diversity The number of species in a region is known as species diversity. 2.3.3 Ecological Diversity Different species present in local ecosystem and the dynamic interplay between them are known as ecological diversity. An ecosystem consists of organisms from many different species living together in a region that are connected by the flow of energy, nutrients, and matter that occurs as the organisms of different species inter- act with one another. 2.4 The Mega-Diversity Regions Seventeen megadiverse countries have been recognized by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre including Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (formerly Zaire), Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, the United States of America (USA), and Venezuela that harbor more than 70 % of the earth’s species. Some of the very valuable “gene pool” from these coun- tries have been identified, and they have been utilized for the buildup of modern agriculture and allied business. 2.5 Hotspots of Biodiversity Thousands of “ecoregions” located in diverse ecological regions comprise the earth’s biodiversity. About 200 ecoregions are recognized as richest, rarest, and most distinctive in terms of biodiversity and now referred as “global 200.” As much as 20 % of global plant diversity richness comprising about 50,000 endemic plant species is restricted to 18 ecoregions, known as “hotspot”; henceforth the countries having more hotspots are collectively known as “mega-diversity nations.” S. Sharma and R. Arya
  36. 36. 27 2.6 Threats to Biodiversity: Causes These days, biodiversity loss is a global problem. Population explosion and unsus- tainable utilization of natural resources result in drastic change in environment and habitat loss that ultimately lead to biodiversity loss. The following are some natural and man-made factors of biodiversity loss: 2.6.1 Development Pressure • Construction • Forest-based industries • Hydel/irrigation projects • Mining • Oil drilling • Pollution • Resource extraction • Road and transport 2.6.2 Encroachment • Agriculture • Expansion of forest villages • Fishery • Grazing/increased domestic animals • Habitat depletion/change • New settlements • Shifting cultivation 2.6.3 Exploitation • Collection made by scientific/educational institutions • Exploitation by local authorities as revenue resources • Firewood collection • Food gathering and hunting • Poaching 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  37. 37. 28 2.6.4 Human-Induced Disasters • Floods • Major oil spills/leakage • Epidemics • Forest fires 2.6.5 Management of Natural Resources • Genetic uniformity • Inadequate water/food for wildlife • Increased competition • Introduction of exotic species • Predation 2.6.6 Management of Human Resource • Change in people’s lifestyle • Increasing demands • Dilution of traditional value • Human harassment • Inadequate trained human resources • Lack of effective management • Inappropriate land use 2.6.7 Political and Policy Issues • Change in use/legal status • Civil unrest • Intercommunity conflict • Military activities 2.7 IUCN Threat Categories Latest IUCN red listing recognizes three threatened categories which are as follows. S. Sharma and R. Arya
  38. 38. 29 2.7.1 Critically Endangered (CR) Such species face a very high risk of extinction in the wild. It is the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN Red List for wild species, for example, Coscinium fenestratum and Piper barberi. 2.7.2 Endangered (EN) The taxa whose number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they seemed to be in immediate danger of extinc- tion, for example, Nepenthes species. 2.7.3 Vulnerable (VU) Species can be moved into endangered category in the near future if deliberate con- servation measures are not given, for example, Dioscorea deltoidea. • Threatened: Species that come under any one of the above categories is known as “threatened.” • Rare: Species with small population, not endangered or vulnerable at present but are at risk. They are confined to a very restricted area, for example, Stemona tuberosa. 2.8 Market Scenario for Medicinal Plants Today, the global market for traditional therapies stands at US$60 billion a year and is steadily growing. The global demand for herbal medicine has increased at an annual rate of 8 % during the period of 1994–2001, and according to WHO forecast, the global herbal market would be worth $5 trillion by the year 2050 (http://www. /20021226/ cover3.htm). This clearly indicates that there is vast scope for the traditional medicine practitioners; there is a worry on resource conservation front. Even if only 25 % of the modern medicines descend from plants, it would mean substantial pressure on plants as there is an ever-increasing demand for the modern medicines. 