Chartbook2011

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Chartbook2011

  1. 1. 2011 EDITIONU.S. D e p a r t m e nt o f L a b o r  •  B u reau of Labor Statistics
  2. 2. 2011 EDITION Charting International Labor Comparisons U.S. Department of Labor Hilda L. Solis, Secretary U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Keith Hall, Commissioner August 2011u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons iii
  3. 3. prefaceW ith ever-expanding global markets, hourly compensation costs and productivity, and international labor statistics have assumed consumer prices. To increase country and indicator a greater role in assessing the relative coverage, data from other organizations also are performance of individual economies and included. (Notes are provided at the end of eachin influencing both national and international policy section to detail sources used and to furnish helpfuldecisions. However, direct comparisons of statistics definitions.)across countries can be misleading, because This edition of Charting International Laborconcepts and definitions often differ. To improve Comparisons updates the previous edition, withthe comparability of international labor statistics, a revised set of countries and indicators. Countrythe Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) International coverage varies by chart and is based primarilyLabor Comparisons (ILC) program adjusts data to a on data available from the ILC program. In recentcommon conceptual framework. years, ILC has improved its coverage of emergingThe BLS 2011 edition of Charting International Labor economies; as a result, country coverage for manyComparisons features 2009 data, as well as trends indicators has been expanded.over time, for the main indicators published by ILC: For the latest ILC key indicators by country, seegross domestic product, labor force, manufacturing Country at a Glance. Contact ILC Division of International Labor Comparisons www.bls.gov/ilc | ilcHelp@bls.gov | (202) 691-5654 For the latest updates, we invite you to join our email notification service by sending "subscribe" to ILCPR@bls.gov.iv Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  4. 4. Acknowledgments T his edition of Charting International Labor Comparisons was prepared by the BLS International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program, under the coordination of Elizabeth Crofoot and the overall guidance of Marie-Claire Sodergren and Chris Sparks. ILC team members are: Amy Bixler, Aaron Cobet, Rich Esposito, Jacob Kirchmer, Christopher Morris, Bradley Nicholson, and Andrew Petajan. Cover art and layout design were created by Bruce Boyd, and editorial services were provided by Monica R. Gabor, both of the Office of Publications and Special Studies.u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons v
  5. 5. contents pagePreface ..................................................................................................................................................................................iv .Acknowledgments.................................................................................................................................................................v .Section 1 Gross Domestic ProductChart 1.1 Gross domestic product, selected countries, in U.S. dollars, 2009......................................................... 9Chart 1.2 Share of world gross domestic product, selected economies, 1990–2009......................................... 10Chart 1.3 Manufacturing output as a percent of gross domestic product, selected economies, 1970–2009.................................................................................................................................................. 11Chart 1.4 Gross domestic product per capita and per employed person, selected countries, in U.S. dollars, 2009................................................................................................................................... 12Notes Sources and definitions. ........................................................................................................................... 13 .Section 2 Labor MarketChart 2.1 Labor force size, gender composition, and participation rates, selected countries, 2009.................. 15 .Chart 2.2 Labor force participation rates by sex, selected countries, 2009.......................................................... 16 .Chart 2.3 Labor force participation rates by age, selected countries, 2009.......................................................... 17Chart 2.4 Working-age population by labor force status, selected countries, in percent, 2009.......................... 18Chart 2.5 Employment-population ratios, selected countries, 2007 and 2009..................................................... 19Chart 2.6 Employment growth, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009.......................................................................................................................................... 20 .Chart 2.7 Part-time employment rates by sex, selected countries, 2009.............................................................. 21Chart 2.8 Share of employment by sector, selected countries, 2009.................................................................... 22Chart 2.9 Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2000–2009........................................................................... 23Chart 2.10 Unemployment rates by age, selected countries, 2009......................................................................... 24Chart 2.11 Unemployment rates by education, selected countries, 2008.............................................................. 25Chart 2.12 Various measures of labor underutilization, selected countries, 2009.................................................. 26Chart 2.13 UR6: A broad rate of labor underutilization, selected countries, 2007 and 2009................................. 27Notes Sources and definitions. ........................................................................................................................... 