Adaptivity in Health Communication and Promotion

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Web 2.0 and mobile technologies show great potential for health communication and promotion, but why practitioners and scholars should go digital? Are there ways to measure the effectiveness? Are there opportunities for research?

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Adaptivity in Health Communication and Promotion

  1. 1. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion The  potential  of  Web  2.0  and  mobile  technologies Marco  Bardus Institute  of  Public  Communication  and  Education Faculty  of  Communication  Sciences Università  della  Svizzera  Italiana,  USI Pro*Doc  Conference  on  Adaptivity  in  Health  Communication  -­  Ascona,  September  10,  2010
  2. 2. Overview } Introduction  Web  2.0  and  mobile  technologies  today  Web  2.0  for  health  info Background  &  Rationale  Web  2.0  for  health  communication Objectives  &  Research  Questions Evidence  and  Discussion Conclusions,  Q&A Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 2
  3. 3. The focus of my research New  media  and  technologies  for  behavior  change (in  health  communication  and  social  marketing   initiatives). Focus  on: 1. “Public  health  messages  and  campaigns” 2. “telehealth  applications” (Healthy  People  2010) www.healthypeople.gov/document/html/volume1/11healthcom.htm Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 3
  4. 4. Web 2.0 and mobile technologies today
  5. 5. Social media world Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 5
  6. 6. Just a fad? Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 6
  7. 7. The context +400  million  watch  video  online +350  million  read  blogs +300  million  visit  friend’s  SNS  pro=ile   } (Parker,  2009) +500  million  Facebook  users 59%  adults  wirelessly  online  through  mobile  phones               (Smith,  2010) 61%  of  American  adults  looks  online  for  health  information      (Fox  &  Jones,  2009;  Lenhart  et  al.,  2010) Primary  sources:  health  professionals,  friends  or  family   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 7
  8. 8. Web 2.0 vs. Web 1.0
  9. 9. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 X
  10. 10. The concepts “ Web  2.0  encompasses  the  idea  of  the  Web  as  a  platform,  that   harnesses  collective  intelligence  through  the  sharing  of   information  and  data  in  a  free,  open-­‐source  way,  providing  a   richer  user  experience         participation,  openness,  conversation, community  and  connectedness.               (O’Reilly,  2005) Social  media  are  the  social  aspects  of  Web  2.0  applications:             (May=ield,  2008) Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 X
  11. 11. Online health information in the Web 2.0 era
  12. 12. Health information seekers 61%  of  American  adults  looks  online  for  health   information       (Fox  &  Jones,  2009;  Lenhart  et  al.,  2010) Primary  sources:  health  professionals,  friends  or  family   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 X
  13. 13. WebMDHealth 2.0 / Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 8
  14. 14. Mobile phones for health enhancement
  15. 15. Self-tracking, self-monitoring Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 10
  16. 16. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 11
  17. 17. Health/Medicine 2.0 “ Is  the  use  of  a  speci]ic  set  of  Web  tools  (blogs,  Podcasts,   tagging,  search,  wikis,  etc)  by  actors  in  health  care   including  doctors,  patients,  and  scientists,  using  principles   of  open  source  and  generation  of  content  by  users,  and  the   power  of  networks  in  order  to  personalize  health  care,   collaborate,  and  promote  health  education. (Hughes  et  al.,  2008) Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 X
  18. 18. iPod/iPad/iPhone apps Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 12
  19. 19. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 13
  20. 20. Health communication and social marketing campaigns
  21. 21. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 15
  22. 22. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 16
  23. 23. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 17
  24. 24. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 18
  25. 25. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 19
  26. 26. Objectives of the presentation
  27. 27. We know that… People  and  organizations  make  use  of   social  media  and  mobile  applications. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 21
  28. 28. But we do not know… Why,  how  and  with  what  effects? Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 22
  29. 29. Research questions
  30. 30. Research questions 1. What  types  of  social  media  and  mobile  technologies   are  used  in  public  health  and  health  promotion   initiatives? 2. What  measures  of  success  (or  failure)  could  be  used   to  assess  social  media  effectiveness?   3. What  types  work  best  and  with  whom?   4. How  social  media  could  be  effectively  and  efJiciently   used  in  health  promotion  programs?   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 24
  31. 31. Why social media for health promotion?