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  39. 39. 30 2.9 Impact of Biodiversity Loss and Challenges Regional and global climate changes adversely affect biodiversity (Penner et al. 1994; Houghton et al. 1999; Chapin et al. 2000; Sala et al. 2000; Franco et al. 2006). Loss of biodiversity hampered the biological systems (Vitousek et al. 1997). Various protected areas have been established in the Eastern Himalayas. The first protected area, established in 1918, was the Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary in Myanmar. A total of 99 protected areas of varied sizes measuring more than 79,000 km2 (15 % of the total area) coverage across the region is the most significant contribution to protect biodiversity as compared to the global percentage of 11.5 % for mountain protected areas (Kollmair et al. 2005). Protected areas have been increased from 23,379 km2 (1977–1987) to 71,972 km2 (1997–2007), while their number increased from 46 to 99. 2.10 Climbing Phytodiversity in India India is one of the 18 megadiverse countries and has all the 13 biomes found in the world, with 2 major hotspots (Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats) out of a total of 34. It has only 8 % of the global biodiversity in 2.4 % land (Bapat et al. 2008). India has been reputed as the treasure house of a wide range of valuable medicinal and aromatic plants inhabiting in diverse climatic condition. The entire Western Ghats is known for its biodiversity, richness, and endemism (about 4500 known plant species; 2000 species of higher plants), with nearly 1500 endemic. This biore- gion is under constant threat due to human pressure. The tropical climate condi- tions, heavy rainfall, and favorable edaphic factors support the luxuriant growth of plant species (Daniel 1997). Another hotspot in India is the Eastern Himalayas which is also listed in the “crisis ecoregions” (Hoekstra et al. 2005), “biodiversity hotspots” (Myers et al. 2000), “endemic bird areas” (Stattersfield et al. 1998), “megadiverse countries” (Mittermeier et al. 1997), and “global 200 ecoregions” (Olson and Dinerstein 2002). Diverse ecological and altitudinal gradients result in diversity of flora and fauna. Palaearctic, Indo-Malayan, and Sino-Japanese realms are joined in the Eastern Himalayas (CEPF 2005). According to Dhar (2002), the world’s richest alpine flora is found in this hotspot, and about one-third of them are endemic to the region, comprising 7500 flowering plants, 728 lichens, 700 orchids, 700 ferns, 500 mosses, 64 Citrus species, 58 bamboo species, and 28 conifers. Climbers occur in many plant families with only a few families such as Dioscoreaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Convolvulaceae consisting completely of climbing plants. Nearly 60 % of all dicotyledonous plant order has at least one rep- resentative climber (Heywood 1993). Table 2.1 shows different medicinal climbers and their medicinal properties. S. Sharma and R. Arya
  40. 40. 31 Table2.1Listofdifferentmedicinalclimbersandtheirmedicinalproperties(alphabetically) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 1AbrusprecatoriusRatti,GunjaFabaceaeSeedsGlycyrrhizin,precol, abrol,abrasine, hyaphorine Nervousdisorders 2AcaciatortaInchaMimosaceaeStembarkSaponins,acacininsDecoctionistakenfor coughanddysentery 3AcalyphafruticosaEuphorbiaceaeLeavesKaempferol,sitosterol, triacetonamine Stomachic,alterative, digestive,dyspepsia, diarrhea 4AganosmacymosaSeellakkodiApocynaceaeWhole plant Saponins,terpenoids, alkaloids Anthelmintic,emetic,and usedinthetreatmentof bronchitis.Flowersare usefulinophthalmia 5AnamirtacocculusKakamariMenispermaceaeLeaves, fruits,and seeds Magnoflorine,berberine, picrotoxin,sitosterols Expectorant,antifungal, anthelmintic,and depurative 6Anodendron paniculatum ApocynaceaeRootsAnodendrosidesA-GEmetic,expectorant,and alterative 7AntigononleptopusAnantlataPolygonaceaeRoot tuber Kaempferol,quercetinsTonic,anti-inflammatory 8ArgyreiaellipticaKedariConvolvulaceaeLeavesTheseedoilrevealedthe presenceofmyristoleic, myristic,palmitic, linoleic,linolenic,oleic, stearic,nonadecanoic, eicosenoic,heneicosanoic, andbehenicacids Plantextractsandits metalsaltcombination usedasantibacterial, anthelmintic,and antioxidantagents (continued) 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  41. 41. 