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From factories to flat presentation

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From factories to flat presentation

  1. 1. From Factories to Flat : Globalization and the Changing Landscape of Education Marc Mancinelli University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>A) Globalization and its effects </li></ul><ul><li>- Definitions - Schools and globalization </li></ul><ul><li>B) The Nature of Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>- Key eras and time periods </li></ul><ul><li>- Repercussions and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>C) The Aptitudes of the Future </li></ul><ul><li>- Skills, abilities, and mindsets for the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><li>D) Globalizing Schools </li></ul><ul><li>- Incorporating issues of globalization into schools </li></ul>
  3. 3. Guiding Research Question <ul><li>How does globalization affect schools and education, and what can be done to align schools with the demands of the 21 st -century world? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Nature of Globalization <ul><li>Many conflicting and complementary definitions (Coatsworth, 2004; Friedman, 2005; Giddens, 1999; Jenkins, 2001; Arnett, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Defined for this study as the convergence of two or more geographically- or culturally-diffuse societies or individuals resulting in a change for one or both participants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key Watershed Eras in Globalization <ul><li>Coatsworth’s (2004) Four Cycles: </li></ul><ul><li>- Columbus’s journey to New World </li></ul><ul><li>- Slave Trade of 1700s-1800s </li></ul><ul><li>- Late-1800s immigration </li></ul><ul><li>- Post-WWII trading increases </li></ul><ul><li>Friedman’s (2005) Eras: </li></ul><ul><li>- 1492-1800: Globalizing of nations </li></ul><ul><li>- 1800-2000: Globalizing of businesses </li></ul><ul><li>- 2000-present: Globalizing of individuals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Watershed Eras in Globalization <ul><li>3) Burbules & Torres (2000 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization marked by oil crisis of 1970s and resultant turn to alternative sources of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Marber (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>- Late-20 th -century convergence of widespread capitalism, telecommunications, and increase in power of global markets </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Repercussions and Consequences of a Globalized World <ul><li>1) Dangers associated with population increases and resource drain concurrent with globalization </li></ul><ul><li>2) Disparateness of economies and resources </li></ul><ul><li>3) Homogenizing forces, Western hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>4) Over-reliance on technology </li></ul><ul><li>5) Ecological and environmental considerations </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Aptitudes of the Future <ul><li>This research asks, “What skills, abilities, and mindsets will allow students to help shape and succeed in a globalized 21 st -century? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aptitudes of the Future <ul><li>Friedman’s (2006) “nonfungible” and “flat-world” skills </li></ul><ul><li>- skills that cannot be automated or outsourced </li></ul><ul><li>- middle-class workers must be able to synthesize disparate sets of data, provide personal touches to services, and maximize available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Pink’s (2005) “Right-Brain Skills” </li></ul><ul><li>- Right-brain skills cannot be duplicated by machines </li></ul><ul><li>- Include Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy, Play, and Meaning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aptitudes of the Future <ul><li>Gardner’s (2004, 2007) Multiple Intelligences and Minds for the Future </li></ul><ul><li>- Multiple intelligences include recognition of spatial, musical, inter-personal, kinesthetic, and other forms of intelligence not usually the focus of school-improvement efforts </li></ul><ul><li>- Five Minds for the Future delineates the disciplined mind, synthesizing mind, creating mind, respectful mind, and ethical mind </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aptitudes for the Future <ul><li>Florida’s (2002) “Creative Class” </li></ul><ul><li>- America must nurture and attract those who can creatively integrate existing materials and innovate new ideas and products </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-Order Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills </li></ul><ul><li>- Kirkwood’s (2000) teaching for understanding calls for ability to use academic skills in context </li></ul><ul><li>- Resnick (1987) defines “higher-order” as a skill which is nuanced and complex, yields multiple solutions, and involves structure emerging from apparent disorder </li></ul>
  12. 12. Aptitudes for the Future <ul><li>A synthesis of this research suggests that students in the future will benefit from possessing the following skills and abilities: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Evaluating, managing and synthesizing information </li></ul><ul><li>2) Thinking creatively and flexibly </li></ul><ul><li>3) Envisioning the big picture of a situation </li></ul><ul><li>4) Forging inter-personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>5) Maintaining a sense of human pride </li></ul>
  13. 13. Globalizing Our Schools <ul><li>Schools may benefit from working to modernize curricula in order to provide relevant preparation for living and working in a globalized world </li></ul><ul><li>Schools were often formed along outdated models developed for a 19 th - and 20 th - century world of assembly lines, rote skills and routine work, and jobs marked by authority-transmission of demands (Braslavsky, 2000; Wilms, 2003). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Schools’ Treatment of Issues of Globalization <ul><li>Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>- Much instruction is still teacher-centered, transmission-of-knowledge style </li></ul><ul><li>- Issues of hegemony, especially with immigration and multi-cultural populations </li></ul><ul><li>- Education must strive to avoid neo-colonialism (Gough, 1999; Freire, 1998), and be sensitive to students who feel tension between cultural instructions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developing Globally-Competent Teachers <ul><li>Teacher preparation must include attention to issues of globalization (Omerogie, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher training reforms may need to address new technologies for learning as well as cultural/sociological issues (Oseas & Wood, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers will need to develop globalized-world skills themselves before teaching them to students </li></ul>
  16. 16. Potential Obstacles <ul><li>1) Need for Effective Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>2) Budgetary Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>3) Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>- How does standardized testing fit in? </li></ul><ul><li>4) Traditional vs. Globalized Curricula </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>The skills that allow individuals to thrive personally, socially, and economically are changing dues to globalizing forces </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should seek ways to encourage student recognition of globalization and the ways in which it affects their place in a global society </li></ul>

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