Psychology Education And Training In The United States


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Psychology Education and Training in the United states by Nadia Hasan & Jae Yeon Jeong. Presentation in the Symposium by invitation: "Advances in Psychology Education around the world" in XXXII Interamerican Congress of Psychology in Guatemala, 2009

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Psychology Education And Training In The United States

  1. 1. Advances in Psychology Education Around the World Chair: Nadia Hasan, MA Presenter 1: Marco Pe ñ a Jimenez Presenter 2: Anna Sagana Presenter 3: Nadia Hasan Discussant: Dr. Nelson Varas Diaz (Dr. Andres Consoli)
  2. 2. Psychology Education and Training in the United States Nadia T. Hasan, MA [email_address] Michigan State University Counseling Center Jae Yeon Jeong, Ph.D. [email_address] MIRECC, Bronx VA Hospital, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Contextual Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Models of Training </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized Specialties and Proficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Cotemporary Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Student Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>APAGS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some Contextual Issues <ul><li>US health care system (rising costs) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health parity laws (managed care) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated healthcare (mind and body) </li></ul><ul><li>Population diversity and culturally sensitive healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based psychology practice </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription privileges </li></ul>
  5. 5. Models of Training <ul><li>Scientist-practitioner or Boulder model </li></ul><ul><li>-Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) </li></ul><ul><li>-research and practice </li></ul><ul><li>-Shakow Report (1940s) </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioner-scholar model </li></ul><ul><li>-Doctorate of Psychology (PsyD) </li></ul><ul><li>-practice and applying research </li></ul><ul><li>-University of Illinois, Peterson (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiens & Hope, 2001 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Master’s Degree in Psychology <ul><li>APA supports the doctoral degree as the minimum level of training for a psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Starting place for a career in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Under dispute by some, school psychology professionals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Recognized Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology by the APA Retrieved from Specialties Year of initial recognition Year of renewal of recognition Clinical Neuropsychology 1996 2010 Clinical Health Psychology 1997 2011 Psychoanalysis Psychology 1998 2014 School Psychology 1998 2012 Clinical Psychology 1998 2012 Clinical Child Psychology 1998 2012 Counseling Psychology 1999 2012 Industrial-Organizational Psychology 1996 2010 Behavioral Psychology 2000 2009 Forensic Psychology 2001 2015 Family Psychology 2002 2009
  8. 8. Recognized Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology by the APA Retrieved from Proficiencies Year of initial recognition Year of renewal of recognition Police Psychology 2008 2015 Biofeedback: Applied Psychophysiology 1997 2012 Clinical Geropsychology 1998 2012 Psychopharmacology 2001 2009 Treatment of Alcohol and Other Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders 2001 2015 Sport Psychology 2003 2010 Assessment and Treatment of Serious Mental Illness 2003 2010
  9. 9. Quality Assurance Measures <ul><li>Accreditation of doctoral programs in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral level licensure or credentialing </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of continuing education sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>Professional associations </li></ul>Retrieved from
  10. 10. US Quality Assurance Mechanism <ul><li>APA Commission on Accreditation (CoA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope: The practice of psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized by the US Department of Education and Council for Higher Education Accreditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews doctoral graduate programs, doctoral internships, and postdoctoral programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levels of mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional level (universities reviewed by regional accrediting body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional level (specialized and professional accrediting bodies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual practitioner (state licensing boards) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. APA Accreditation <ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accredited programs must provide organized, sequential training curricula, qualified faculty, appropriate supervision, adequate resources, and public information about all aspects of training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(VandeVoorde & Horrocks, 2008) </li></ul>