32 Table2.1(continued) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 9ArgyreiaspeciosaSamandar-ka-patConvolvulaceaeRootsand seeds Triacontanol,sitosterols, coumarins,epifriedinol Bitter,aphrodisiac, alterative,diuretic, carminative,anti- inflammatory,nervine 10Aristolochia bracteolata BhringiAristolochiaceaeWhole plant β-Sitosterols,aristolochic acid,aristored Antioxidantand insecticidalproperties 11AristolochiaindicaSunandaAristolochiaceaeLeavesIsoaristolochicacid, allantoin Antidotetosnakebite, appetizer,anthelmintic, usedfortreatmentof leprosy 12AristolochiatagalaNakuliOxalidaceaeRootsCerylalcohol, β-sitosterols,aristolochic acid Tonic,carminative,and emmenagogue 13ArtabotryshexapetalusManoranjiniAnnonaceaeRoots, flower, andfruits Artabotrine,yingzhaosuA andB,quercetin Antifungal,antimalarial 14AsparagusasiaticusLiliaceaeLeavesAppliedtopicallyon swellings 15AverrhoacarambolaKarukahOxalidaceaeRoots, leaf,and shoot Quercetin,epicatechin, sitosterol,lupeol Antidoteinpoisoning, antipyretic,anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory 16BasellaalbaPuiBasellaceaeStem, leaves Kaempferols, basellasaponins Emollient,laxative, hemostatic,sedative, demulcent,diuretic 17BauhiniavahliiMaluCaesalpiniaceaeLeavesKaempferol3-glucoside, lupeols Againstdysenteryand stomachache 18BenincasahispidaPethaCucurbitaceaeFruitTriterpenes,alunsenol, mutiflorenol Antidiabetic,coolant, digestive,tonic S. Sharma and R. Arya
  42. 42. 33S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 19BrideliascandensGhontaEuphorbiaceaeLeaves, stembark Ovatolide,bridelyl alcohol,phlobatamine, taraxerone Antipyretic,antibacterial, antiasthmatic, antinociceptive 20ButeaparvifloraMaulaFabaceaeStembarkTotreathairloss 21CaesalpiniacristaLatakaranjaCaesalpiniaceaeWhole plant Cassane-andnorcassane- typediterpenes Anthelmintic,febrifuge, periodic,vesicant, rubefacient 22CalycopterisfloribundaShvetadhatakiCombretaceaeLeaf, fruits,and seeds Calycopterin,helleborine, veratine,quercetin Antidysenteric,laxative, anthelmintic,depurative, diaphoretic,andfebrifuge 23CapparissepiariaKanthariCapparidaceaeLeaves androots Antiseptic,antipyretic usedforeczemaand scabies 24CappariszeylanicaAradandaCapparidaceaeLeaves androot bark Betulin28-acetate, capparispine Antirheumatic,anti- inflammatory,anti-blood coagulant,appetizer, emetic 25Cardiospermum canescens SapindaceaeLeavesMethanamine, hexadecanoicacid Antidiarrheal, antirheumatic 26Cardiospermum halicacabum IndravalliSapindaceaeRoots1-Triacontanol, pentacosane,pelargonidin Analgesic,diuretic, laxative,stomachic, anti-inflammatory 27CeropegiajunceaSomlataAsclepiadaceaeStemCerepeginTheextractisusedfor stomachandgastric disorders 28CissampelospareiraBhatvelMenispermaceaeStemand leaves Furopyridine, phytosterols,terpenes Forgastrointestinal disorder,urogenital problems 29CissusquadrangularisAsthisamharakaVitaceaeStemTetracyclictriterpenoidsTohealbrokenbonesand injuredligaments, analgesicandtonic (continued) 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  43. 43. 34 Table2.1(continued) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 30CitrulluslanatusTarboozCucurbitaceaeSeedsAspurgativeandemetic 31ClitoriaternateaAparajitaFabaceaeRoots, leaves, seeds Stigmast-4-ene-3,6-diene, taraxerol,taraxerone Hemostatic,pasteof wholeplantisusedin piles 32CocciniagrandisBimbikaCucurbitaceaeFruitsTaraxerol,sitosterol, cycloartenolacetate Analgesic,anti- inflammatory, antidiabetic 33CocculushirsutusPatalagarudaMenispermaceaeRootsand leaves Cohirsine,haiderine, jammin-N-oxide, trilobine,syringaresinol Usedforstomachand urinaryproblems,alsoa detoxifierusedagainst snakebite 34Convolvulus microphyllus ShankhpushpiConvolvulaceaeWhole plant Triterpenoids,flavonol glycosides Antiepileptic,antiulcer activity,tonic,alterative, febrifuge, psychostimulant,and tranquilizer 35CorallocarpusepigaeusSukanasaCucurbitaceaeRootsAnti-inflammatory,used injointpain 36CryptolepisbuchananiAnantmulAsclepiadaceaeLeaves androots Sarverogenin isosarverogenin, cryptosin,buchanin, cryptolepain Antidiarrheal,anti- inflammatory,blood purifier,anti-cough, antibacterial,demulcent, diaphoretic,diuretic 37CucumistrigonusIndravaruniCucurbitaceaeLeavesUsefulashelminthiasis, flatulence,leprosy,fever, jaundice,cough, bronchitis,anemia, constipation,other abdominaldisorders,and amentia S. Sharma and R. Arya
