E-mail and SMS forWorkplace Health Promotion:the MoveM8 programme<br />EpiDay 2010, 26 May - Lugano<br />Marco Bardus<br /...
Overview<br />E-mail and SMS for Workplace Health Promotion: the MoveM8 programme<br />BACKGROUNDPhysical inactivity, work...
Physicalinactivity<br />Whyshouldwe care?<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerl...
4<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
Problems related to physical inactivity<br />600,000deaths/year in Europe<br />- 5.3 million years of healthy lives<br />+...
Physicalactivityin workplaces<br />Whyisitimportant?<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Luga...
7<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
Physicalactivitity in workplaces<br />Workplaces are a promising setting for health promotion (Pronk et al., 2009)<br />Pr...
Business case for an employerin Stockton-on-Tees *<br />* Source: Lloyd, S. (2009). “The North East Better Health at Work ...
Tangible benefits of WHP programme *<br />Predicted saving for organisation = £954,003<br />Predicted payback period = 0.2...
Benefits of physical activity<br />These are the benefits we stressed through our promotion<br /><ul><li>improved overall ...
positive impact on stress, back pain, mental health
increased productivity and lower rates of absenteeism
quicker return to work after illness
fewer injuries, less illnesses
improvements in communications, morale andworking atmosphere
positive corporate image</li></ul>©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />11<b...
Whatis MoveM8?<br />The programme in a nutshell<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Sw...
The programme in a nutshell<br />MoveM8 is a 12-weeks e-mail and SMS programme aimed at encouraging employeesof participat...
Participatingworkplaces<br />©  Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />14<br /><...
Dow Chemical Company Ltd., Middlesborough
Vopak Terminal Teeside Ltd., Middlesborough
Redcar & Cleveland BC, Middlesborough
Stockton Riverside College, Stockton-on-Tees
Cummins, Stockton-on-Tees
HMP Holme House, Stockton-on-Tees
3M, Northalleton
Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds
Age Concern Calderdale & Kirklees, Halifax
Astbury Digital, Asthon-under-Lyne
Tameside MBC, Asthon-under-Lyne
Two Trees Tameside Sport College, Tameside
Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool
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MoveM8 Epiday 26.5.2010

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MoveM8 Epiday 26.5.2010

  1. 1. E-mail and SMS forWorkplace Health Promotion:the MoveM8 programme<br />EpiDay 2010, 26 May - Lugano<br />Marco Bardus<br />Institute for Public Communication and Education (ICIeF)<br />marco.bardus@usi.ch<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />E-mail and SMS for Workplace Health Promotion: the MoveM8 programme<br />BACKGROUNDPhysical inactivity, workplace health promotion what is MoveM8, why is set and where?<br />METHODSStudy design, recruitment strategies<br />PRELIMINARY DATA Sample description, baseline data<br />LIMITATIONS Recruitment challenges<br />DISCUSSIONQ&A<br />FOCUS ONCommunication& promotion strategies<br />2<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  3. 3. Physicalinactivity<br />Whyshouldwe care?<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />3<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  5. 5. Problems related to physical inactivity<br />600,000deaths/year in Europe<br />- 5.3 million years of healthy lives<br />+ healthcarecosts<br />Leading risk factor of: heart diseases, diabetes, cancer, depression<br />(WHO, 2006; CDC, 2007)<br />5<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  6. 6. Physicalactivityin workplaces<br />Whyisitimportant?<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  8. 8. Physicalactivitity in workplaces<br />Workplaces are a promising setting for health promotion (Pronk et al., 2009)<br />Promoting physical activity in the workplace is advocated by key government policies (e.g. Choosing Health White Paper, DoH, 2004)<br />Engagement in workplace health programmes varies from 10% to 64%, with a median of 33% (Robroek et al., 2009)<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Business case for an employerin Stockton-on-Tees *<br />* Source: Lloyd, S. (2009). “The North East Better Health at Work Award”. Basesconference. Leeds, September 2009<br />9<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  10. 10. Tangible benefits of WHP programme *<br />Predicted saving for organisation = £954,003<br />Predicted payback period = 0.2 years<br />Predicted benefit to cost ratio =19 to 1<br />This business case led the organisation’s boardto accept proposals around initiatinga workplace health programme<br />10<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />* Source: Lloyd, S. (2009). “The North East Better Health at Work Award”. Basesconference. Leeds, September 2009<br />
