Didier Coulomb - IIR - 15° Convegno Europeo CSG


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Didier Coulomb - IIR - 15° Convegno Europeo CSG

  1. 1. Refrigerants: European and International Contexts MILANO, Italy Mostra Convegno ExpocomfortInternational Institute of 30 marzo 2012Refrigeration Didier COULOMB International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) www.iifiir.org
  2. 2. 1 - Refrigeration is everywhere • Cryogenics (petrochemical refining, steel industry, space industry, nuclear fusion…) • Medicine and health products (cryosurgery, anaesthesia, scanners, vaccines…) • Air conditioning (including data centres…) • Food industry and the cold chain • Energy sector (including heat pumps, LNG, hydrogen…) • Environment (including carbon capture and storage), public works, leisure activities… International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  3. 3. 2 - The increasing needs in developing and emerging countries1600 deaths/year in the USA due to pathogens, at least partlyassociated with temperature control; many more in « developing »countries: • Increase in the global population, particularly in Africa and South Asia (9-10 billion in 2050, 8 in developing countries) • 70% (50% now) will be in urban areas (x2 in developing countries): increasing the need for cold chains, increasingly westernized models • 1 billion people are undernourished; 23% of food losses are caused by a lack of refrigeration (vs 9% in developed countries) • Needs for better health everywhere (good cold chain, air conditioning), ageing population… This increase in emerging and developing countries will increase the impact on the environment International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  4. 4. 3 - Refrigeration is a major energy consumerRefrigeration including air conditioning represents 15% of globalelectricity consumption. And it will increase (The Netherlands: 18%...)  Global warming because of CO2 emissions: TEWI, LCCP (IIR Working Party)  The price of electricity will increase (new sources of energy have higher costs)  Lack of power infrastructures  Overall system solutions (district cooling…)  New regulations on energy, on buildings in Europe, the USA: constraints on energy  constraints on refrigeration systems  Changing a system because of refrigerant issues must take into account potential reductions in energy consumption International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  5. 5. 4 – Focus on Refrigerants• Vapour-compression systems will remain predominant in the short and medium term more refrigerants.• Impact on the stratospheric ozone layer: CFCs, HCFCs the Montreal Protocol Phase-out plans Banks• Alternative refrigerants: - HFCs, including HFOs: no impact on the ozone layer but an impact on global warming (included in the Kyoto Protocol) - Natural refrigerants (ammonia, CO2, hydrocarbons, water, air): have a very low impact on global warming. - Mixtures, combinations (cascades, secondary fluids) International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  6. 6. Family of refrigerants Main refrigerants ODP GWP CFC 11 1 4 750 CFCs CFC 12 1 10 900 Others 0.4 -> 1 6 000 -> 15 000 HCFCs HCFC 22 0,05 1 810 Others 0.020 -> 0.070 70 -> 2 400 HFC 134a 0 1 430 HFC 404A 0 3 900 HFC 407C 0 1 800 HFCs HFC 410A 0 2 100 HFC 32 0 720 HFC 1234yf 0 4 Others 0 4 -> 4 500 (except HFC 23 = 14 800) HC 290 0 20 HC 600a 0 20 HC 1270 0 20Natural Refrigerants R717 (ammonia) 0 ~0 R744 (Carbon dioxide) 0 1 Air, water 0 ~0
  7. 7. Discussions at an international level International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  8. 8. Hence, discussions held at an international level (Montreal Protocol andKyoto Protocol meetings) on the future of HFCs: replacing HCFCs withHFCs could be a real threat to climate.North American and Mauritius-Micronesia proposals to gradually phasedown the consumption and production of HFCs, in all countries. Theamounts are weighted according to their Global Warming Potential. • Opposition of India, China, Brazil • Other initiatives:  The European F-gas regulation and the MAC directive  Taxes and bans on HFCsThis decision is linked to other decisions regarding global warming(time schedule: 2015 for a new agreement on this issue) International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  9. 9. 5 – Consequences at the European levelThe European Union: an example for the world regarding Global Warming?(compliance with the Kyoto Protocol; attitude in international negotiations) • 1st mesure: reducing leakage  the F-gas regulation and more (?) • 2nd mesure: phase-out of high GWP refrigerants  the MAC directive and more (?) • 3rd mesure: taxes and bans in certain European countries then at a European level (?) International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  10. 10. At a European level: 1. HCFC phase-out 1.1.2010: phase-out of virgin HCFCs in Europe 1.1.2015: phase-out of recycled HCFCs in Europe 2. The F-gas Regulation: current status- Adopted in 2006, entered into force on 4.7.2007 with a view to reducing emissions of fluorinated gases (HFCs, PFCs, SF6); revision scheduled in 2010- The aim: to train staff and certify staff and companies handling refrigerants, to reduce leakage in stationary equipment, considered as being of greatest importance. A Directive on mobile air conditioning completes the F-gas Regulation and embodies gradual phase-out of refrigerants with a GWP >150- Many countries have implemented rules that are more stringent than the F-gas Regulation and the Directive on mobile air conditioning- Few countries didn’t set up national per-application regulations. Italy just did it. International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  11. 11. - More restrictive measures concern: the threshold governing the application of the regulation, with a value lower than the charge of 3 kg of refrigerant; implementation of maximum leakage rates (5%) in Germany, Belgium…; minimum intervals between maintenance operations; databases; responsibilities with respect to recycling; moreover, Germany has extended compulsory leakage monitoring to refrigerated transport for charges of over 3 kg and Sweden has extended its policy to ships (charges of over 10 kg).- Moreover, several countries have implemented high taxes on HFCs.3. The revision process Began 1 year and a half ago - A group of experts involving the IIR and consultants was set up in October 2010 in order to assist the European Commission. International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  12. 12. - In parallel, stances, in particular those of Eurovent, AREA and EPEE, designed to strengthen the binding nature of the regulation. In particular, AREA recommends the extension of the regulation to refrigerated transport and advocates reducing the threshold from 3 kg to 100 g.- A Commission report was placed on line with a view to obtaining comments before December 19, 2011. The IIR sent comments. Aim: to develop a draft decision during the first half of 2012 prior to examination by the European Parliament Followed by a decision in 2013?  Options put forward by the consultants: A per-sector approach to be implemented over the period spanning 2015 to 2030, depending on the importance of the stakeholders and the potential solutions.  Banning of fluorinated gases in certain applications (cf. The MAC Directive).  Taxation systems or deposit. No conclusions so far. International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  13. 13. CONCLUSION (1) Actions in HFCs = « easy » way to rapidly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, which explains part of the pressure by USA, UNEP, NGOs Industrial interests  industrial lobbying The European Union would like to be a model and anticipate possible international decisions Very probably, as soon as international decisions on global warming can be taken (2015?), a phase down schedule of HFCs would be decided. Until then, strengthening the F-gas regulation would be the minimum the European Union could impose. International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  14. 14. CONCLUSION (2) In order to know: What will the future be in terms of regulations; What kind of solutions exist (new technologies, new refrigerants…) What are the constraints? What are the costs?..Etc. Regularly updated information is required. International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org
  15. 15. The IIR can help you Thanks to its new portal, Through its database Fridoc (the most complete refrigeration database) Through its publications (the International Journal of Refrigeration, the best impact factor in its field; the Newsletter, books, guides….) Through its reference documents (eg the International Dictionary of Refrigeration including arabic… ). Through its network of experts. Through its participation in international decisions. Through its conferences, congresses, research projects and working parties on these issues. See our Website: www.iifiir.org Become a member International Institute of Refrigeration – www.iifiir.org