28 .Section 3 Competitiveness in ManufacturingChart 3.1 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, selected countries, in U.S. dollars, 2009.................... 31vi Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  6. 6. contents pageChart 3.2 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, selected countries and regions, in U.S. dollars, 2009................................................................................................................................... 32Chart 3.3 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, selected countries, annual percent change, 2008–2009......................................................................................................... 33Chart 3.4 Growth in manufacturing hourly compensation costs, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009.................................................................................. 34Chart 3.5 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, selected countries and regions, annual percent changes, 2004–2009....................................................................................................... 35Chart 3.6 Components of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, selected countries, in percent, 2009......................................................................................................................................... 36Chart 3.7 Manufacturing productivity growth, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009....................................................................................................................... 37Chart 3.8 Manufacturing output growth, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009....................................................................................................................... 38Chart 3.9 Growth in manufacturing hours worked, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009....................................................................................................................... 39Chart 3.10 Growth in manufacturing unit labor costs in national currency, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009.................................................................................. 40Chart 3.11 Growth in manufacturing unit labor costs in U.S. dollars, selected countries, average annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009.................................................................................. 41Chart 3.12 Gap between productivity and real hourly compensation in manufacturing, selected countries, 1970–2009. ............................................................................................................... 42 .Notes Sources and definitions. ........................................................................................................................... 43 .Section 4 Consumer PricesChart 4.1 Measures of consumer price inflation, selected countries, average annual percent changes, 2007–2009.................................................................................................................................................. 45Chart 4.2 Harmonized indexes of consumer prices, selected countries, average annual percent changes, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009....................................................................................................................... 46Chart 4.3 Manufacturing compensation and consumer price indexes, selected countries, average annual growth rates, 2007–2009................................................................................................ 47Chart 4.4 Price of a basket of goods that costs one dollar in the United States, selected countries, 2009........................................................................................................................... 48Notes Sources and definitions. ........................................................................................................................... 49 .u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons vii
  7. 7. 1 SectionGrossDomesticProductG ross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of a country’s economic output. GDP per capita and GDP per employed person are relatedindicators that provide a general picture ofa country’s well being. GDP per capita isan indicator of overall wealth in a country,and GDP per employed person is a generalindicator of productivity.8 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  8. 8. 1.1Gross domestic product, selected countries, in ChartU.S. dollars, 2009 United States China Japan India Germany Gross domestic United Kingdom product (GDP) France Brazil was over 14 Italy trillion dollars Mexico in the United SpainKorea, Republic of States and Canada exceeded Australia 3 trillion Poland dollars in only Netherlands Argentina three other Belgium countries: Sweden China, Japan, Switzerland and India. Greece Philippines Austria   addition to China In Norway and India, other large Czech Republic emerging economies, Portugal such as Brazil and Singapore Mexico, were among the Israel 10 largest countries in Denmark terms of GDP. Hungary Finland   GDP of the United The Ireland States was roughly 5 New Zealand times larger than that Slovakia Estonia of Germany, 10 times larger than that of the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Trillions of 2009 U.S. dollars Republic of Korea, and 50 times larger than that ofNOTE: GDP is converted to U.S. dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP). See section notes. Norway.SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and The World Banku.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 9
