How is Federal Policy HelpingStudent Parents?2013 Student Parent Support SymposiumMay 31, 2013Marcie Foster, Policy Analyst
About CLASP• The Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) develops andadvocates for policies that improve the lives of low...
Student Parent Success Matters• Earnings gains in the economicrecovery limited to higher-skilled, college-educated.• Highe...
Unmet Need• Independent community college students have significant unmetneed:– As high as $10,181 for full-time students....
How is Federal Policy Helping Student Parents?5
Update from Washington: An Overview• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)• Temporary Assistance for Needy Fami...
SNAP• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) helps low-incomefamilies pay for food; amount determined by income,...
TANF• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a blockgrant to states; funding is spent on a broad range of activ...
TANF’s Role as aSafety Net has Declined Sharply Over TimeSource: CBPP analysis of poverty data from Current Population Sur...
Little Opportunity forEducation and Training19.1%5.0% 4.5%2.6%1.7% 1.1% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% *0.0%5.0%10.0%15.0%20.0%2...
TANF Federal Policy Issues• Scheduled for reauthorization in 2010.• Has been continued through short-term extensions, most...
TANF State Advocacy Opportunities• At the state level, advocatefor:– Preserving the underlyingprogram – states have beensh...
Child Care: A Year in Review• An estimated 30,000 childrenwill lose child care; 70,000will lose Head Start in 2013.• Downw...
Child Care: Unmet Need• Programs Serve Fraction of EligibleChildren– Head Start serves 42% of eligiblepreschoolers and les...
State Trends: Child Care• Total child care spending $12.5 billion in 2011 (state andfederal CCDBG and TANF)• Fewer TANF fu...
A Year In Review: Federal Student Aid• Pell– Cuts from 2011 appropriations (Summer Pell, Ability toBenefit, etc.) remain.–...
A Year in Review: Federal Student Aid• Student Loans– Interest rate for subsidized student loans kept at 3.4%, will double...
Efforts to Preserve Pell Grants• www.SavePell.org• Pellumni Network– Includes current and former students who received Pel...
Road to HEA Reauthorization• House and Senate have alreadybegun hearings on HEAreauthorization (expires end of2013), effor...
Recent Proposals to Reform Student Aid• Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD)– 14 organizations participated in grant...
Workforce Investment Act• Governs workforce training and services for adults and youth, adulteducation (literacy and ESL),...
Immigration Reform• Senate Judiciary Committee passed The Border Security, EconomicOpportunity, and Immigration Modernizat...
DREAMers• S. 744 includes provisions for DREAMers to become citizens.– DREAMers (including DACA beneficiaries) who entered...
Is Sequestration Here to Stay?• Sequestration took effect March 1, 2013 (~5.3% cut todiscretionary programs) and will have...
Federal Budget: Welcome to the New Normal26Source: Bipartisan Policy CenterFederal Non-Defense Discretionary Spending , 20...
2014 Appropriations…and Beyond• Congressional Actions for FY2014– House proposed appropriations limits are aligned with bu...
Federal Budget: What You Can Do• Tell Your Story! How has sequestration impacted your program?Your students?– Student Test...
GED Changes• New GED is coming in January 2014.– Computer-based– More rigorous: two cut scores indicate two different leve...
New GED Costs May Pose Barrier forStudent Access• Among states that charge a flat fee (28), only 2 charge at least$120, an...
Changes to the GED: State Actions• NH (ETS - HiSET)• MT (ETS - HiSET)• NY (TASC – McGrawHill)No GED in 2014• TNDual System...
Take Action: Recap!• TANF– State-by-state advocacy (contact CLASP for more information)• SNAP– Food Research and Action Ce...
Want more updates? Keep in touch.For more information:Marcie Fostermwmfoster@clasp.org202-906-8033For updates:• Sign up at...