  44. 44. 35S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 38CuscutareflexaAmarbelConvolvulaceaeWhole plant Scoparone,melanettin, quercetin,hyperoside Astringent,carminative, anthelmintic,anddiuretic 39CycleaarnotiiPathaMenispermaceaeRootsTelradrine,phaeanthine, uronicacid Usedinsmallpox,bone fracture,malarialfever, jaundice,stomachache 40DioscoreaoppositifoliaKhamaluDioscoreaceaeTuberDioscorineProlongeddiarrhea, chronicenteritis,cough, anddyspnea 41DiplocyclospalmatusShivlingiCucurbitaceaeFruitsGoniothalamin,bryoninForfemaleinfertility, leukorrhea 42EntadarheediiGillaMimosaceaeSeedsSaponinsAlexiteric,narcotic, tonic,emetic,antipyretic, febrifuge,and hemorrhoidal 43GloriosasuperbaKalihariLiliaceaeLeaves, rhizome roots Colchicine,gloriocineTotreatacutegout, intestinalworms, infertility,wounds,and otherskinproblems;as anantidoteforsnakebite 44GnetumulaKumbalGnetaceaeSeedsGlucosylflavones, stilbenes,malvalicacid, sterculicacid Antirheumatic, antiperiodic 45GymnemasylvestreGudmarAsclepiadaceaeLeavesGymnemicacid, Gymnemasaponins Leafdecoctionmixed withmilkistaken internallytocure diabetes,alsoinmalaria andsnakebite 46HemidesmusindicusAnantmoolAsclepiadaceaeRootsHexatriacontane,hemideDiureticandblood purifier,skininfections, rheumatism,piles;one importantuseistoease themind (continued) 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  45. 45. 36 Table2.1(continued) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 47HiptagebenghalensisMadhaviMalpighiaceaeSeedsHiptaginAromatic,coolant, expectorant,cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory,and insecticidal 48IchnocarpusfrutescensKalidoodhi/shyamlataApocynaceaeRootsQuercetin,lupeol apigenin,friedelin, kaempferol,vanillicacid Atrophy,bleedinggums, convulsions,cough, delirium,dysentery, inflammatory,analgesic, antidiabetic,antioxidant, andantitumorspectrum ofactivity 49IpomoeaaquaticaKalamisaagConvolvulaceaeStemand leaves Carminative,anti- inflammatory,purgative, antipyretic, antibronchitis, hepatoprotective 50IpomoeaeriocarpaButaConvolvulaceaeWhole plant Hentriacontane, stigmasterol Ulcer,fever,and rheumatism 51IpomoeamauritianaVidariConvolvulaceaeRoots, leaves Quercetins,sitosterol, terpenes,phytols,fatty acids Skindiseases,anorexia, fever,burningsensation Topromotebreastmilk production,ingredientof Chyavanaprash 52IpomoeaobscuraPaanBelConvolvulaceaeRoots, leaves IpobscurineA,C,DAgainstdysentery, appliedonsoresand pustules 53IpomoeastaphylinaConvolvulaceaeStem latex Saponins,anthraquinonesRespiratorydisorders, purgative,anthelmintic, bronchitis S. Sharma and R. Arya
  46. 46. 37S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 54Ipomoeapes-capraeConvolvulaceaeLeavesGlochidone,isoquercitrin, betulinicacid Anti-inflammatory, astringent,diuretic,and laxative,usedin rheumatism 55Ipomoeapes-tigridisPanchpatiaConvolvulaceaeLeavesForwoundhealing, bronchialspasm,pimples, snake-/dogbite 56JasminumangustifoliumBanmallikaOleaceaeRootsAnthelmintic,emetic, antidote 57JasminumgrandiflorumMalatiOleaceaeWhole plant Geraniol,nerol,vinyl acetate Antiseptic,emollient, diuretic;rootsareused forchronicconstipation 58JasminummalabaricumMudgaraOleaceaeRootsJasmonates,jasminoids, isoquercetin,rutin Emmenagogue,blood purifier,hypotensive, antibacterial 59JasminummultiflorumKundahOleaceaeLeaves, flowers Jasminin,oleanolicacid, jasminol Refrigerant,laxative, cardiotonic,depurative, digestive 60JasminumofficinaleMaltiOleaceaeLeaves, flowers Jasminoids,terpenoids, oleosides Antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac,parasiticide, tonic 61KedrostisfoetidissimaCucurbitaceaeRootsHexadecadienoicacid, methylester,docosanoic acid Inchestpain,asthma, urinarytractinfections, diarrhea,smallpox,skin disease 62LeptadeniareticulataJivantiAsclepiadaceaeRootsStigmasterol,tocopherols, alpha-amyrins,diosmetin, andluteolin Skininfections,tonic, febrifuge 63MarsdeniabrunonianaAsclepiadaceaeLeavesMarstenacigeninsAand D,Marsdin Antidiabetic (continued) 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  47. 47. 38 Table2.1(continued) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 64MarsdeniatenacissimaMaruabelAsclepiadaceaeStemAglycones, polyoxpregnane, paclitaxel Anticancer, antirheumatic,anti-cough 65MomordicacharantiaKarelaCucurbitaceaeFruitsand seeds Vicine,mycose, momorcharaside, cucurbitanetriterpenoids Antileprosy,anticancer, digestive,antidiabetic 66MucunapruriensGoncaFabaceaeRoots, leaves, fruits Dopaglutathione,lecithin, gallicacid,prurieninine, prurienidine Maleinfertility,nervous disorders,aphrodisiac. AlsousedinParkinson’s disease 67OxaliscorniculataTripattiWhole plant Glyoxylicacid,vitexin, isovitexin Bloodpurifier, antiepileptic,bonehealer, antidiarrheal,treatsores 68PachygoneovataDoodhlataMenispermaceaeRootsN-Methylcrotsparine reticulineand pachygonine CNSstimulant,analgesic, andhyperthermic 69PassiflorafoetidaJhumkalataPassifloraceaeLeavesHarmalol,vitexin, apigenin,maltol,passicol, lucenin Emmenagogue,sedative, hypnotic,antispasmodic 70PseudarthriaviscidaShalaparniFabaceaeWhole plant Leucopelargonidine derivatives Thermogenic,emollient, anthelmintic,nervine, anti-inflammatory, diuretic,cardiotonic, insectbite 71QuisqualisindicaMaltiBignoniaceaeSeedsQuisqualicacid, trigonelline,and phytosterols Anthelmintic(against ascariasis)tonic, antipyretic,purgative S. Sharma and R. Arya