  9. 9. 1.2 Share of world gross domestic product,Chart selected economies, 1990–2009 Percent 100 China’s share 90 of world gross domestic Rest of world product (GDP) 80 increased steadily during the past two 70 decades, from approximately 60 5 percent in 1990 to 16 percent in 50 Europe 2009. By 2000, China’s GDP had surpassed 40 Japan’s.   a percent of world As 30 GDP, the United States, United States Europe, and Japan each declined slightly over the 20 last two decades, due largely to China’s growth. China   rest of the world’s The 10 share of world GDP decreased during the Japan 1990s but grew steadily 0 from 2000 to 2009. 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 SOURCE: The Conference Board10 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  10. 10. 1.3Manufacturing output as a percent of gross Chartdomestic product, selected economies,1970–2009Percent45 Over the40 period, the manufacturing sector’s China35 share of gross domestic product (GDP)30 declined at about the same Japan rate in Japan,25 the European Union, and the European Union United States.20   manufacturing U.S. made up 11 percent of GDP in 2009, compared United States15 with 23 percent of GDP in 1970.   Manufacturing output10 as a share of GDP was about one-third in both China and Japan in 1970. 5 The share decreased overall in Japan but rose and fell in China before returning to 1970 levels in 0 2009. 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and The World Banku.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 11
  11. 11. 1.4 Gross domestic product per capita and perChart employed person, selected countries, in U.S. dollars, 2009 Norway United States Norway had Ireland the highest Belgium gross domestic France product (GDP) Singapore per capita and Austria per employed Australia person. Sweden Netherlands   per capita in GDP United Kingdom the United States was Italy approximately 7 times Canada larger than that of China. Finland   Singapore had the Spain second highest GDP per Germany capita, but only the sixth highest GDP per employed Denmark person—indicating a high Japan employment rate in that Slovakia country. Korea, Republic of Hungary Czech Republic Poland  GDP per capita Mexico   per employed person GDP Brazil China 0 25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 2009 U.S. dollars SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and The World Bank12 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  12. 12. Section 1 Notes Section  Gross domestic productSources DefinitionsData for most countries are based on the BLS report Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value ofInternational Comparisons of GDP per Capita and per all goods and services produced in a country. GDPHour, 1960–2009. Data for the remaining countries per capita is GDP divided by population and is aand all purchasing power parities (PPP) are based on rough measure of a country’s overall wealth. GDPdata in the World Bank database World Development per employed person is GDP divided by the numberIndicators. A country or region’s share of world gross of employed persons and is a rough measure of adomestic product (GDP) is based on data in The country’s productivity. Purchasing power parities (PPP)Conference Board Total Economy Database. are currency conversion rates that allow outputEach country prepares GDP measures in accordance in different currency units to be expressed in awith national accounts principles. To make common unit of value. A PPP is the ratio betweeninternational comparisons of levels of GDP GDP , the number of units of a country’s currency andper capita, and GDP per employed person, it is the number of U.S. dollars required to purchase annecessary to express GDP in a common currency equivalent basket of goods and services within eachunit. BLS converts GDP from national currency units respective country.  to U.S. dollars through the use of PPP.In this section, Europe includes 20 countries:Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 13
  13. 13. 2 SectionLaborMarketL abor force statistics, such as employment and unemployment, are key indicators of the functioning of labor markets   both within and across countries.Labor force levels and participation ratesprovide information on the supply of laborin an economy. Employment focuses onthe extent to which people are engagedin productive labor market activities,while measures of labor underutilization,including unemployment, provideinformation on an economy’s unused orunderused labor supply.14 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  14. 14. 2.1Labor force size, gender composition, and Chartparticipation rates, selected countries, 2009Womens share of the labor force (percent)50 Canada United States Australia China and India45 Europe China had the largest Brazil workforces, Japan Korea, Republic of although China Argentina had the highest40 labor force participation Philippines rate, while Mexico India had the35 lowest.   Women made up less than half of the labor30 force in all countries and Europe, with India India having, by far, the lowest proportion of women in the labor market.2520 0 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 Total labor force participation rate (percent)NOTE: Each bubble represents the size of the labor force for that country. Europe includes 21 countries. See section notes.SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and International Labour Officeu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 15
