Agile Organizational Governance and Steering - a simple guide


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An easy-to-understand presentation on Agile Organizational Governance and Steering. New ideas and new decisions can be made to improve organizational effectiveness. The author can be reached at T: +358-40-5805724

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Agile Organizational Governance and Steering - a simple guide

  1. 1. Agile OrganizationalGovernance and Steering:Holacracy™ and BPMJanne J. Korhonen20.11.2007
  2. 2. What is agility? ¡ Fast reaction to the demands and opportunities of the environment ¡ Adapting internal organization to external circumstances
  3. 3. Think Big¡ If you optimize the sub-systems, you sub-optimize the system¡ In order to optimize the system, you must sub-optimize its sub-systems
  4. 4. HolacracyTM¡ Includes several core practices for organizational structure and governance: l Circle organization ¡ A ”holarchy” of semi-autonomous, self-organizing circles l Double-linking ¡ Two people linking the higher and lower circle l Circle meetings ¡ Regular meetings to set policies and delegate accountability l Decisions by integrative emergence ¡ Policies and decisions are crafted in circle meetings l Dynamic steering ¡ All policies and decisions are made based on present understanding l Integrative elections ¡ People are elected to key roles through an integrative election process
  5. 5. Circle organization¡ A circle is a ”holon”: a semi- autonomous, self-organizing team, which exists within the context of a higher-level circle¡ It has agency; it maintains and expresses its own cohesive identity¡ A circle: l makes its own policies and decisions to govern that level of scale (leading) l does or produces something (doing) l uses feedback from the doing to guide adjustments to the leading (measuring)
  6. 6. Double linking¡ A lower-level circle and a higher-level Directing circle are always linked together by at least two people who belong to and take Measuring Operating part in the decision making of both the higher-level circle and Directing Functional leader the lower-level circle Elected delegate Measuring Operating
  7. 7. Circle meetings¡ Regular meetings to set policies and delegate accountability and control for specific functional areas and roles¡ The circle’s membership includes l the circle’s lead link (appointed from the higher-level circle) l any “home” members of the circle (those who work on this team) l any lead links appointed down to lead lower-level circles l any representatives elected to this circle from lower-level circles¡ The primary role of circle meetings is to set policies and create structure, not to conduct specific business or make decisions about specific instances
  8. 8. Decisions by integrativeemergence¡ Autocratic control based on a single perspective runs the risk of missing important perspectives and information¡ The best decision will emerge when the value in all relevant perspectives is integrated and harnessed¡ Consent-based decision-making: if no-one knows of a reasoned and paramount objection, the proposed decision is proceeded with¡ Sabotage and politics become obsolete and no longer useful¡ No voting, no need for consensus¡ Consent is not about personal support¡ Trust is an output, not input, of the process¡ Integrative decision making is usually faster than decision making via any other means
  9. 9. Dynamic steering¡ Incremental adaptation rather than up-front prediction.¡ Significant efficiency gains l higher quality l more agility l increased ability to capitalize on ideas and changing market conditions l far more control¡ Aligning the actions with the flow of events¡ Enabling structure: double-linked circle organization and integrative decision-making¡ ”Good enough” decisions and continuous adaptation based on feedback¡ Dynamic steering transcends and fully includes predictive steering methods
  10. 10. Integrative elections¡ Roles that must be filled in a holacratic circle: l a secretary to record policies and decisions l a facilitator to run circle meetings and stick to the holacratic process l a representative link to the next higher circle¡ Individuals are elected to these roles exclusively through holacracy’s integrative election process.¡ A template for the integrative election process: l Define the role l Fill out ballots l Public gossip l Nomination changes l Discussion l Consent round
  11. 11. Enterprise as a System¡ Organization vs. Structure (Maturana and Varela): l Organization ¡ Defines the system’s identity in terms of System inter-component relationships Structure l Structure ¡ Realizes the category specified by the Organization organization¡ Enterprise defined by its business processes¡ Business processes encompass both organization and structure
  12. 12. Business Process as a Network: Private and Public Processes¡ Private Process l Specifies the process control logic within the context of a business process participant¡ Public Process l Governs externally Private Public observable behavior of process process business process participants by specifying the message exchange between them