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Federal Policy Update: Student Parent Support Symposium

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Federal Policy Update: Student Parent Support Symposium

  1. 1. How is Federal Policy HelpingStudent Parents?2013 Student Parent Support SymposiumMay 31, 2013Marcie Foster, Policy Analyst
  2. 2. About CLASP• The Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) develops andadvocates for policies that improve the lives of low-income people.• CLASP’s Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success seeksto improve policy, increase investment, and strengthen political willto increase the number of low-income adults and youth who earn thepostsecondary credentials essential to open doors to good jobs,career advancement, and economic mobility.2
  3. 3. Student Parent Success Matters• Earnings gains in the economicrecovery limited to higher-skilled, college-educated.• Higher-skilled less likely to beunemployed—and remainunemployed.• Improved language andreading skills among childrenof higher-educated mothers.• Poor children less likely toenroll in college or graduate.3
  4. 4. Unmet Need• Independent community college students have significant unmetneed:– As high as $10,181 for full-time students.– As high as $4,834 for part-time students.• Unmet need may be even higher for the 43.9 percent of communitycollege students who do not complete the FAFSA.4
  5. 5. How is Federal Policy Helping Student Parents?5
  6. 6. Update from Washington: An Overview• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)• Child Care and Early Childhood Education• Financial Aid• Workforce Investment Act• Immigration Reform• Budget Outlook• Changes to GED6
  7. 7. SNAP• Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) helps low-incomefamilies pay for food; amount determined by income, household size, andexpenses.• 5-year reauthorization of Farm Bill expected this year (expires September2013)– Senate• Senate Agriculture Committee passed Farm bill in May. Full Senate isconsidering amendments and may vote as early as the first week ofJune. Bill includes over $4 billion in cuts to SNAP.– House• House Agriculture Committee passed on May 14th. Expected to beginfull House consideration in June. Bill includes over $20.5 billion incuts to SNAP; eliminates categorical eligibility.• Regardless of successful reauthorization, all SNAP households will see atleast a $20-25 cut in benefits in November 2013 when ARRA temporaryboost expires.7
  8. 8. TANF• Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a blockgrant to states; funding is spent on a broad range of activities,including child care, early education, youth programs, EITC,as well as cash assistance and work programs.• Inflation has reduced TANFs real value by >30 percent since1996.• Cash assistance is provided to a declining number of very low-income families with children.• Most states operate ―work-first‖ programs, with littleopportunity for recipients to participate in education andtraining activities.8
  9. 9. TANF’s Role as aSafety Net has Declined Sharply Over TimeSource: CBPP analysis of poverty data from Current Population Survey and TANF caseload data from Health andHuman Services and (since 2006) caseload data collected by CBPP from state agencies.
  10. 10. Little Opportunity forEducation and Training19.1%5.0% 4.5%2.6%1.7% 1.1% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% *0.0%5.0%10.0%15.0%20.0%25.0%Percent of Families in the Participation RateEngaged in Activity: FY2009Source: Congressional Research Service (CRS) based on data from the U.S. Departmentof Health and Human Services (HHS).* = Less than 0.05%.
  11. 11. TANF Federal Policy Issues• Scheduled for reauthorization in 2010.• Has been continued through short-term extensions, most recentlythrough September 30, 2013• Administration issued memo inviting waiver applications to test newwork approaches in July 2012.– Congressional Republicans have threatened to block, but have not yetdone so.– States have not yet submitted waivers, due to high politicalscrutiny, uncertainty.• Full reauthorization unlikely, but may be opportunity for smallchanges, if Congress gets past the waiver issue.
  12. 12. TANF State Advocacy Opportunities• At the state level, advocatefor:– Preserving the underlyingprogram – states have beenshortening time limits, cuttingbenefits, cutting worksupports, making it harder toget TANF-funded supportservices, cutting people off.– Improving access to educationand training.– Improving access to TANF-funded supportive services.
  13. 13. Child Care: A Year in Review• An estimated 30,000 childrenwill lose child care; 70,000will lose Head Start in 2013.• Downward trends in statefunding and policies.– Decreased state investment.– Passage of state policiesthat have a negative impacton children(student/teacherratios, reimbursementrates, etc.)