  11. 11. Benefits of physical activity<br />These are the benefits we stressed through our promotion<br /><ul><li>improved overall health (reduced overweight & obesity)
  12. 12. positive impact on stress, back pain, mental health
  13. 13. increased productivity and lower rates of absenteeism
  14. 14. quicker return to work after illness
  15. 15. fewer injuries, less illnesses
  16. 16. improvements in communications, morale andworking atmosphere
  17. 17. positive corporate image</li></ul>© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />11<br />
  18. 18. Whatis MoveM8?<br />The programme in a nutshell<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />12<br />
  19. 19. The programme in a nutshell<br />MoveM8 is a 12-weeks e-mail and SMS programme aimed at encouraging employeesof participating UK organisations to becomemore physically active.<br />It is part of research project approved by the University of Nottingham (UK) Medical School Ethics Committee.<br />The programme started in September 2009 and will end<br />in August 2010.<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />13<br />
  20. 20. Participatingworkplaces<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />14<br /><ul><li>Avecia Biologics Ltd., Billingham
  21. 21. Dow Chemical Company Ltd., Middlesborough
  22. 22. Vopak Terminal Teeside Ltd., Middlesborough
  23. 23. Redcar & Cleveland BC, Middlesborough
  24. 24. Stockton Riverside College, Stockton-on-Tees
  25. 25. Cummins, Stockton-on-Tees
  26. 26. HMP Holme House, Stockton-on-Tees
  27. 27. 3M, Northalleton
  28. 28. Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds
  29. 29. Age Concern Calderdale & Kirklees, Halifax
  30. 30. Astbury Digital, Asthon-under-Lyne
  31. 31. Tameside MBC, Asthon-under-Lyne
  32. 32. Two Trees Tameside Sport College, Tameside
  33. 33. Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool
  34. 34. University of Nottingham, Nottingham
  35. 35. De Montfort University, Leicester
  36. 36. Equity Direct Broking Ltd., Colchester
  37. 37. Vodafone Group Services Ltd., Donnington
  38. 38. Zest People Ltd, Worthing</li></li></ul><li>The research team<br />The research project involves:<br />Prof. L. Suzanne Suggs, Dr. Carolina Gross & Marco Bardus 1<br />Prof. Holly Blake 2Scott Lloyd3<br />1Università della Svizzera italiana<br />2 University of Nottingham, School of Nursing, Midwifery & Physiotherapy. Nottingham, UK<br />3 NHS Stockton-on-Tees Public Health Directorate, Newtown Community Resource Centre<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />15<br />
  39. 39. MoveM8 asresearch project<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />16<br />
  40. 40. Study objectives<br />Examine the effects of additional Short Messaging Service (SMS) to the weekly e-mail communication on physical activity behavior and Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) main constructs.<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />17<br />
  41. 41. Theoretical basis<br />Positive effects of e-mail in workplace health promotion<br />(Plotnikoff et al., 2005)<br />Mobile phones have been used to promote PA<br />(Fjeldsoe, Marshall, & Miller, 2009) <br />The Theory of Planned Behavior is adequate for describing physical activity behavior<br />(Armitage & Conner, 2001)<br />18<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  42. 42. Study design<br />RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL WITH TWO STUDY GROUPS:<br />GROUP 11 weekly standardized & personalized e-mail.<br /> <br />GROUP 21 weekly e-mail + 2 SMS.<br />The e-mail and SMS are standardized & personalized.<br />19<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  43. 43. Study design 2<br />RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL WITH 4 STUDY GROUPS:<br />GROUP 11 weeklypersonalisede-mail.<br /> GROUP 21 weeklypersonalised e-mail + 2standardised SMS.<br />GROUP 31 weeklypersonalisede-mail – told to be tailored.<br /> GROUP 41 weeklypersonalised e-mail + 2personalised SMS.<br />20<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  44. 44. Anticipated outcomes<br />PRIMARY OUTCOME <br />Increase in PA level: time spent, frequency and intensity[full IPAQ questionnaire]<br /> <br />SECONDARY OUTCOMES <br />Changes in the TPB constructs (Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioral Control and Intention) and the level of perceived message relevance[validated TPB questionnaire]<br />Outcomes will be measured by comparing baseline assessments with the 4 follow-up assessments (by the end of August 2010)<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />21<br />