  12. 12. SCOPE OF APA ACCREDITATION <ul><li>Doctoral Training Programs in substantive professional areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical, Counseling and School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Developed Practice Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of 2 or 3 of the above areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-doctoral Internship Programs in Professional Psychology (10, 12, 24 Months). </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Doctoral Residencies in specialized and general fields of professional psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>(VandeVoorde & Horrocks, 2008) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Accredited Programs (As of May 6, 2008) <ul><li>Doctoral </li></ul><ul><li>Internship </li></ul><ul><li>Postdoctoral </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 898 </li></ul><ul><li>377 </li></ul><ul><li>* Breakdown by area: </li></ul><ul><li>235 Clinical </li></ul><ul><li>72 Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>60 School </li></ul><ul><li>10 Combined </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>472 </li></ul><ul><li>* 49 </li></ul><ul><li>*26 Traditional Area </li></ul><ul><li>*specialty areas </li></ul><ul><li>12 Clinical Neuropsychology </li></ul><ul><li>6 Clinical Health </li></ul><ul><li>1 Rehabilitation Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>4 Clinical Child Psychology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation of Programs in Professional Psychology Available on the APA Accreditation website
  15. 15. ACCREDITATION DOMAINS <ul><li>Eligibility of Program and Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Program Philosophy, Objectives, Curriculum Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Program Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and Individual Differences and Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Student-Faculty Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Program Self-Assessment and Quality Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Public Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with Accrediting Body </li></ul>
  16. 16. Domain A: ELIGIBILITY <ul><li>Program is sponsored by an institution of higher education that is accredited by a nationally recognized regional accrediting body in the U.S </li></ul><ul><li>Formal written policies are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissions and degree requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student performance evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due process and grievance procedures </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Domain B: PROGRAM PHILOSOPHY, OBJECTIVES, AND CURRICULUM <ul><li>Program specifies objective competencies in the curriculum (4-5 years): </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The breadth of scientific psychology: biological, psychological measurement, cognitive & affective, research methodology, social, techniques of data analysis, history and systems </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Foundations of practice in the program’s substantive area: individual differences, human development, dysfunctional behavior/ psychopathology, professional standards and ethics </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>(c) Diagnosing or defining problems through assessment and implementing intervention strategies including: theories and methods of assessment and diagnosis, effective intervention, consultation and supervision, evaluating the efficacy of interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) Issues of cultural and individual diversity relevant to all of the above </li></ul></ul>Domain B (continued)
  19. 19. Domain C: PROGRAM RESOURCES <ul><li>Core faculty who are sufficient in number and available as role models </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient number of students for meaningful peer interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to accomplish its goals and objectives such as financial, technical and physical support services </li></ul>
  20. 20. Domain D: CULTURAL AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND DIVERSITY <ul><li>Systematic and long-term efforts to attract and retain students and faculty from differing ethnic, racial, and personal backgrounds (age, national origin, disabilities, race, ethnicity, religion, gender, culture, gender identity, sexual orientation, language, and social economic status) </li></ul><ul><li>Program has a plan to provide students with relevant knowledge and experiences about the role of individual and cultural diversity in psychological science and practice </li></ul>
  21. 21. Domain E: STUDENT-FACULTY (INTERN-STAFF) RELATIONS <ul><li>Students and faculty are to be treated with courtesy, respect, and ethical sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty members are accessible and provide guidance for timely completion of degree </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for cultural and individual diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Students receive annually written feedback </li></ul>
  22. 22. Domain F: PROGRAM SELF-ASSESSMENT & QUALITY ENHANCEMENT <ul><li>Program engages in regular, ongoing self-studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness in achieving goals and objectives in terms of outcome data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How its goals and objectives are met through the program’s educational and training processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its procedures to maintain current achievements or to make program changes as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Contemporary Issues <ul><li>Competency Benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Internship Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence to licensure/ Post-Doctoral Training </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Burden </li></ul>
