XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspic...
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Diego Curti - Fuchs Lubrificanti - VANTAGGI DEI LUBRIFICANTI SINTETICI NEI SISTEMI DI REFRIGERAZIONE OPERANTI CON AMMONIACA

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Diego Curti - Fuchs Lubrificanti - VANTAGGI DEI LUBRIFICANTI SINTETICI NEI SISTEMI DI REFRIGERAZIONE OPERANTI CON AMMONIACA

  1. 1. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSAdvantages of syntheticrefrigeration oils for ammoniarefrigeration systemsChristian PuhlWolfgang BockFUCHS EUROPE Schmierstoffe GmbHDiego CurtiFUCHS LLUBRIFICANTI S.p.A.
  2. 2. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS• Ammonia (NH3) as a refrigerant• Compressor oils for ammonia systems• Requirements for compressor oils for ammonia systems• Applications of synthetic oils for ammonia systems• ConclusionContent
  3. 3. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSAmmonia as refrigerantRefrigerant Ammonia:•Excellent thermo dynamiccharacteristics: High COP(Coefficient of Performance)•Low energy costs•Low price of the refrigerant•High discharge temperature: twostage compressor (piston), large oilcoolers (screw)•Toxic and flammable - special safetyregulations (e.g. secondary loop)BeverageFood IndustryChemicalIndustryShipsAirconditioning
  4. 4. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricants for NH3 systemsThe refrigeration oil which is notmiscible with NH3, is trasportedback to the compressor or is drainedoff at the evaporatorLubricants according to DIN 51503,Group KAA (not miscible)Conventional ammonia refrigeration system (high refrigerating capacity):Flooded EvaporationIn addition: polyalkylene glycols (PAG)Group KAB = miscible with NH3Attention•Hightly hygroscopic: can cause problems in the lubricatinggap especcially in combination with aluminiumcomponents•Danger of wear problems due to high volumes ofdissolved / evaporating NH3
  5. 5. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSOpen reciprocating pistonCompressors with oil pump /Centrifugal lubricationLubricantsISO VG 32 - 68Open screw compressorsOil-injectedLubricantsISO VG 46 - 68Main viscosity grade for NH3ISO VG 68Viscosity grade for NH3 lubricantsPhoto: GEA GRASSOPhoto: BOCK
  6. 6. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricants for ammoniaCH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCDIN 51503 – Group KAA:Not miscible with NH3( )Mineral OilsHydro-treated Mineral OilsAlkylbenzene OilsPolyalfaolefins (PAO)Synthetic HydrocarbonsPolyalkilene glycols (PAG) DIN 51503 – Group KAB:Miscible with NH3
  7. 7. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricants for ammonia:Mineral Oils and Hydro-treated Mineral OilsMineral Oils (naphthenic)Chemical Structure:Mainly naphthenic hydrocarbons (cycloalkanes)Refining process:Conventional solvent extraction and dewaxing(removal of long-chain paraffins)Hydro-treated mineral oils (HC/Hydrocrack oils)Chemical Structure:Iso-paraffinic hydrocarbonsRefining process:Hydrocracking (saturation, removal of sulfur, denitration.) and isodewaxing(linear hydrocarbons branched hydrocarbons)
  8. 8. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricants for ammonia:Synthetic base oilsSynthetic base oils:- Are produced by chemical synthesis- Have a more homogenous composition than mineral oils- Do not contain impurities based on sulfur or nitrogenAlkylbenzenesPolyalphaolefins (PAO)Synthetic hydrocarbonsCH3CH3 CH3CH3CH3e.g.: PAO
  9. 9. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricants for ammonia:RequirementsHigh thermal and chemical stabilityGood elastomer compatibilityGood lubricityExcellent low-temperature flowabilityLow evaporating loss / low oil consumption
  10. 10. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSThermal and chemical stability for NH3lubricants…a thermally andchemically stable oildoesn‘t look like this…!
  11. 11. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSNH3 lubricants stability withammonia (DIN 51538)Test:The oil sample is exposed to acontinuous ammonia/air gas streambubbling through the fluid; testtemperature: 120°C, test duration: 7d.Catalyst: steel couponAnalyses after the testAnalyses after the test (total base number, appearance, …)and of the steel coupons (appearance)
  12. 12. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSIncrease in total base numbers(mg KOH/g)Naphthenic mineral oil 0,08Synth. hydrocarbons 0,05PAO 0,04Conventional Mineral Oil (ISO VG 68) 0,20Increase of “ total base number - TBN”The higher the increase in total base number the higher is theamount of critical reaction / aging productsNH3 lubricants stability withammonia (DIN 51538)
  13. 13. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSStability with ammonia (DIN 51538):appearance of the oilPAOMineral Oil ConventionalMineral Oil(ISO VG 68)No depositsNo discolorationDepositsDark colorationSynth HydrocarbonsNo depositsSlight discoloration
  14. 14. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSStability with ammonia (DIN 51538):appearance of the steel couponsMineral OilNo discoloration Dark colorationPAOSynth HydrocarbonsConventionalMineral Oil 68)Slight discolorationSelected mineral oils show good results with regard to chemical stability / stability withammonia. Synthetic oils show excellent results