  45. 45. Letus focus on<br />Recruitment<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />22<br />
  46. 46. The MoveM8 identity<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />23<br />
  47. 47. 24<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  48. 48. What has been done so far<br />Following best practices and suggestions from the literature (Robroek et al. 2009), we developed a two-step recruitment strategy<br />among UK organisations (done by our collaborators) +<br />within the organizations(doneby HR and OHA)<br /><ul><li>Flexibile enrolment period(6 waves total)
  49. 49. Incentives(Nike Sport kit lottery, benefits for the organisation)</li></ul>25<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />RECRUITMENT STEPS<br />
  50. 50. Recruitmentresults<br />Some data toleadourdiscussiontoday<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />26<br />
  51. 51. Sample description(abstractfrombaseline data)<br />Organisations: 19 (of different size)<br />Sample size: 393<br />Average age: 39.4 yrs<br />Gender: female (78.9%)<br />Health status: good (47.8%),very good-excellent (38.7%)<br />Motivation to increase PA*: mean=7.3<br />Self-efficacy*: mean=6.4<br />* Measured through a 10-point scale<br />27<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />
  52. 52. Physicalactivitybehaviour*<br />JOB-RELATED PA (n=189)<br />78.4% no vigorous , 71% no moderate, 50.1% no walking<br />Median energy expenditure: 573 MET-min/week (IR=1276.75)<br />LEISURE TIME PA (n=321)<br />56.5% no vigorous, 71.8% no moderate, 65.1% report walking. <br />Median energy expenditure: 600 MET-min/week (IR= 1647.25)=> moderate level<br />SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR (n=362)<br />7 hours/day (average sitting time=421.7minutes/day)<br />* IPAQ guidelines for data processing and analysis<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />28<br />
  53. 53. Drop-outrates<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />29<br />
  54. 54. Is communication enough?<br />Some problems & limitations<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />30<br />
  55. 55. Problemsencountered<br />Participation rate<br />Survey response rate: 61%-29% (1st-4th FUP)<br />SOME POSSIBLE EXTERNAL MODERATING FACTORS <br />Swine Flu (death in Nottingham)=> less participation<br />Health Risk Assessment before programme=> increased respondent burden<br />Other ongoing health programmes=> less recruitment effetiveness<br />Low budget for promotion<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />31<br />
  56. 56. MoveM8ing forward<br />Whatcouldhavebeendonebetter?<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />32<br />
  57. 57. Some open questions<br />Howmuchcommunicationisneededbeforewechange?<br />Why some people subscribetotheseprogrammes and othersnot?<br />Whatpromotionalstrategieswould work better?<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />33<br />
  58. 58. THANK YOUFOR YOUR ATTENTION!<br />Marco Bardusmarco.bardus@usi.ch<br />
  59. 59. REFERENCES<br />Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. <br />Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471-499. <br />Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC (2007). The importance of Physical Activity. Fact Sheet. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/importance/index.htm. <br />Fjeldsoe, B. S., Marshall, A. L., & Miller, Y. D. (2009). Behavior change interventions delivered by mobile telephone short-message service. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(2), 165-173. <br />Lloyd, S. (2009). The North East Better Health at Work Award. Basesconference. Leeds, 1-3 September 2009.<br />Plotnikoff, R. C., McCargar, L. J., Wilson, P. M., & Loucaides, C. A. (2005). Efficacy of an E-mail intervention for the promotion of physical activity and nutrition behavior in the workplace context. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19(6), 422-429. <br />Pronk, N. P., & Kottke, T. E. (2009). Physical activity promotion as a strategic corporate priority to improve worker health and business performance. Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 316-321. <br />Robroek, S., van Lenthe, F., van Empelen, P., & Burdorf, A. (2009). Determinants of participation in worksite health promotion programmes: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 26. <br />World Health Organization -WHO (2006). Physical activity and health in Europe: evidence for action. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/InformationSources/Publications/Catalogue/20061115_2.<br />35<br />© Marco Bardus, ICIeF, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano Switzerland<br />

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