  32. 32. The potential of social media Increase  the  reach (Chou  et  al.,  2009;  Bennet  &  Glasgow;  Evans,  2008;  Uhrig  et  al.,2010) Stimulate  interpersonal  communication  about  the   campaign  topic  +  generate  larger  behavior  change           (Abroms  &  Maibach,  2008) Mobile  public  health  programs (Lefebvre,  2009) Opportunities  for  tailoring,  and  adapting  to  users’  preferences,  habits,  health   history,  etc.   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 26
  33. 33. Social media for health information: good or bad? pros cons Good  &  reliable  source Privacy  of  personal  data (Vance,  Howe  &  Dellavalle,  2009) (Chou  et  al.,  2009) Ef]icacious  in  attracting,   Source  credibility retaining  and  engaging  users (Eysenbach,  2007;  Hu  &  Sundar,  2010; Wang  et  al.,  2008).   (Bennett  &  Galsgow,  2009) Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 27
  34. 34. 1) what types of social media applications?
  35. 35. Results from our scoping review 367  references  retrieved 123  articles  charted 40  general  commentaries  and  editorial  material  recognizing  the   potential  use  in  social  marketing  and  health  communication 21  social  media  as  health  professional  education  and  training. 10:  content  analyses  of  YouTube,  Facebook,  MySpace. 4  articles  (2  reporting  the  same  data)  explicitly  mention   and  report  the  use  of  social  media  in  social  marketing   initiatives. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 29
  36. 36. Social media as learning tools Types  of  social  media YouTube,  wikis,  blogs,  podcasts,  mobile  phones   Training  health  educators   (Akagi,  2008;  Burke  &  Oomen-­‐Early,  2008;  Burke  &  Snyder,  2008;  Burke,   Snyder,  &  Rager,  2009) Clinical  practitioners (Boulos,  Maramba,  &  Wheeler,  2006;  Feeney  et  al.,  2008;  Lauber,  2009) Public  health  students (Goldman,  Cohen,  &  Sheahan,  2008;  Hanson  et  al.,  2008;  Kapp  et  al.,  2009) Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 30
  37. 37. A lesson for public health “ The  Obama  campaign  set  a  new  standard,  encouraging   horizontal  communication,  fostering small  acts  of  engagement  and  facilitating in-­‐person  grassroots  activities.     2009)       (Abroms  &  Lefebvre,   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 31
  38. 38. Change we can: featuring social media (1)  of]icial  website (2)  the  campaign  TV  channel (3)  social  network  sites (4)  mobile  phones (5)  unof]icial  UGC  materials Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 32
  39. 39. What about
  40. 40. Results from our scoping review No  theories  or  models  are  explicitly  reported. Only  2  studies  report  outcomes:  quantitative   outreach  and  outputs,  i.e.  website  page  views,  nr.   of  viewers,  registered  users,  “friends”  and   followers. Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 34
  41. 41. 2) what measures of success?