  15. 15. 2.2 Labor force participation rates by sex, selectedChart countries, 2009 China Norway   Womens participation rate  Canada   Mens participation rate New Zealand — Male-female gap Women’s Sweden participation Switzerland rates in India Denmark Australia and Mexico Brazil were among Netherlands the lowest; United States these countries Finland United Kingdom had the largest Portugal gender gaps. Estonia Ireland   Labor force Singapore participation rates were Austria higher for men than Argentina Germany women in all countries, Israel although the size of France the gender gap varied Slovakia considerably. The largest Korea, Republic of gaps were in Asian and Philippines Latin American countries. Spain Czech Republic   highest The Japan participation rates for Belgium men were in large Poland emerging economies: Mexico Brazil, India, Mexico and Greece China. China also had the Hungary highest participation rate Italy India for women and, thus, a relatively low gender gap. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percent SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and International Labour Office16 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  16. 16. 2.3Labor force participation rates by age, selected Chartcountries, 2009 India  15–24 Mexico  25–54Korea, Republic of   55–64  Philippines Israel  65 and older Participation Italy rates were Hungary highest for Argentina persons ages Brazil Poland 25 to 54 in all Ireland countries and Greece lowest for United States those ages 65 Australia and older in Japan all countries Spain Singapore except the United Kingdom Republic of New Zealand Korea. Belgium Canada   Argentina and the In Norway Philippines, more than Czech Republic one-third of persons ages Austria 65 and older were still in Estonia the labor force. In contrast, Finland many European countries Germany had rates below 5 percent Portugal for this age group. Slovakia France   Participation rates among Netherlands youth varied most across Denmark countries. The Netherlands Switzerland and Australia had the Sweden highest participation rates China (above 70 percent) while 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Hungary, the Republic of Percent Korea, and Greece had the lowest rates (under 30SOURCE: International Labour Office percent).u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 17
  17. 17. 2.4 Working-age population by labor force status,Chart selected countries, in percent, 2009  Employed  Unemployed  Not in the labor force China Brazil New Zealand The working- Canada Norway age population Switzerland is composed Australia of those in the Denmark labor force— United States Netherlands the employed Argentina and the Sweden unemployed— Singapore and those not Philippines Ireland in the labor United Kingdom force. Portugal Mexico   was the only Italy Estonia country with less than Korea, Republic of Finland half of its working-age Austria population engaged in the Slovakia labor force. Japan Spain   Although Spain had Germany average labor force Czech Republic participation, this India masks its relatively low Israel employment rate and high France unemployment. Estonia, Poland Ireland, and Slovakia Greece also had relatively low Belgium Hungary employment but high Italy unemployment. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and International Labour Office18 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  18. 18. 2.5Employment-population ratios, selected Chartcountries, 2007 and 2009 China Brazil Norway New Zealand Switzerland Employment- Australia Netherlands population Canada ratios Denmark decreased Singapore between 2007 Sweden Argentina and 2009 in United States 31 of the 36 Philippines countries, withKorea, Republic of the steepest United Kingdom Mexico declines in Austria Estonia, Spain, Portugal Ireland, and Japan the United Ireland Finland States. India Czech Republic   2009, China and In Germany Brazil had the highest Taiwan proportions of employed Israel persons, while Hungary Estonia and Italy had the lowest. Slovakia France  2007 Poland  2009 Belgium Greece Spain Hungary Italy 0 20 40 60 80 PercentSOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and International Labour Officeu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 19
  19. 19. 2.6 Employment growth, selected countries, averageChart annual rates, 2000–2007 and 2007–2009 Estonia Spain Ireland United States Employment Hungary grew from Denmark  2000–2007 Japan 2000 to 2007 Czech Republic  2007–2009 in all countries Finland except for Greece Japan but Portugal Sweden decreased in United Kingdom almost half of Italy the countries Taiwan, China Switzerland from 2007 to Canada 2009. New Zealand Belgium   Between 2007 and France 2009, the sharpest Austria declines in employment Slovakia China were in Estonia and Spain, Korea, Republic of followed by Ireland and Norway the United States. Netherlands Mexico   largest gains in The Germany employment between Poland 2007 and 2009 were in Israel three Asian countries: Brazil Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India. Singapore Argentina and India were 2 of 3 India Philippines countries (Germany was Singapore the third) that had more –5 –3 –1 0 1 3 5 employment growth during 2007–2009 than Percent during 2000–2007. SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and International Labour Office20 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  20. 20. 2.7Part-time employment rates by sex, selected Chartcountries, 2009 Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom Australia The part-time Germany employment Ireland rate for women New Zealand was roughly 2 to 5 times Japan higher than the Austria men’s rate in Belgium most countries. Italy Norway   largest difference The between men and women’s Canada part-time employment Denmark rates was in the France Netherlands, although it had the highest rate for Spain both men (17.0 percent) Sweden and women (59.9 United States percent). Finland   Part-time employmentKorea, Republic of was least common for  Men both men and women in Greece Women   three Eastern European Poland countries: Slovakia, Estonia Hungary, and the Czech Republic. Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PercentSOURCE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 21