  48. 48. 39S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 72RhaphidophoraheidiGaneshkandaAraceaeStem juice, leaves RhaphidecursinolAand B,rhaphidecurperoxin, polysyphorin,grandisin Antidotetosnakebiteand scorpionstings, antiabdominalcancer, digestive,refrigerant 73RiveahypocrateriformisKindupataConvolvulaceaeStemand leaves Polyphenols,catechins, andgallicacid Hepatoprotective, analgesic,anti- inflammatory,used againstasthmaandpiles 74Sarcostemma brunonianum SomavalliAsclpiadaceaeLatexPhytosterols,α-and β-amyrins,lupeol, β-sitosterol Narcotic,emetic, antiviral,and rejuvenating 75SecamoneemeticaKondamAsclepiadaceaeRootsand leaves Phytosterols, anthraquinones, coumarins,chalcones Emetic,analgesic, antipyretic,alsoagainst leukorrhea 76SmilaxzeylanicaRamdatunSmilacaceaeRoots, leaves Diosgenin,smilagenin, saponins Antidiabetic, antihelminthic, antioxidant,antiepileptic, antigonorreal 77StephaniajaponicaRajpathaMenispermaceaeLeavesAkanidineFever,diarrhea,dyspepsia, urinarydiseases, antispasmodicactivityon uterinespasms,skin diseases,cough, asthma-likesymptoms, andkidneydisorders 78ThunbergiafragransMui-lataAcanthaceaeRootsand leaves Flavonoids,apigenin, luteolin Antidiarrheal, antirheumatic 79TinosporacordifoliaGiloy,guduchiMenispermaceaeWhole plant Tinosporin,columbine, palmarin,berberine, tinosporon,giloin Antiperiodic, antispasmodic, antiosteoporotic, anti-inflammatory antiarthritic,and antiallergic (continued) 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  49. 49. 40 Table2.1(continued) S. no.PlantnameCommonnameFamily Plantpart usedSecondarymetaboliteMedicinaluse 80ToddaliaasiaticaJangalikalimirchRutaceaeRoots, leaves, fruits Alkaloidberberine,resin, toddaline,pimpinellin Diaphoretic,digestive, expectorant,antipyretic 81TragiainvolucrataEuphorbiaceaeRootDiuretic,diaphoretic, cooling,depurative 82TylophoraindicaAntamulAsclepiadaceaeRoots, leaves Tylophorine,desmethyl tylophorine,gamma- fagarine,kaempferol Bronchialasthmaand allergicrhinitis 83VallarissolanaceaDodhibelApocynaceaeLatex, bark, seeds Vallaroside,solanoside, caffeoylquinicacid Analgesic,antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant,digestive 84Ventilago madraspatana PittiRhamnaceaeBarkDigestive,carminative, stomachic,alexeteric, stimulantandtonic, depurative 85VignaradiataBanurdFabaceaeLeaves, roots Vitexin,isovitexin, phenolicacid Digestive,emollient, galactagogue,anti- inflammatory,febrifuge 86VignatrilobataMunganFabaceaeLeavesFriedelin,epifriedelin, stigmasterol,tryptophan Sedative,antipyretic 87VitisviniferaDrakshaVitaceaeDriedripe fruits Leucoanthocyanins,rutin, quercetin,kaempferol, luteolin,gallictannins Refrigerant,laxative, emollient,cardiotonic, hemostatic,nervine 88XimeniaamericanaOleaceaeFruit, stem Sambunigrin,gallicacid, gallotannins Antirheumatic, antibacterial,antimalarial S. Sharma and R. Arya
  50. 50. 41 Climbers are best suited for tropical and subtropical forests as compared to temperate forests (Bongers et al. 2005). In tropical rain forest, about 25–30 % of species diversity is due to climbers (Schnitzer and Bongers 2002). Different life- forms of climbers are found in tropical forests that determine a key physiognomic feature of tropical forests (Nabe-Nielsen 2001; Perez-Salicrup et al. 2001; Schnitzer and Bongers 2002). Tendril climbers are especially suitable to grow in between and/or throughout the forest canopies (Putz and Holbrook 1991), while most of the small climbers and a few large ones are suited to occupy the forest edges and forest fragments, as the tendril climbers require small diameter support to climb as com- pared to deep forest wherein generally the thicker stemmed plants are dominated (Schnitzer and Bongers 2002). Austin studied the ethnobotany of weedy vines of Florida, while diversity and distribution of climbers in semi-deciduous rain forest, Ghana and Perak, Malaysia, were worked out by Patrick et al. (2008) and Ghollasimood et al. (2012), respec- tively. In India, Pandey et al. (2005) examined many climbers in their study of medicinal flora of Gujarat, while 81 climbers were recorded by Jangid and Sharma (2011) in Taluka Modasa, Sabarkantha District of Gujarat. Climbers of urban area of