  42. 42.  Social  media  effectiveness Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 36
  43. 43. Open questions
  44. 44. Are metrics enough? What about behavior change? What about new media effectiveness? Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 38
  45. 45. Conclusions
  46. 46. Setting the research agenda We  need Appropriately  designed  studies  focusing  on  the  effectiveness  of   new  media  on  behavior. How? By  “listening”  to  the  publics  before  adapting  and  choosing  the   appropriate  media  strategy. By  combining  qualitative  +  quantitative  research  methods  (i.e.   online/of=line  focus  groups,  structured  interviews  with  the  TA,   formative  evaluation,  SWOT  analysis,  conversation  tracking  and   analysis,  surveys  and  experiments).   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 40
  47. 47. Thank you! Marco  Bardus Institute  of  Public  Communication  and  Education, Faculty  of  Communication  Sciences Università  della  Svizzera  Italiana,  USI marco.bardus@usi.ch
  48. 48. References (1) Abroms,  L.  C.,  &  Lefebvre,  C.  (2009).  Obama’s  wired  campaign:  Lessons  for  public  health  communication.  Journal  of  Health   Communication,  14(5),  415-­‐423.   Abroms,  L.  C.,  &  Maibach,  E.  W.  (2008).  The  effectiveness  of  mass  communication  to  change  public  behavior.  Annual  Review   of  Public  Health,  29,  219-­‐234.   Akagi,  C.  (2008).  YouTube?  for  health  education?  American  Journal  of  Health  Education,  39(1),  58-­‐60.   Bennett,  G.  G.,  &  Galsgow,  R.  E.  (2009).  The  delivery  of  public  health  interventions  via  the  internet:  Actualizing  their  potential.   Annual  Review  of  Public  Health,  30(1),  273-­‐292.   Boulos,  M.  N.,  Maramba,  I.,  &  Wheeler,  S.  (2006).  Wikis,  blogs  and  podcasts:  A  new  generation  of  web-­‐based  tools  for  virtual   collaborative  clinical  practice  and  education.  BMC  Medical  Education,  6,  41.   Burke,  S.  C.,  &  Oomen-­‐Early,  J.  (2008).  That's  blog  worthy:  Ten  ways  to  integrate  blogging  into  the  health  education   classroom.  American  Journal  of  Health  Education,  39(6),  362-­‐364.   Burke,  S.  C.,  Snyder,  S.,  &  Rager,  R.  S.  (2009).  An  assessment  of  faculty  usage  of  YouTube  as  a  teaching  resource.  Internet   Journal  of  Allied  Health  Sciences  &  Practice,  7(1),  8p.   Burke,  S.  C.,  &  Snyder,  S.  L.  (2008).  YouTube:  An  innovative  learning  resource  for  college  health  education  courses.   International  Electronic  Journal  of  Health  Education,  11,  7p.   CDC,  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention.  (2009).  Interactive  media  |  CDC  health  marketing.  Retrieved  10/5/2009,   2009,  from  http://www.cdc.gov/healthmarketing/ehm/interactive.hl   Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 42
  49. 49. References (2) Chou,  W.  Y.,  Hunt,  Y.  M.,  Beckjord,  E.  B.,  Moser,  R.  P.,  &  Hesse,  B.  W.  (2009).  Social  media  use  in  the  united   states:  Implications  for  health  communication.  Journal  of  Medical  Internet  Research,  11(4),  e48.   Evans,  W.  D.  (2008).  Social  marketing  campaigns  and  Children’s  media  use.  The  Future  of  Children,  18(1),   181-­‐203.   Evans,  W.  D.,  Davis,  K.  C.,  &  Zhang,  Y.  (2008).  Health  communication  and  marketing  research  with  new   media:  Case  study  of  the  parents  speak  up  national  campaign  evaluation.  Cases  in  Public  Health   Communication  &  Marketing,  2,  140-­‐158.   Eysenbach,  G.  (2007).  From  intermediation  to  disintermediation  and  apomediation:  New  models  for   consumers  to  access  and  assess  the  credibility  of  health  information  in  the  age  of  Web2.0.  