  13. 13. Orchestration and Choreography specify private and public process, respectively¡ Orchestration is an imperative formal description of the Choreography sequence and conditions in which an executable process Orchestration invokes services and interacts with other processes in order to achieve its design objectives.¡ Choreography is a declarative formal description of the coordination between multiple participants, specifying their roles and observable message exchange .
  14. 14. Requisite Control Structure and decision-making horizons in an enterprise
  15. 15. Strategic Level: Contract¡ Focal point: relatively stable distillation of the corporate strategy¡ Strategies aligned with the focal point¡ Identification of systemic structures and their relationships¡ Specification of high-level business processes¡ Contract for coordination within the processes¡ Realignment of organization to the strategy
  16. 16. Tactical Level: Coordination¡ Optimize end-to-end business processes¡ Define local targets and performance measures for the operational level¡ Assign appropriate decision rights to the operational level¡ Realignment of systemic structures to the changed organization
  17. 17. Operational Level: Control¡ Operational decisions are made within the structure¡ The control over resources is limited by the coordination and decision rights assigned to the structure¡ Structural changes are in conformance with the existing organization
  18. 18. Real-Time: Model¡ The model of the enterprise reflects how it perceives the reality of its business¡ It consists of the vast repository of “sources of truth” dispersed in enterprise information systems and databases¡ This knowledge needs to be elicited as a canonical operational and information model
  19. 19. Jaques (1998): Requisite Organization Time Sratum Mental Role Span Process VIII Parallel Super Corporation CEO Conceptual Abstract 50 Y VII Serial Corporate CEO 20 Y VI Cumulative Corporate EVP 10 Y V Declarative Business Unit President 5Y IV Parallel General Manager Symbolic Verbal 2Y III Serial Unit Manager 1Y II Cumulative First Line Manager 3M I Declarative Operator
  20. 20. Requisite Control Structure in organizationswith one to four strata
  21. 21. Requisite Organization of eight strataemploying Requisite Control Structure
  22. 22. BPM Governance Structure with a circleorganization ¡ Steering Committee ¡ Center of Excellence ¡ Process Initiative ¡ Project
  23. 23. Steering Committee¡ Specifies the strategic contract: the collaborative process models for end-to-end business processes l These process models communicate the strategic intent to the tactical level¡ Represents the executive sponsorship and ensures business commitment¡ Aligns BPM efforts to strategic business and IT goals¡ Establishes and prioritizes required Process Initiatives and development programs within CoE¡ Reviews and approves roadmaps, project plans and budgets made by Center of Excellence and Process Initiatives¡ Ensures that proper budgets and funding for BPM are in place
  24. 24. Center of Excellence¡ Coordinates process-specific BPM efforts at the tactical level in accordance with the strategic intent¡ Leads the execution of building and sustaining a process- managed enterprise under the sponsorship of Steering Committee¡ Coaches, guides and facilitates Process Initiatives¡ Builds a business rules and process architecture¡ Develops standards that facilitate reuse and interoperability¡ Enforces best practices¡ Documents the architecture standards and the regulatory compliance requirements¡ Helps Process Initiatives with their business case creation and delivers them process training and education¡ Has authority over technical artifacts such as architectural blueprints, business process models, business rules and services
  25. 25. Process Initiative¡ Also operates at the tactical level¡ Has the ownership of a business process and coordinates the projects in its realm¡ The process owner l discovers the units of work in the core of its respective horizontal end-to-end business process l imposes responsibilities to elementary processes that execute these units of work, and l decentralizes the implementation of each such process to a respective project at the operational level.¡ Process Initiative schedules, resources and prioritizes the elementary processes and manages the project portfolio accordingly
  26. 26. Project¡ Has control over implementing (“shipping”) a discrete part of the business process as specified by Process Initiative¡ Multiple simultaneous Projects are usually run under Process Initiative¡ Each Project is aligned with one Process Initiative
  27. 27. Interactions in the BPM governance structure
  28. 28. Conclusions ¡ BPM promises to bring about in-built agility that enables an enterprise to rapidly reassemble its business processes ¡ This requires an appropriate governance mechanism to facilitate interorganizational coordination – Holacracy ¡ Requisite Control Structure (RCS): a hierarchic, repeating pattern of four control mechanisms: contract, coordination, control and model ¡ RCS in BPM governance:Contract Strategic Collab. Process Model Steering CommitteeCoordination Tactical Choreography Center of Excellence, Process InitiativeControl Operational Orchestration ProjectModel Real-Time Service Fabric