Ahmadabad and Gandhinagar and Saraswati river region of Patan district of North Gujarat were documented by Patel et al. (2013) and Seliya and Patel (2009), respectively. Ghosh and Mukherjee (2006) recorded 149 herbaceous climbers and 79 lianas from Nicobar and Andaman covering 55 families, while Mahajan (2006) reported 31 taxa used by tribal people of Nimar region (Madhya Pradesh) to cure various human ailments. Diversity of climbing flora of Thiruvananthapuram dis- trict, Monghyr district of Bihar, and Koch Bihar district of West Bengal was sur- veyed by Usha (2010), Singh (1990), and Bandopadhya and Mukherjee (2010), respectively. According to Ajaib et al. (2012), the local people of Kotli District, Azad Jammu, and Kashmir use 36 climbers/twiners of vascular plants for medi- cines, vegetables, and fodder. Bor and Raizada (1982) published a book Some Beautiful Indian Climbers and Shrubs with a series of papers appeared in the Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. In Uttar Pradesh, the work was con- ducted by Siddiqui and Husain (1994), Khanna (2002), Maliya (2004), Narayan et al. (2008), Dwivedi et al. (2009), Singh et al. (2008), and Singh et al. (2010). Adhikari et al. (2010) have reported the distribution, pattern, and potential for conservation of medicinal climbers in Uttaranchal state. After an extensive litera- ture survey, they have listed a total of 88 medicinal climbers. They noticed that Cucurbitaceae, Vitaceae, and Fabaceae have more than ten species and regarded as the largest plant families. They have also analyzed various parts of climbers used in various ailments. Most of the medicinal climbers are found in subtropical region (83) followed by warm temperate (44) and cool temperate subalpine region (7), while the least number of medicinal climbers is found in alpine region (1). In all the species, plant parts used in various ailments are in the following order: leaves and roots (44 species each) > fruits (17 species) > seed (15 species). Mostly climb- ers are used in dysentery, diarrhea, fever, wounds, digestive complaints, skin dis- eases, rheumatism, bronchitis, and asthma. Later on, they surveyed the distribution pattern of 63 trees, 55 shrubs, 208 herbs, 34 climbers, 3 ferns, and 10 grasses (a 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  51. 51. 42 total of 605 plants) belong to 94 families in Wildlife Institute of India campus, Dehradun (Adhikari et al. 2010). Bandopadhya and Mukherjee (2010) have surveyed angiospermic climbers from the district of Koch Bihar (Cooch Behar) and recorded 94 species under 63 genera belonging to 32 families, of which 26 families with 56 genera and 80 species are dicotyledonous and 6 families with 7 genera and 14 species are monocotyledonous. Dicot families have 5.7 times more climbers than monocot families. Most of the species are found in Cucurbitaceae (21 species) followed by Vitaceae (11 species). However, there are 15 families represented by single species each. Most of the climbers are twiners (42 species) followed by tendril climbers (39 species), scram- blers (6 species), ramblers (4 species), and root climbers (3 species). Local major ethnic communities, viz., Kheria, Oraon, Rabha, Rajbanshi, and Santal, use at least 50 of these species (i.e., 53.19 %) for various purposes. Of these, 32 species are used for human consumption, 27 species have medicinal uses, and 11 species are of multiple uses. Muthumperumal and Parthasarathy (2009) reported a list of angiosperm climb- ers (175 climbing plant species that belong to 100 genera and 40 families), along with their climbing modes in tropical forests of south Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Later, they (Muthumperumal and Parthasarathy 2013) provided a detailed account on the diversity, distribution, and resource values of woody climbers in the similar area. A total of 143 liana species (DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1.5 cm) and 32,033 liana individuals were recorded from 110 transects (0.5 ha each cover- ing 55 ha area) in the study sites. The resource values of lianas were broadly catego- rized into ecological and economic importance. About 90 % (129) of liana species and 96 % (30,564) of liana individuals were established having ecological/eco- nomic values. Fruit rewards provided by 76 species and 20,325 individuals consti- tuted the major resource of ecological importance. 