  15. 15. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSCompatibility of ammonia lubricants withelastomer / sealing materialsModerate swelling of the sealing material(5-20% volume increase) means that oil leakagewill not occurMineral oils, hydro-treated mineral oils andsynthetic hydrocarbons are suitablePAO: have to be checked with CR (clorobutadiene – caoutchouk)
  16. 16. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSSealing material:CR ChloropreneNeoprene®Test conditions:Storage in oil,7 days at 100°CCompatibility of ammonia lubricants withelastomer / sealing materials
  17. 17. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSSolubility of ammonia in different lubricantsamount of NH3 in “non-soluble NH3 oils”Mineral Oils: 2,9%SynthHydrocarbons:2,2%PAO: 2,1%1,7 2,0 2,3 2,6 2,9Ammonia - solubility [%]@ 20°CSynthetic hydrocarbons and PAOLess ammonia dissolved in the oil lower dilution lowerviscosity reduction of the oilbetter stability of the lubricating film in the compressor
  18. 18. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSViscosity-Temperature-Behaviour - VI687,4629,16810,5-100102030405060700 20 40 60 80 100 120Kin.Viscosity/mm²/sTemperature /°CVI V at 40°C V at 100°CMineral Oils 58 68 7,4Synth Hydrocarbons 124 62 9,1PAO 142 68 10,5Synthetic hydrocarbons and PAOhigh Viscosity Index VI lower viscosityreduction at higher temperature better wear protection in the lubricating gap
  19. 19. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLow-temperature flowability – withoutrefrigerant0200040006000800010000120001400016000-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0kin.Viscosity[mm²/s]Temperature [°C]PAOSynthHydrocarbonsMIneral OilsHydrotreatedMineral OilsSynthetic hydrocarbons and PAOcompared to mineral oils / hydro-treated mineral oils, viscosity increases less atlow temperaturebetter flowability at low temperature (in the evaporator)
  20. 20. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLow temperature flowability: Pourpoint(DIN ISO 3016) - without refrigerantSynthetic hydrocarbons and PAOSuitable for extremely low evaporating temperatures (< -45°C)Plate heat exchangers (small diameters) can be used, and there is no riskof channels being blocked by the oilPourpoint: lower temperature at which the oil is still flowableMInerl Oils-39°CSynth Hydrocarbures-48°CPAO-57°CMIneral OilsHydrotreatedISO VG 68-42°C-60 -55 -50 -45 -40PourPoint - Temperature/°C
  21. 21. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSDetermination of the flowability of lubricants:U-Tube-Test (DIN 51568) - without refrigerantMineral OilsAlkylbenzenesPAOSynth Hydrocarbons-50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0Velocity/(mm/min)T/°C51015Synthetic hydrocarbons and PAOSignificantly better low temperature flowability than mineral oils and alkylbenzenesPreferable for low evaporating temperatures
  22. 22. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSLubricant loss in the compressorLubricant in the refrigeration system024681012Evaporationloss[%] 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600Temperature [°C]Mineral oil ISO VG 68PAOGas-chromatographic investigations – evaporation loss:comparison mineral oil – PAOAt high thermal stress: highly volatilecompounds (in general of low viscosity)evaporate / get into the systemoil loss in the compressor andincrease in viscosityNo highly volatile compounds no oil loss in the compressor, viscosity remainsstable
  23. 23. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS00,10,20,30,40,5SynthHydrocarbonsPAO, Mineral OilsHydrotreatedISO VG 68Mineral OilsNaphthenicISO VG 68Evaporationloss/%Synthetic hydrocarbons and PAOlower evaporation loss than naphthenic mineral oils low top-up oilconsumption, high oil lifetimeEvaporation loss:according to DIN 51581-1at 150°C / 1h / 0,8 barLubricant loss in the compressorLubricant in the refrigeration system
  24. 24. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSNH3 lubricants for food industryExample:NH3 refrigeration system /24MW / screw compressorsChangeover from Mineral Oil toPAOSpecial PAOsNo oil sludge, no deposits, no lacquers inscrew compressors (Frick & GEA Grasso)compressor service intervals increased by 50%No bearing wearReduction of deposits in filters and oil separatorsservice intervals increased by 100%Faster oil removal when defrosting the systembetter oil managementLower top-up oil consumptionconsiderably reduced service and maintenancecosts
  25. 25. XV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE MILANO 7th-8th JUNE 2013 CSGLatest Technology in Refrigeration and Air ConditioningUnder the Auspices of the PRESIDENCY OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERSConclusionIn general, standard lubricants based on naphthenic mineral oils / hydro-treatedmineral oils are suitable for application in ammonia refrigeration systemsSynthetic lubricants based on PAO or synthetic hydrocarbons offer differentbenefits compared to mineral oilsLower NH3 solubility + better viscosity-temperature-behaviourbetter lubricating propertiesLower Pourpoints and better low-temperature flowabilityfor low evaporating temperatures (< -45°C)Lower evaporation loss: reduced oil loss in the compressorlower oil consumptionHigher chemical and thermal stability allows to increase service intervalsfor filters, oil separators and compressorslower maintenance and service costs

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