Studies  in   Health  Technology  &  Informatics,  129(Pt  1),  162-­‐166.   Feeney,  L.,  Reynolds,  P.  A.,  Eaton,  K.  A.,  &  Harper,  J.  (2008).  A  description  of  the  new  technologies  used  in   transforming  dental  education.  British  Dental  Journal,  204(1),  19-­‐28.   Fox,  S.,  &  Jones,  S.  (2009).  The  social  life  of  health  information.  Washington,  D.C.  (US):  Pew  Internet  &   American  Life  Project.   Goldman,  R.  H.,  Cohen,  A.  P.,  &  Sheahan,  F.  (2008).  Using  seminar  blogs  to  enhance  student  participation  and   learning  in  public  health  school  classes.  American  Journal  of  Public  Health,  98(9),  1658-­‐1663.     Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 43
  50. 50. References (3) Hanson,  C.,  Thackeray,  R.,  Barnes,  M.,  Neiger,  B.  L.,  &  McIntyre,  E.  (2008).  Integrating  web  2.0  in  health  education   preparation  and  practice.  American  Journal  of  Health  Education,  39(3),  157-­‐166.     Hu,  Y.,  &  Sundar,  S.  S.  (2010).  Effects  of  online  health  sources  on  credibility  and  behavioral  intentions.   Communication  Research,  37(1),  105-­‐132.     Hughes,  B.,  Joshi,  I.,  &  Wareham,  J.  (2008).  Health  2.0  and  medicine  2.0:  Tensions  and  controversies  in  the  =ield.   Journal  of  Medical  Internet  Research,  10(3),  e23.     Kapp,  J.  M.,  LeMaster,  J.  W.,  Lyon,  M.  B.,  Zhang,  B.,  &  Hosokawa,  M.  C.  (2009).  Updating  public  health  teaching   methods  in  the  era  of  social  media.  Public  Health  Reports,  124(6),  775-­‐777.     Lauber,  C.  A.  (2009).  Using  a  wiki  for  approved  clinical  instructor  training.  Athletic  Therapy  Today,  14(6),  25-­‐28.     Lefebvre,  C.  (2009).  Integrating  cell  phones  and  mobile  technologies  into  public  health  practice:  A  social  marketing   perspective.  Health  Promotion  Practice,  10(4),  490-­‐494.     Lenhart,  A.,  Purcell,  K.,  Smith,  A.,  &  Zickuhr,  K.  (2010).  Social  media  and  young  adults.  Washington,  D.C.  (US):  Pew   Internet  &  American  Life  Project.     O’Reilly,  T.  (2005).  What  is  web  2.0.  design  patterns  and  business  models  for  the  next  generation  of  software.   Retrieved  10/5/2009,  2009,  from  http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-­‐is-­‐web-­‐20.hl     Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 44
  51. 51. References (4) Parker,  G.  (2009).  Power  to  the  people  -­‐  social  media  tracker  wave  4,  july  2009  Universal  McCann.     May=ield,  A.  (Ed.).  (2008).  What  is  social  media?  an  e-­‐book  http://www.icrossing.co.uk/=ileadmin/uploads/ eBooks/What_is_Social_Media_iCrossing_ebook.pdf  (v1.4  ed.)  iCrossing.     Smith,  A.  (2010).  Mobile  access  2010.  Washington,  D.C.  (US):  Pew  Internet  &  American  Life  Project.     Uhrig,  J.,  Bann,  C.,  Williams,  P.,  &  Evans,  W.  D.  (2010).  Social  networking  websites  as  a  platform  for  disseminating   social  marketing  interventions:  An  exploratory  pilot  study.  Social  Marketing  Quarterly,  16(1),  2.     Vance,  K.,  Howe,  W.,  &  Dellavalle,  R.  P.  (2009).  Social  internet  sites  as  a  source  of  public  health  information.   Dermatologic  Clinics,  27(2),  133.     Wang,  Z.,  Walther,  J.  B.,  Pingree,  S.,  &  Hawkins,  R.  P.  (2008).  Health  information,  credibility,  homophily,  and   in=luence  via  the  internet:  Web  sites  versus  discussion  groups.  Health  Communication,  23(4),  358.           Adaptivity in health communication and promotion Ascona, 11/9/2010 45

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