82 species and 21,457 liana individuals are of economic importance as medicine and edible fruits and having edible and medicinal values, and yet others are used for different domestic purposes including furniture, fuel wood, rope making, etc. Ecologically, the prevalence of succulent diasporas in lianas of Indian Eastern Ghats indicates the animal depen- dence of many liana species for dispersal and underlines the need for a holistic and whole forest conservation approach in maintaining forest biodiversity (Muthumperumal and Parthasarathy 2013). Agarwal (2013) studied the useful climbers of Fatehpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. In the studied area, angiospermic climbers are represented by 42 species under 29 genera belonging to 15 families (13 dicot and 02 monocot families). Some climbers are wild while others are cultivated. Among all families, Cucurbitaceae was found tobethemostabundanthaving16speciesfollowedbyFabaceaeandConvolvulaceae, both having 6 species and Oleaceae with 3 species. Cucurbitaceae is the most domi- nant family species as well as genera wise. All other families are represented by single species only (Agarwal 2013). The diversity and distribution pattern of 59 angiosperm vine taxa (belonging to 44 genera) in the 6 tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats have been reported by Jayakumar and Nair (2013). The term “vine” is used S. Sharma and R. Arya
  52. 52. 43 for all perennial climbers like twiners, scramblers, tendril climbers, root climbers, hook climbers, and climbing palms. Most of the inventories on tropical vines were from the Neotropics (Putz 1983) and Southeast Asia (Putz and Chai 1987), and only a few are available from South Asia, especially from the Western Ghats of India (Reddy and Parthasarathy 2003). Their study was aimed to analyze two hypotheses (Pitman et al. 2001), i.e., obligatory hypothesis (most of the species of different vegetation types are dominated by limited number) and environmental determinism hypothesis (restricted distribution pattern in different vegetation types). Among six forms of climbers, twiners were the most significant in richness and abundance. During 2008–2011, Suthari et al. surveyed forests of five districts (Adilabad, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, and Khammam) of North Telangana in India where they found nine types of climber, mostly twiners (55.39 %), followed by tendril climbers (19.12 %), scramblers (15.68 %), and branch climbers (4.90 %). Root climbers are only 1.47 %, whereas leaf climbers, hook climbers, and watch- spring climbers are 0.98 %. Petiole climbers are least in number (0.50 %). 76 % climbers are wild and the rest either cultivated or naturalized. Because of its great variety of climbers which are used as medicinal, ornamental, edible fodder, fiber, and bio-fencing materials., North Telangana is now considered as a potential botani- cal province of natural resource (Suthari et al. 2014). In neotropical rain forest ofYasuní National Park, Ecuador, lianas are significant in number (Nabe-Nielsen 2001). He recorded 606 climbers, belonging to 138 spe- cies. Sapindaceae and Leguminosae were most species-rich families. 2.11 List of Climbers (Medicinal and Ornamental) Facing Threat Among threatened plants, climbers are more vulnerable to extinction because of their dependence on support structures or due to their low clutch size and predomi- nantly outbreeding systems (see Putz 1983; Putz and Chai 1987). Considering spa- tial elusiveness and difficulties with climber systematics, their proportion among threatened plants may be far greater than shrubs. Over and above, the conservation of this element is further compounded as there are very few studies on them. Unless a systematic assessment is undertaken to understand intrinsic problems linked with species, and then linked with extrinsic factors operating on them, realistic solutions to conserve medicinal climbers would be a distinct dream. The lianas are already at disadvantageous position because of their growth form as biodiversity-insensitive forest management practices in the past have resulted in their selective removal/ elimination as a part of silvicultural operations. Below is a list of some important medicinal and ornamental climbers facing the problem of being threatened. 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…