  21. 21. 2.8 Share of employment by sector, selectedChart countries, 2009  Industry  Services  Agriculture Netherlands United States United Kingdom Denmark More than half Canada of employment Sweden was in the Australia service sector Norway in all countries. Israel New Zealand   Netherlands, the The Greece United States, and the France United Kingdom had the Ireland largest shares of service Switzerland employment (above 80 Belgium percent). Finland   largest shares of The Korea, Republic of industry employment Austria (above 30 percent) were Spain in five Eastern European Japan countries. Mexico   Poland, Mexico, Greece, Italy and Portugal had the Germany largest agricultural Portugal sectors. Poland Estonia Hungary Slovakia Czech Republic 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent NOTE: Agriculture includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Industry is composed of mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, and for some countries, public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Public utilities represent less than 3 percent of industry in all countries. SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development22 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  22. 22. 2.9Unemployment rates, selected countries, Chart2000–2009Percent Asia and Oceania Percent North America20 2015 15 In 2009, Spain10 New Zealand 10 Canada United States had, by far, Australia the highest 5 5 unemployment Korea, Republic of 0 Japan 0 Mexico rate, and 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Norway had the lowest.Percent Western Europe Percent Northern Europe20 20   Unemployment rates were higher in 200915 15 Ireland than 2000 in a majority Germany Finland of countries, due in10 10 France Denmark part to the effects of United Kingdom Sweden the global recession at 5 5 the end of the decade. Switzerland Austria Netherlands Norway Unemployment rates 0 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 increased in 11 countries between 2007 andPercent Southern Europe Percent Eastern Europe 2008, and in all countries20 20 between 2008 and 2009. Poland Spain Slovakia15   Poland recorded the 15 Greece Estonia highest unemployment10 rate of the period (20.0 10 Czech Republic percent in 2002), and 5 Italy Switzerland had the 5 Hungary Portugal lowest (2.2 percent in 0 2001). 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 23
  23. 23. 2.10 Unemployment rates by age, selected countries, 2009Chart Switzerland Japan  Teenagers (15-19)   Young adults (20-24)  Netherlands   Adults (25 and older)  Germany Unemployment Norway rates for Austria teenagers and Korea, Republic of young adults Denmark are generally Israel higher than Australia those for Canada adults, partly New Zealand due to young United States people’s United Kingdom greater Portugal vulnerability Poland to economic Belgium downturns Finland and lack of France experience. Greece Czech Republic   Slovakia had the largest Sweden difference between rates for teenagers and adults, Ireland and Germany had the Italy smallest. Hungary Estonia   Switzerland had a Only higher unemployment rate Slovakia for young adults than for Spain teenagers. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percent NOTE: 2008 for Israel. Ages 16 to 19 instead of 15 to 19 for Canada, France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development24 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  24. 24. 2.11Unemployment rates by education, selected Chartcountries, 2008 Norway Netherlands  Less than high school  High school or trade school   Denmark   College or university  New Zealand In 23 out of Australia 30 countries, Mexico college Switzerland graduates had Austria the lowestKorea, Republic of unemployment Czech Republic rates, followed United Kingdom by high school Sweden graduates; Japan Italy high school Ireland dropouts had Estonia the highest United States rates. Finland Canada   College graduates France had the highest Belgium unemployment rate only Israel in Mexico. Brazil   unemployment The Poland rate gap between high Hungary school dropouts and high Portugal school graduates was Greece generally larger than the Germany gap between college Slovakia graduates and high school Spain graduates, reflecting the 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 value of a high school Percent education in seekingNOTE: Data refer to persons ages 25 to 64. Data for less than high school are not available for Japan. employment.SOURCE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 25
  25. 25. 2.12 Various measures of labor underutilization,Chart selected countries, 2009 Norway  UR1 (long-term unemployment rate) Netherlands  UR3 (unemployment rate)   Austria   UR6 (broad rate of labor underutilization)  Long-term Japan unemployment Australia (UR1) was Denmark most prevalent in Slovakia and New Zealand Spain. Czech Republic Canada   is the most UR1 United Kingdom restrictive rate of labor underutilization and Germany consists only of the subset Belgium of the unemployed who Italy were unemployed for at Poland least 1 year. UR3 is the official unemployment Finland rate and the most widely Sweden recognized. The broadest France rate, UR6, includes the unemployed, the United States marginally attached, and Greece persons who are employed Portugal but who worked fewer Hungary hours than they would like (i.e., the time-related Ireland underemployed). Slovakia   Spain had the highest Spain UR3 and UR6. Although 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Australia had the second Percent highest UR6, its UR3 was NOTE: Long term is defined as 1 year or longer. UR6 includes the unemployed, the marginally attached, and the time- relatively low. related underemployed. See section notes. SOURCES: Bureau of Labor Statistics and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development26 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  26. 26. 2.13UR6: A broad rate of labor underutilization, Chartselected countries, 2007 and 2009 Netherlands Norway  2007  2009 Czech Republic Austria During the Denmark global recession, Japan UR6 increased between 2007 Belgium and 2009 in allUnited Kingdom countries, Poland except for Ireland Poland. New Zealand The largest Greece increases were in Spain, the Portugal United States, Germany and Ireland. Canada Slovakia   is a broader measure UR6 of labor underutilization Hungary than the unemployment Finland rate because it includes France the marginally attached and those who are United States employed but who worked Sweden fewer hours than they Italy would like (i.e., time- Australia related underemployed). This broader measure Spain is popular during times 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 of recession, when Percent unemployment and other types of labor marketNOTE: UR6 includes the unemployed, the marginally attached, and the time-related underemployed. See section notes. difficulty are on the rise.SOURCE: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 27