  14. 14. Child Care: Unmet Need• Programs Serve Fraction of EligibleChildren– Head Start serves 42% of eligiblepreschoolers and less than 4% ofeligible infants and toddlers in EarlyHead Start.– Child care subsidies reach 1 in 6eligible children.Source: HS analysis by NWLC; CCDBG analysis by HHS.
  15. 15. State Trends: Child Care• Total child care spending $12.5 billion in 2011 (state andfederal CCDBG and TANF)• Fewer TANF funds used for child care (federal and state)– Reduced by $500 million in 2010-2011.• States pulling back on child care assistance policies• State cuts to pre-kindergarten programs
  16. 16. A Year In Review: Federal Student Aid• Pell– Cuts from 2011 appropriations (Summer Pell, Ability toBenefit, etc.) remain.– Exempt from sequestration in FY13, but not in future years.– Projected surplus for FY14 almost $4.5 billion, if FY13 surpluscarried over. Still long-term shortfall, but decreasing along witheligible students.• Tax Credits– Tuition and Fees Deduction (max $4,000) extended until 2013.– American Opportunity Tax Credit (max $2,500) extended until2017.
  17. 17. A Year in Review: Federal Student Aid• Student Loans– Interest rate for subsidized student loans kept at 3.4%, will double to 6.8%on July 1 if Congress does not act.– Some interest (House proposal and the President’s budget) to make loanrates variable, but such proposals do not have upper-limit cap on interestrate.
  18. 18. Efforts to Preserve Pell Grants• www.SavePell.org• Pellumni Network– Includes current and former students who received Pell Grants.– Collecting stories about the importance of Pell Grants which willbe shared through different mediums.
  19. 19. Road to HEA Reauthorization• House and Senate have alreadybegun hearings on HEAreauthorization (expires end of2013), efforts expected to ramp upin Fall 2013.• Likely themes:o Supporting competency-basedapproaches.o Improving aid to assist workingstudents.o Improving institutionaltransparency and student(―consumer‖) information.o Increasing collegeaccess, affordability, andcompletion.o Simplifying student aid.19
  20. 20. Recent Proposals to Reform Student Aid• Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD)– 14 organizations participated in grant-funded research sponsored by the GatesFoundation– Proposals includes consolidating all student aid programs into a singlegrant, targeting tax credits to low-income students, improving institutionaltransparency and consumer information on student outcomes.– New phase of RADD grantees designed to support these organizations tocollaborate and provide collective recommendations.• College Board Study Group Proposal– Pell Y (23 and younger)• Per-credit Pell Grant based on family income.• Predictable and transparent.– Pell A (24 and older)• Per-credit Pell Grant benchmarked to average community college tuition.• Must receive college and career navigation through one-stop system prior toreceiving financial aid
  21. 21. Workforce Investment Act• Governs workforce training and services for adults and youth, adulteducation (literacy and ESL), vocational rehab, etc.• House Education and Workforce Committee voted along party linesto adopt a bill that reforms a range of federal workforce programs.– First significant push to reauthorize WIA since the Senate’s effort tocraft a bipartisan bill during 2011.– Block grants several training programs and includes options to foldTANF and adult education into the block grant.21
  22. 22. Immigration Reform• Senate Judiciary Committee passed The Border Security, EconomicOpportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744) in May 2013.– Contains several border security ―triggers‖ (conditions that must be met beforepeople can benefit from certain provisions of legalization).– Three paths to citizenship range from 5-13 years (DREAMers, StandardPath, Agricultural Workers)– Various fees and eligibility requirements (e.g. employment, income abovefederal poverty threshold) apply throughout adjustments and renewal ofRPI, LPR and naturalization.– Individuals not eligible for any means tested federal benefits(TANF, SSI, Medicaid, CHIP and SNAP) during the 10 year RPI status.• House expected to take up immigration reform soon; they are unlikely toadopt the full Senate proposal.22
