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Figure retoriche e cenni di metrica

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Cenni di metrica per le scuole medie e breve descrizione delle figure retoriche con esempi

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Figure retoriche e cenni di metrica

  1. 1. www.giocoscuola.it CENNI DI METRICACENNI DI METRICA EE FIGURE RETORICHEFIGURE RETORICHE
  2. 2. www.giocoscuola.it METRICA IL VERSO = "andare a capo“, è un insieme di parole caratteriz- zate da una regola: la sua struttura metrica. Es: endecasillabo LA RIMA = consiste nell’identità dei suoni nella parte finale della parola: fiore/amore I METRI=Il metro è l'insieme delle regole, stabilite dalla tradizione, che definiscono quanto viene ritenuto obbligatorio per realizzare un certo tipo di testo. Es: sonetto LA STROFA = Periodo metrico di due o più versi, costruito secondo uno schema prestabilito e in genere ripetuto all'interno di un componimento. Es: quartina
  3. 3. www.giocoscuola.it IL VERSO Endecasillabo: Verso di undici sillabe Un dì, s’io non andrò sempre fuggendo(Foscolo) Senario: verso di sei sillabe Che pace la sera! (Pascoli) Settenario verso di sette sillabe Siepi di melograno (Pascoli) Ottonario: verso di otto sillabe Dolcemente muor febbraio (D’Annunzio)
  4. 4. www.giocoscuola.it LA RIMA BACIATA: AA BB ALTERNATA: ABAB INCROCIATA: ABBA INCATENATA: ABA BCB RIPETUTA: ABC ABC
  5. 5. www.giocoscuola.it GLI ACCENTI la rima piana che presenta accento sulla penultima sillaba ed è quella considerata normale. la rima tronca tra parole con accento sull'ultima sillaba; la rima sdrucciola tra parole con accento sulla terzultima sillaba, come in "se Macometto vieta il mosto e biàsima credo che sia il sogno e la fantàsima" (Luigi Pulci, Morgante);
  6. 6. www.giocoscuola.it LA STROFA Le più importanti strofe con schema fisso nella tradizione italiana sono: il distico (AA BB CC) la terzina (ABA BCB CDC) la quartina (ABAB o ABBA) la sestina (ABABCC) l'ottava (ABABABCC)
  7. 7. www.giocoscuola.it ALCUNI METRI Sonetto, il metro impone di scrivere un componimento di quattordici versi di undici sillabe, suddivisi in due quartine e due terzine, con un limitato numero di scelte per quanto riguarda la posizione delle rime. Ballata La sua struttura metrica comprende un ritornello o ripresa, che espone in breve il motivo conduttore e si ripete fra una stanza e l'altra, e un numero variabile di strofe o stanze. I metri usati sono l'endecasillabo e il settenario, Canzone: perfezionata da Dante e Petrarca. I versi della canzone sono generalmente endecasillabi o settenari. La sua struttura tradizionale comprende un numero variabile di strofe o stanze (da due a nove), divise al loro interno in una prima parte detta "fronte" e in una seconda detta "sirma".
  8. 8. www.giocoscuola.it LE METAFORE Procedimenti stilistici del linguaggio letterario e poetico, che lo allontanano dall'uso comune e gli conferiscono maggiore espressività e pregnanza. figure di morfologia (allitterazione, assonanza ecc.); figure di sintassi (ipotassi e paratassi, asindeto e polisindeto, endiadi, chiasmo, anacoluto, enjambement, anafora, anastrofe, ellissi, iperbato, parallelismo, enallage e ipallage, ecc.); figure di significato (similitudine, sineddoche, metafora, sinestesia, metonimia, antonomasia ecc.); figure di pensiero (iperbole, climax e anticlimax, ironia, antitesi, ossimoro, litote, eufemismo, apostrofe, epifonema, ipotiposi ecc.); figure di parola (omoteleuto, onomatopea, paronomasia, tmesi ecc)
  9. 9. www.giocoscuola.it SIMILITUDINE E’ un paragone e stabilisce un confronto tra concetti o immagini attraverso connettivi quali "come", "così... come", "simile a", oppure verbi quali "pare", "sembra". "Cesare è infido come una serpe" Se togliamo l’aggettivo e il connettivo otteniamo una metafora “Cesare è una serpe”
  10. 10. www.giocoscuola.it METAFORA consiste nello spostamento di significato da un ambito proprio a uno non proprio in base a un rapporto di somiglianza. "Giovanni è un fulmine“ veloce come “Ulisse è una volpe” furbo come