  53. 53. 44 2.11.1 Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Family: Asclepiadaceae Threat status: Vulnerable It is a vulnerable, slow-growing, perennial woody climber of tropical and sub- tropical regions. It is popularly called as “Gurmar” due to its distinctive property of temporarily destroying the taste of sweetness and is used in the treatment of diabe- tes. The leaves of the plant are used as antiviral, diuretic, antiallergic, hypoglyce- mic, hypolipidemic, and antibiotic and in stomach pains and in rheumatism. The antidiabetic, antisweet, and anti-inflammatory activities of G. sylvestre are due to the presence of gymnemic acids; the other phytoconstituents include flavones, anthraquinones, hentriacontane, resins, d-quercitol, lupeol, β-amyrin-related glyco- sides, and stigmasterol (Parijat et al. 2007). The various reports on its multiple uses attracted attention for utilization of the plant for gymnemic acid. Due to its indis- criminate collection for commercial purposes and to meet the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, it is now considered as threatened. Conventional propaga- tion is hampered due to its poor seed viability, low rate of germination, and poor rooting ability of vegetative cuttings. 2.11.2 Gnetum ula Brongn. Family: Gnetaceae Threat status: Rare and endangered Gnetum is the only genus included under Gnetales. It is of special interest to morphologists and systematists because it is considered to be the highest evolved among gymnosperms and showing close similarities to angiosperms than to Ephedra or Welwitschia. G. ula is found in Western Ghats, Nilgiris, and hills at Coromandel Coast. It is also found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Habitat loss is the major reason of its endangered status. 2.11.3 Nepenthes khasiana Hook. F. Family: Nepenthaceae Threat status: Endangered In India, single species of Nepenthes, i.e., N. khasiana, is found. It belongs to the monotypic family Nepenthaceae. It is an insectivorous plant found in Northeast India. This species captures insects with the help of their curious and attractive pitchers and digests the proteins of trapped insects, thereby supplementing nitrog- enous salts. Local inhabitants used the fluid of the unopened pitcher of N. khasiana S. Sharma and R. Arya
  54. 54. 45 to cure stomach troubles, diabetes, leprosy, gynecological problems, and cataract and as an eye drop for redness and itching (Rao et al. 1969; Kumar et al. 1980; Joseph and Joseph 1986). Habitat destruction, deforestation, urban development, developmental projects, road laying and modern agriculture, and fragmentation of large contiguous populations into isolated small and scattered ones have rendered the species increasingly vulnerable to environmental stochasticity, which would ultimately lead to its extinction. Due to its attractive beauty, this plant has attracted horticultural interest (Mukerjee et al. 1984; Khoshbakht and Hammer 2007). The plant’s existence is threatened because of its collection and export by the local plant collectors to other states of India on account of the fascinating beauty of its pitcher (Bhau et al. 2009). The species has been classified as a threatened species and is included in the list of rare and threatened taxa of India (Jain and Baishya 1977; Jain and Sastri 1980). The population of N. khasiana has dwindled in the last few decades due to deforestation and forest fires, excessive collection for trade, and slash-and- burn agricultural practice locally known as “Jhum” cultivation. 2.11.4 Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn Family: Asclepiadaceae Threat status: Endangered D. hamiltonii commonly is a medicinal liana. It possesses tuberous roots (Anonymous 2003a). It occurs in the Deccan peninsula and forest areas of Western Ghats of India. The roots are used as a flavoring principle (Murti and Seshadri 1941). The tuberous roots are aromatic due to the presence of 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4MB). Root extract is used as a blood purifier (Jacob 1937) and food preservative and in the preparation of nutraceutical and pharmaceu- tical products (Naveen and Khanum 2010). Roots have antidiabetic, hepatoprotec- tive, and antiatherosclerotic properties (Naveen and Khanum 2010; Harish and Shivanandappa 2010). Destructive harvesting for the collection of aromatic roots, self-incompatibility, extended flowering pattern, pollinator limitation, absence of seed dormancy, and abortion of a considerable percentage of seedlings prior to establishment are the reasons for its endangered status (Giridhar et al. 2005; Raju 2010). 2.11.5 Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill Family: Asclepiadaceae Threat status: Threatened T. indica, commonly called as “Antamul” or “Indian ipecac,” is a medicinal liana. It occurs on hilly slopes and the outskirts of the forests of eastern and southern 2 Biodiversity Conservation with Special Reference to Medicinal Climbers: Present…