Alternative Sources of Energy

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Class presentation on the alternative sources of energy, ELI 330 - University of Michigan, Fall 2007 [English]

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Alternative Sources of Energy

  1. 1. Marco Santo Danesi University of Michigan ELI 330 Fall 2007
  2. 2. Sugar Cane What is Ethanol? • a primarily plant-based fuel • a flammable alcohol that can be made from crops such as sugar cane, wheat and corn.
  3. 3. Advantages of Ethanol • Cleaner environment • Greater independence from the whims of the oil market • Higher energy density than some other alternative fuels • More improvement of agricultural economies
  4. 4. Disadvantages of Ethanol • Higher prices for many products derived from raw materials • Very corrosive • Lower fuel efficiency • Generating waste products
  5. 5. The possibility of development for Ethanol
  6. 6. Hydropower • Types of water power • The water cycle • Relationship with the environment
  7. 7. Forms of water power ● Hydroelectricity power ● Tidal power ● Wave power
  8. 8. How hydropower works? ● Solar energy heats water on the surface, causing it to evaporate. ● This water vapor condenses into clouds and falls back onto the surface as precipitation. ● The water flows through rivers back into the oceans, where it can evaporate and begin the cycle over again
  9. 9. Hydropower and the environment • Discussion: • Advantages: Renewable, No waste and pollution, etc. • Problems: Disturb the natural habitats
  10. 10. Advantage and disadvantage of wind energy
  11. 11. What is Wind Energy • A wind turbines works the opposite of a fan • Wind turns blades spin shaft generator electricity
  12. 12. Advantages of Wind Energy • Pollution free energy • Small size of plant • More efficient than before • Cost free for generating • Free from location (such as mountain)
  13. 13. Disadvantages of Wind Energy • Irregular winds strength • Generate low energy • High cost of installation • Impact on wildlife • Noise pollution • Spoil the landscape (aesthetics)
  14. 14. Reference • http://www.clean-energy- ideas.com/index.html • http://www.alliantenergykids.com/stellent2/ groups/public/documents/pub/phk_001537 .hcsp • http://wikipedia.org/
  15. 15. • 99.9% of available flow of renewable energy • Solar Energy = to convert sunlight into electricity Heat Lighting Electricity generation • Applications Transportation Desalination Biomass Clothes drying 2686.84 Photosynthesis • Atmosphere 6% of insolation is reflected 16% is absorbed • 20% of the electricity used in the USA is for lighting
  16. 16. •Water heating •Heating, cooling and ventilation •Cooking 2686.84 •Desalination •Disinfection
  17. 17. • 1954: researchers at Bell Laboratories developed a photovoltaic cell (it converts light into electricity) • 1960s: 1 watt = $ 100 • 1970s: 1 watt = $ 20 • 1990s: 1 watt = $ 7.50 2686.84 • 2005: 1 watt = $ 4 • Thanks to nanotechnology energy cost = 5 ¢/kWh, sold for $ 0.36/W (2007)
  18. 18. • Solar car (World Solar Challenge) 90km/h • Helios aircraft (record 2001: altitude of 29,250 m. Then it fell into the Pacific Ocean) 2686.84 • Solar boat (1975, England. Crossing of the Atlantic ocean in 2006)
  19. 19. • Energy storage (thermal mass or batteries) • Not economically competitive with fossil fuels • Solar industries needs government sponsorship and incentives to help2686.84 generate momentum in the marketplace • Consumers need more incentives at the federal and state levels (i.e. partial copayment, government tax subsidies)

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