  11. 11. www.giocoscuola.it SINEDDOCHE consiste nel trasferimento di significato da una parola a un'altra in base a una relazione di contiguità, nel senso di maggiore o minore estensione, come la parte per il tutto. "le vele" per "le navi“ "montone" per "la pelle di montone“ "il pane" per "il cibo"
  12. 12. www.giocoscuola.it METONIMIA Consiste nel trasferire un significato da una parola a un'altra in base a un rapporto di contiguità spaziale, temporale o causale. Si usa cioè il nome del contenuto per il contenente. "passami l'acqua" per "passami la bottiglia dell'acqua" "leggo Dante" per "leggo l'opera di Dante" "bella gioventù" per "bei ragazzi"
  13. 13. www.giocoscuola.it CHIASMO Figura retorica di tipo sintattico che consiste nella ripetizione in ordine inverso di due (o più) membri di una frase secondo lo schema ABBA (o ABCCBA). "Difficile (A) è la virtù (B), il vizio (B) facile (A)", il chiasmo è in relazione con l'antitesi e diventa un modo per renderla più evidente. Il termine "chiasmo" deriva dal greco chiasmós, che illustra graficamente la disposizione incrociata degli elementi.
  14. 14. www.giocoscuola.it POLISINDETO consiste nel collegare due o più parole di una frase oppure due o più frasi ripetendo la congiunzione per ogni termine della serie. Il polisindeto (dal greco polysýndeton, "legato insieme molto") serve a rallentare il ritmo del discorso mettendo in risalto ogni termine. “e mi sovvien l’eterno, e le morti stagioni, e la presente e viva, e il suon di lei”
  15. 15. www.giocoscuola.it ALLITTERAZIONE Consiste nella ripetizione degli stessi suoni (lettere o sillabe) all'inizio o all'interno di due o più parole vicine. L'effetto fonico prodotto dall'allitterazione (dal latino ‘adlitterare’, "allineare le lettere") si riflette sui significati, perché attraverso di essa si stabiliscono rapporti privilegiati tra le parole. "di me medesmo meco mi vergogno" (Francesco Petrarca, Canzoniere), l’uso di “vi” (nelle prime due strofe di Giacomo Leopardi, A Silvia).
  16. 16. www.giocoscuola.it ONOMATOPEAONOMATOPEA Figura retorica di parola che consiste nell'imitazione di un suono naturale attraverso un segno linguistico. "Tic-tac", imita il rumore dell'orologio. In poesia anche il ritmo può concorrere al processo espressivo dell'onomatopea : "volaron sul ponte che cupo sonò", ( A. Manzoni,) ottiene l'imitazione del rimbombo delle assi del ponte levatoio sotto gli zoccoli dei cavalli con il ritmo e il gioco fonetico delle parole impiegate
  17. 17. www.giocoscuola.it ENJAMBEMENT Modulo stilistico ricorrente nella poesia, sia classica sia moderna, che consiste nel separare, attraverso la pausa metrica, due parole strettamente unite sul piano logico, collocandole una alla fine di un verso e l'altra all'inizio del successivo. In questo modo un verso non costituisce un'unità sintattica indipendente, ma la frase si prolunga nel verso successivo.
  18. 18. www.giocoscuola.it IPERBOLE Figura retorica di pensiero che consiste nel ricorso a parole esagerate, per eccesso o per difetto, oltre i limiti della verosimiglianza e fino alla deformazione del reale. L'iperbole (dal greco hypér, "oltre", e bállein, "gettare") è comune anche nell'uso quotidiano per esprimere espansività o per sottolineare stati d'animo o giudizi. Può essere usata in funzione ironica per sottolineare la sproporzione tra parole e realtà. "è un secolo che aspetto; "sei magra come uno stecchino“.
  19. 19. www.giocoscuola.it ANAFORA Figura retorica che consiste nella ripetizione (anaphorá) di una parola o di un gruppo di parole all'inizio di più versi o di più frasi successive. Serve a sottolineare la parola o il concetto ripetuti in posizione retoricamente forte. "Per me si va nella città dolente, per me si va nell'etterno dolore, per me si va tra la perduta gente" (Dante, Inferno, III);

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