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MCE 2016 - F.Scarpa - Università di Genova

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Magnetic Refrigeration - Refrigerazione magnetica

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MCE 2016 - F.Scarpa - Università di Genova

  1. 1. Rotary Magnetic Refrigerator Design and Assembly Luca A. Tagliafico, Federico Scarpa March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE
  2. 2. a solid’s temperature change due to magnetic induction (B) variation. T = T0 B > 0 T=T0+ΔT • B increases  T increases • B decreases  T decreases Combining these temperature changes with heat exchanges with an external fluid, we can realize a thermodinamic cycle The magneto-caloric effect March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 2/16
  3. 3. B1 B2 S T 1 2 3 4 p2 p1 S T 1 2 3 4 B2B1 T1 T2 T3 Q2 Q1 Q1 B1B2 p1p2 p2p1 N S N S N S T4 N S The Brayton cycle March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 3/16
  4. 4. Research effort on magnetic refrigeration March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 2004 4/16
  5. 5. March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE Main prototypes 5/16
  6. 6. First DIME magnetic refrigerator demonstrator: - Linear reciprocating motion (fixed magnet, moving regenerator) - AMR cycle (two parallel regenerators) Permanent magnet structure: - 10 NdFeB magnets - soft steel magnetic circuit (~30kg total weight) - magnetic gap dimensions: 130x50x13 mm3 - maximum magnetic field intensity: 1.85T (foreseen by FEM with regenerator), 1.5T (measured in free air) FEM magnetic Actual field analysis magnetic structure FEM magnetic field profile 6/16
  7. 7. core process AMR number of regenerators 2 total regenerator size 95cm3 active material commercial Gd sheeets total Gd mass 400g average particle size 300μm foreseen void fraction 0.46 maximum applied field ~1.5T minimum applied field ~<0.005T heat transfer fluid water flow rate operating range 5÷20 g/s (0.3÷1.2 l/min) frequency operating range 0÷1/8 Hz Next steps: - Shift to rotating concept Intrinsic balanced operations Small inertial effects More compact - Patent review - Magnetic aspects - Geometric&mechanical aspects - Functional design Drawbacks - Limited temperature span (5°C) - Low frequency - High moving forces - Not well balanced operations March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 7/16
  8. 8. Patent & Literature review Halbach magnet Kitanovski Okamura Steyert March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 8/16
  9. 9. N S N N N N S S S S Rotating gadolinium sheets Selected magnetic configuration Static external iron bushing Opposite water flows Static magnets March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 9/16
  10. 10. 0.9 T in air Magnetic Analysis (1) March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 10/16
  11. 11. Flux lines are concentrated in the MCM (Gd) due to the reduced reluctance, so magnetic induction increase in the Gadolinium sheets 1.2 T in the Gd interior 0.7 T between two Gd sheets Magnetic Analysis (2) March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 11/16
  12. 12. DT= 15 °C Nu=4.36 Working condition Analysis U= ṁ 𝐹∙𝑐 𝑝,𝐹 ṁ 𝑀𝐶𝑀∙𝑐 𝑝,𝑀𝐶𝑀 Optimal rotational frequency around 0.25 [Hz], with a utilization factor U= 0.9 U=0.9 F[Hz] Qref [W] March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 12/16
  13. 13. Ovalization of the supporting rim due to magnetic forces on gadolinium sheets Stress is greater in the lateral zero field portion of the rim Stress Analysis March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 13/16
  14. 14. • Simplified inlet/outlet rotating joints • Thick bushing • Complex internal working • Axial rotating shaft • Balanced configuration • Mounting issues Rotating configuration comparison • Easy construction • Easy centering of components • Non symmetrical configuratine March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 14/16
  15. 15. bearing iron bushing bearing shaft distributor distributor shaft rotating flange o-ring gadolinium sheets Selected mechanical implementation Iron bushingcentering element magnet March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE 15/16 • Magnets 2.8 kg • Iron 10.5 kg • Gadolinium 1.5 kg • Alluminum 0.2 kg weight 15 kg
  16. 16. Thanks for your attention March 18, 2016 – Milan, Expocomfort - MCE

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