  27. 27. Section 2 NotesSection 1 Labor MarketSources data for differences that remain across countries in coverage and definitions that can affect internationalData for 10 countries for most indicators are based comparisons. See Labor Force Statistics in OECDon the BLS report International Comparisons of Countries: Sources, Coverage and Definitions. ForAnnual Labor Force Statistics, Adjusted to U.S. total unemployment rates, the OECD series usedConcepts, 10 Countries, 1970-2010. To facilitate is the “harmonized unemployment rates” (HURs),international comparisons, foreign-country data are which are adjusted to conform to the ILO guidelinesadjusted to U.S. concepts. Data for the remaining in countries where deviations occur. For a fullcountries and some indicators in their entirety— discussion of comparability issues, see the BLSlabor force participation rates by age, part-time article, “International unemployment rates: howemployment rates, unemployment rates by comparable are they?”education and measures of underutilization—arebased on data from the International Labour Office Using multiple sources for an indicator to extend(ILO) or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation country coverage can introduce additionaland Development (OECD). comparability issues, since each organization employs different methods for harmonizing data,Labor force participation rates, employment- if adjustments are made at all. Users should usepopulation ratios, and employment growth are caution when making international comparisonssupplemented with data from the ILO database Key using the actual values underlying these chartsIndicators of the Labour Market (KILM). The KILM and are encouraged to review the methodologicalharmonizes data using econometric models to documents associated with each source.account for differences in national data and scope ofcoverage, collection and tabulation methodologies, In this section, Europe includes 21 countries:and other country-specific factors, such as military Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland,service requirements. Although some differences Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,remain between the KILM and ILC series, they do Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Unitednot materially affect comparisons across countries. Kingdom.Part-time employment rates, employment bysector, unemployment rates, and measures of Definitionsunderutilization are supplemented with data Labor Labor market data are on a civilian basis (i.e.,from the OECD database OECD.Stat. The OECD members of the Armed Forces are not included).generally uses labor force surveys and captures The labor force participation rate is the labor force aslabor force statistics according to ILO guidelines, a percent of the working-age population; it is anwhich facilitate cross-country comparisons, because overall indicator of the level of labor market activity.these guidelines create a common conceptual The labor force is the sum of the employed plus theframework for countries. However, except for total unemployed; it provides an indication of the sizeunemployment rates, the OECD does not adjust of the labor supply. The working-age population is28 Charting International Labor Comparisons  |   august 2011 u.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov
  28. 28. the population ages 15 or 16 and older. (Lower age 35 hours in the United States) during the surveylimits vary by country. See source documents.) reference week for economic reasons or (2) part-time workers who want but cannot find full-time work.The employed are persons who, during the For unemployment rates by education, the levels ofreference week, did work for at least 1 hour as educational attainment accord with the Internationalpaid employees, worked in their own business, Standard Classification for Education (ISCED) in itsprofession, or on their own farm, or as unpaid current version, known as ISCED 1997. Less than highworkers in an enterprise operated by a family school corresponds to “less than upper secondarymember (at least 1 hour according to the ILO education” and includes ISCED levels 0-3C. Highguidelines but at least 15 hours according to U.S. school or trade school corresponds to “upperconcepts). Definitions of the employed vary by secondary and post-secondary education” andcountry. See source documents. The employment- includes levels 3-4. College or university correspondspopulation ratio is employment as a percent of the to “tertiary non-university and university” andworking-age population. Part-time employment refers includes levels 5-6.  to employed persons who usually work less than 30hours per week in their main job; in some countries,“actual” rather than “usual” hours are used. The part-time employment rate is the share of employment thatis part time and is also referred to as the incidenceof part-time employment.The unemployed are persons without work, activelyseeking employment and currently available tostart work. Definitions of the unemployed vary bycountry; see source documents. The unemploymentrate is unemployment as a percent of the laborforce; it is the most widely used measure of aneconomy’s unused labor supply. Persons marginallyattached to the labor force are those who did notlook for work in the past 4 weeks, but who wish towork, are available to work and, in some countries,have looked for work sometime in the past 12months. Discouraged workers are the subset of themarginally attached who are not currently searchingfor a job because they believe none are available.The time-related underemployed are either: (1) full-timeworkers working less than a full week (less thanu.s. Bureau of Labor Statistics   |   www.bls.gov august 2011   |   Charting International Labor Comparisons 29

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