  23. 23. DREAMers• S. 744 includes provisions for DREAMers to become citizens.– DREAMers (including DACA beneficiaries) who entered the U.S.before the age of 16 can apply for Registered Provisional Status (RPI).– Must graduate from high school or earn a GED and earn a collegedegree, attended two years of college, or spent four years in the militaryto obtain citizenship.– In RPI status, will be able to access student loans, work-study andservices under the Higher Education Act (financial and academiccounseling) due to Sen. Hirono amendment.23
  24. 24. Is Sequestration Here to Stay?• Sequestration took effect March 1, 2013 (~5.3% cut todiscretionary programs) and will have a 10-year impact if notreversed or replaced.• Future years of the sequester (FY14-21) are estimated to makedeeper cuts than FY13; fewer programs are exempt in FY14and beyond.• Most members of Congress agree that sequestration is a badway to reduce the deficit BUT cuts will likely remain forFY13.25“Nearly four in 10 Americans now say sequestration has hurt them personally, upsubstantially since it began in March…About half of those affected say the impacthas been ‘major.’– ABC News/Washington Post Poll, May 2013
  25. 25. Federal Budget: Welcome to the New Normal26Source: Bipartisan Policy CenterFederal Non-Defense Discretionary Spending , 2012-2021
  26. 26. 2014 Appropriations…and Beyond• Congressional Actions for FY2014– House proposed appropriations limits are aligned with budget caps inthe Budget Control Act of 2011, but make deeper cuts to non-defensediscretionary programs. House Appropriations Committee approvedspending limits for Labor, Health, and Human Services 18.6% belowsequestration levels (this determines the ―size of the pie‖).– Senate proposed spending limits for Labor, Health and Human Servicesare likely to be higher and based on the assumption that the sequesterwill be repealed.• Budget future remains as uncertain as FY13. If Congress does notact, sequestration will remain in effect and reduced budget caps willinfluence negotiations.27
  27. 27. Federal Budget: What You Can Do• Tell Your Story! How has sequestration impacted your program?Your students?– Student Testimonials– Media Reports– Visiting your member at their home office– Invite your member to your college or program• Stay Informed!– Coalition for Human Needs Action Alerts– SavePell.org– CLASP email blasts– Your member associations28
  28. 28. GED Changes• New GED is coming in January 2014.– Computer-based– More rigorous: two cut scores indicate two different levels ofproficiency– Previous work to complete existing subject tests will beeliminated– Flat fee per content area test; re-testing fees for non-passers• Major concerns from states and programs:– Cost– Accessibility– Teacher Preparation– Portability
  29. 29. New GED Costs May Pose Barrier forStudent Access• Among states that charge a flat fee (28), only 2 charge at least$120, and one is a CBT pilot state.• Among states that allow programs to locally determine GEDtesting fees (13), only 5 states reported the maximum fee thatsome of their local programs charge can be above $120. For the vast majority of students, a GED testing fee of$120 for the full battery of tests will represent a stark costincrease.Source: Sinking or Swimming: Findings from a Survey of State Adult Education Tuition and Financing Policies, 2012.
  30. 30. Changes to the GED: State Actions• NH (ETS - HiSET)• MT (ETS - HiSET)• NY (TASC – McGrawHill)No GED in 2014• TNDual System (GED and Other test)• IN• CA• FL• WV• MAExploring Options
  31. 31. Take Action: Recap!• TANF– State-by-state advocacy (contact CLASP for more information)• SNAP– Food Research and Action Center (http://frac.org/leg-act-center/)• Child Care– Strong Start for Children Campaign (http://bit.ly/12jWbdx)• Pell Grants– Save Pell Coalition (www.SavePell.org)• Adult Education/GED/ESL– National Coalition for Literacy (http://www.national-coalition-literacy.org/)• All Other/Budget– Coalition on Human Needs (www.chn.org)– NDD United32
  32. 32. Want more updates? Keep in touch.For more information:Marcie Fostermwmfoster@clasp.org202-906-8033For updates:• Sign up at www.clasp.org• Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/CLASP.org• Follow us on Twitter: @CLASP_DC33

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