Professional Job RolesEditorFilm editing is part of the creative post-production process of filmmaking. It involves the selectionand combining of shots into sequences, and ultimately creating a finished motion picture. It is an artof storytelling. Film editing is the only art that is unique to cinema, separating film from other artforms that preceded it (such as photography, theatre, dance, writing, and directing), although thereare close parallels to the editing process in other art forms like poetry or novel writing. Film editing isoften referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become soengaged that he or she is not even aware of the editors work.On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shotsinto a coherent whole. A film editor is a person who practices film editing by assembling the footage.However, the job of an editor isn’t simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off filmslates, or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story,dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors performances to effectively "re-imagine" and evenrewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole. Editors usually play a dynamic role in the making of a film.With the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible formany areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years,picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. However, digital systems have increasingly putthese responsibilities on the picture editor. It is common, especially on lower budget films, for theassistant editors or even the editor to cut in music, mock up visual effects, and add sound effects orother sound replacements. These temporary elements are usually replaced with more refined finalelements by the sound, music, and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture.Film editing is an art that can be used in diverse ways. It can create sensually provocative montages;become a laboratory for experimental cinema; bring out the emotional truth in an actorsperformance; create a point of view on otherwise obtuse events; guide the telling and pace of astory; create an illusion of danger where there is none; give emphasis to things that would not haveotherwise been noted; and even create a vital subconscious emotional connection to the viewer,among many other possibilities.
ProducerThe enormous success of music videos has opened a new and highly creative field to producers.Video producers are now in demand by record companies and recording artists who want visualinterpretations of the songs they are promoting. A music video producer is responsible for seeingthat the visual effects complement the musical piece and effectively highlight its performer orperformers, who generally "star" in the video. Music video producers are in charge of the financialand administrative aspects of video production. They are responsible for making a successful videowhile staying within a budget. They often work with the director to hire the production team—thechoreographer, film editor, lighting director, and director of photography. They must keep orderamong the creative personalities involved in making a music video.As a rule, video producers are hired and paid by the record companies or artists who are financingthe project. Sometimes producers are asked to submit ideas for a video to promote a specific song.They must then compete with other producers for the job. In some cases, producers come up withan idea for a video and then try to sell the concept to a production company, record company, orartist. Some producers start their own production companies. Independent producers often mustfind their own investors or use their own money to finance a project. Some producers have verylittle involvement with the day-to-day operations in making the video. Others are hands-onproducers who take part in both the creative and administrative work, sometimes even doubling asdirector or film editor of the video.DirectorIn movies, television, and plays, a director is the man or woman (or maybe kid) in charge. There maybe other people, like producers, who have a lot of say about what can or cannot be done, but thedirector is the person in charge of making all of the creative pieces come together.Directors will make the big decisions. Writers will give those scripts, but directors get to interpretthose scripts and decide how they should become movies, plays, or TV shows. Actors perform, butdirectors will decide if they need to be funnier, be more serious, say their lines faster, or any othernumber of small changes to fit the overall vision of the show.
Directors also help cast (find actors,) help choose music, and help decide on costumes. In animation,they may even help choose the colours that will be used. They certainly have a lot of people thathelp them, but the directors’ creative decisions are usually the final ones. It is their responsibility tomake sure the film, TV show, or play looks good when it is done. Some famous directors you mayhave heard of are Steven Spielberg, M. Night Shyamalan, Spike Lee, Alfred Hitchcock, George Lucas,and Ron Howard.CamerapersonA television camera operator works with digital, electronic and film cameras in multi and single-camera operational conditions, producing pictures for directors by combining the use of complextechnology with creative visual skills. The work is based in three settings: in a studio, where thecamera operator usually follows a camera script, which gives the order of shots. This is practised atrehearsal and is cued by the director during recording. The skill lies in interpreting what the directorwants and acting quickly and effectively to achieve it; outside broadcasts, working as part of a teamof camera operators filming live events, such as sporting and ceremonial occasions and musicperformances; on location, where there is likely to be more opportunity for creativity throughsuggesting shots to the director.A camera operator might specialise in any or all of these disciplines. Typical work activities are; acamera operator usually works under the direction of a director and/or director of photography andmay be supported by a camera assistant. The role involves a mix of technical and creative skills.Work activities vary greatly depending on the type of programme, for example studio/outsidebroadcast programmes, television dramas, commercials, documentaries, current affair and news,and whether the camera operator is using one of several cameras or a portable single camera (PSB).However, generally typical work activities include: assembling, preparing and setting up equipmentprior to filming, which may include tripods, monitors, lighting, cables and leads, and headphones;offering advice on how best to shoot a scene, explaining the visual impact created by particularshots; planning shots - when filming an expensive drama scene, such as an explosion, there may beonly one chance to get things right so shots need to be meticulously planned beforehand; practisingthe camera moves required for pre-arranged shots; studying scripts; finding solutions to technical orother practical problems (for an outside broadcast, for example, the natural light conditions need tobe taken into account when setting up shots); being prepared to innovate and experiment withideas; taking instructions from the director or the director of photography; working quickly,especially as timing is such an important factor.