  24. 24. Competency Benchmarks <ul><li>Past few decades </li></ul><ul><li>The Competency Benchmarks document (2006) outlined 15 core foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology across three levels of professional development: </li></ul><ul><li>-readiness for practicum </li></ul><ul><li>-readiness for internship </li></ul><ul><li>-readiness for entry to practice </li></ul>
  25. 25. Competency Benchmarks Cont… <ul><li>Within each level, there are essential components that make up the core competencies, and behavioral indicators that provide operational descriptions of the essential elements </li></ul>
  26. 26. Competency Benchmarks Cont… <ul><li>Foundational competencies: professionalism, reflective practice, scientific knowledge and methods, relationships, individual and cultural diversity, ethical and legal standards and policy, and interdisciplinary systems </li></ul><ul><li>Functional competencies: assessment, intervention, consultation, research and evaluation, supervision, teaching, administration, and advocacy </li></ul>
  27. 27. Internship Crisis <ul><li>Internship is a year of intense, supervised, clinical work. </li></ul><ul><li>2009 Match Statistics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,825 Registered, 227 Withdrew or did not submit ranks, a total of 3,598 participated in the Match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>846 did not match (24% of applicants did not match; highest number of unmatched to date) </li></ul></ul>Retrieved from (p5)
  28. 28. Sequence to Licensure/ Post-Doctoral Training <ul><li>APA recently supported a change so that students can move from internship to licensure without the requirement of a post-doctorate experience </li></ul><ul><li>State-to-State Change is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the change </li></ul><ul><li>APAGS role </li></ul>
  29. 29. Experience Requirement <ul><li>“ APA recommends that legislation requires the equivalent of two full-time years of sequential, organized, supervised, professional experience prior to obtaining the license. This training may be completed prior or subsequent to the granting of the doctoral degree” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Rationale <ul><li>24 year old licensure laws </li></ul><ul><li>The role of Postdoctoral training has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Students are collecting more clinical hours </li></ul><ul><li>Higher quality training environments </li></ul><ul><li>Resources (financial, job market) </li></ul>
  31. 31. APAGS Advocacy for Graduate Students <ul><li>In 2006 we contacted all APA Council of Representatives and encouraged them to support this change. They Did! </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 we sent education letters to all SPTA </li></ul><ul><li>Created web materials to empower GS to advocate for this change in their SPTA </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote letters for several SPTA Newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>APAGS Liaison on the Task Force on Revision of the APA’s Model Act For State Licensure of Psychologists. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Financial Burden <ul><li>About 70% of doctoral graduates had some debt (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>About 40% owed more than $75,000 USD </li></ul><ul><li>70% of practice-focused graduates had more than $75,000 USD </li></ul><ul><li>Limited loan repayment options that are not always feasible </li></ul><ul><li>(APA, 2008) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Role of Student Organizations <ul><li>Information (Funding, Scholarships, Changes) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources for Success </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support/ Social Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy within the profession and with outside organizations </li></ul>
  34. 34. American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) <ul><li>Voice of Graduate Students in APA </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Part of APA Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as an advisory committee </li></ul><ul><li>Governed by 9 elected officials </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, Chair-elect, Past Chair, </li></ul><ul><li>6 Member-at-Large Positions: Practice, Science, Diversity, Membership, Education, Communication </li></ul><ul><li>4 Subcommittees </li></ul>
  35. 35. APAGS: Education and Training <ul><li>Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Member-at-Large Education Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Liaisons and Monitors to Groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of Psychology Postdocs and Internship Centers (APPIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APA Board of Educational Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APA Education Directorate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graduate Student Voting Seat on the Commission on Accreditation (CoA) </li></ul>
  36. 36. APAGS: Education and Training <ul><li>APAGS provides the graduate student perspective on education and training issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Centralized online APPIC Application for Psychology Internships (AAPI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication to our members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: APAGS listservs, Campus Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication to other education groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: CCTC listserv, APPIC listservs, BEA listserv </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. APAGS: Education and Training <ul><li>Resources guides and books (succeeding in practicum, internship) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Preconvention Internship Workshop, Conversation Hour with the Chair of APPIC </li></ul></ul>